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1.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 5, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe successful therapeutic strategies in statin-induced anti-HMGCR myopathy. METHODS: Retrospective data from a cohort of 55 patients with statin-induced anti-HMGCR myopathy, sequentially stratified by the presence of proximal weakness, early remission, and corticosteroid and IVIG use at treatment induction, were analyzed for optimal successful induction and maintenance of remission strategies. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients achieved remission with a corticosteroid-free induction strategy (25%). In 41 patients treated with corticosteroids, only 4 patients (10%) failed an initial triple steroid/IVIG/steroid-sparing immunosuppressant (SSI) induction strategy. Delay in treatment initiation was independently associated with lower odds of successful maintenance with immunosuppressant monotherapy (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.97, P = 0.015). While 22 patients (40%) presented with normal strength, only 9 had normal strength at initiation of treatment. CONCLUSION: While corticosteroid-free treatment of anti-HMGCR myopathy is now a safe option in selected cases, initial triple steroid/IVIG/SSI was very efficacious in induction. Delays in treatment initiation and, as a corollary, delays in achieving remission decrease the odds of achieving successful maintenance with an SSI alone. Avoiding such delays, most notably in patients with normal strength, may reset the natural history of anti-HMGCR myopathy from a refractory entity to a treatable disease.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5717, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844047

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor TLR5 recognizes a conserved domain, termed D1, that is present in flagellins of several pathogenic bacteria but not in Helicobacter pylori. Highly virulent H. pylori strains possess a type IV secretion system (T4SS) for delivery of virulence factors into gastric epithelial cells. Here, we show that one of the H. pylori T4SS components, protein CagL, can act as a flagellin-independent TLR5 activator. CagL contains a D1-like motif that mediates adherence to TLR5+ epithelial cells, TLR5 activation, and downstream signaling in vitro. TLR5 expression is associated with H. pylori infection and gastric lesions in human biopsies. Using Tlr5-knockout and wild-type mice, we show that TLR5 is important for efficient control of H. pylori infection. Our results indicate that CagL, by activating TLR5, may modulate immune responses to H. pylori.

3.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(1): 26-32, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, 37 million people are infected with HIV; more than 50% are women. Currently, MTCT (mother-to-child transmission) can be reduced to<1%. The intention of the present study was to analyze the development of (1) the course of pregnancy of HIV-infected women, (2) the mode of delivery and (3) the post-exposure prophylaxis of the newborn over the last decade. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, data from HIV-infected women who between 2005 and 2016 received care at the HIV outpatient department and gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics at University Hospital Bonn was analyzed. Furthermore, neonatal data was collected and HIV-MTCT was evaluated. RESULTS: In the 2005-2016 study period, 87 pregnancies in 61 women were identified. Seventy babies were born alive at the Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Bonn. 53% of these women were of African origin. The median of CD4+ cell count was 510 cells/ml (IQR 444); however, 32 women (52%) had more than 500 cells/ml. During the antenatal period, the HI viral load had been suppressed completely in 77% of women (<50 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml) and was<400 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml in 92% of women. The elective cesarean section rate fell significantly from 77% in the years 2005-2011 to 58% in 2012-2016. The proportion of deliveries after 37 weeks of gestation increased markedly from 60% to 69% after 2012. Additionally, while between 2005-2011 the birth weight of 78% of the newborns was between the 10th and 90th percentile, this proportion increased to 92% after 2012. Fifty-four of 70 newborns (77%) were classified as having low to normal HIV transmission risk. A vertical HIV transmission from mother to child did not occur (0/70). CONCLUSIONS: Between 2005 and 2016 no vertical HIV transmission from mother to child occurred (0/70). Due to the change in treatment strategy, the elective cesarean section rate fell significantly as well the rate of premature births. An optimal interdisciplinary collaboration builds the basis for successful treatment of HIV in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Cesárea , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Alemanha , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(24): 383-94, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500708

RESUMO

Autoimmune myositis encompasses various myositis-overlap syndromes, each being identified by the presence of serum marker autoantibodies. We describe a novel myositis-overlap syndrome in 4 patients characterized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes. The clinical phenotype was characterized by prominent myositis in association with erosive, anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor-positive arthritis, trigeminal neuralgia, mild interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and weight loss. The myositis was typically chronic, relapsing, and refractory to corticosteroids alone, but remitted with the addition of a second immunomodulating drug. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence for liver disease. The prognosis was good with 100% long-term survival (mean follow-up 19.5 yr).By indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, sera from all 4 patients displayed a high titer of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) with a distinct punctate peripheral (rim) fluorescent pattern of the nuclear envelope characteristic of nuclear pore complexes. Reactivity with nuclear pore complexes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In a cohort of 100 French Canadian patients with autoimmune myositis, the nuclear pore complex fluorescent ANA pattern was restricted to these 4 patients (4%). It was not observed in sera from 393 adult patients with systemic sclerosis (n = 112), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 35), systemic lupus (n = 94), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), or other rheumatic diseases (n = 107), nor was it observed in 62 normal adults.Autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes were predominantly of IgG isotype. No other IgG autoantibody markers for defined connective tissue diseases or overlap syndromes were present, indicating a selective and highly focused immune response. In 3 patients, anti-nuclear pore complex autoantibody titers varied in parallel with myositis activity, suggesting a pathogenic link to pathophysiology. The nuclear pore complex proteins, that is, nucleoporins (nup), recognized by these sera were heterogeneous and included Nup358/RanBP2 (n = 2 patients), Nup90 (n = 1), Nup62 (n = 1), and gp210 (n = 1). Taken together the data suggest that nup autoantigens themselves drive the anti-nup autoimmune response. Immunogenetically, the 4 patients shared the DQA1*0501 allele associated with an increased risk for autoimmune myositis.In conclusion, we report an apparent novel subset of autoimmune myositis in our population of French Canadian patients with connective tissue diseases. This syndrome is recognized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes that react with nups, consistent with an "anti-nup syndrome."


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Poro Nuclear/imunologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Síndrome
5.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e54295, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23372701

RESUMO

HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several cell surface receptors through its interference with the cell sorting and trafficking machinery. Here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of Nef to down-regulate cell surface expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 required the Nef motifs DD175, EE155 and LL165, all known to be involved in vesicle trafficking. Disruption of the lysosomal functions by pH-neutralizing agents prevented CTLA-4 down-regulation by Nef, demonstrating the implication of the endosomal/lysosomal compartments in this process. Confocal microscopy experiments visualized the co-localization between Nef and CTLA-4 in the early and recycling endosomes but not at the cell surface. Overall, our results provide a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef interferes with the surface expression of the negative regulator of T cell activation CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 may contribute to the mechanisms by which HIV-1 sustains T cell activation, a critical step in viral replication and dissemination.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , HIV-1/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Antígenos CD4/genética , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/química , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo
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