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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(12): 1139-1141, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757396


Although substance use disorder (SUD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly comorbid with other mental disorders and commonly have onset during childhood,1 little attention has been paid to their overlap. Despite limited data suggesting that up to 4% of patients with ASD also have substance-related problems,2 there are no existing guidelines, protocols, or tailored resources focused on SUD in young people with co-occurring ASD. This is concerning given that the simultaneous presence of these disorders presents unique challenges that complicate clinical care. In particular, many of the symptoms of ASD can interfere with standard SUD treatment. Thus, when treating patients with this comorbidity, practitioners should consider the following: communication difficulties, diminished capacity for motivation and insight, limited social interactions, and obstacles to treatment engagement.

Psychosomatics ; 60(5): 458-467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876654


BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine-based protocols offer a standard of care for management of alcohol withdrawal, though they may not be safe or appropriate for all patients. Phenobarbital, a long-acting barbiturate, presents an alternative to conventional benzodiazepine treatment, though existing research offers only modest guidance to the safety and effectiveness of phenobarbital in managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in general hospital settings. METHODS: To compare clinical effectiveness of phenobarbital versus benzodiazepines in managing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 562 patients admitted over a 2-year period to a general hospital and treated for AWS. The development of AWS-related complications (seizures, alcoholic hallucinosis, and alcohol withdrawal delirium) post-treatment initiation was the primary outcome examined in both treatment groups. Additional outcomes measured included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates/length of stay, medication-related adverse events, and discharge against medical advice. RESULTS: Despite being significantly more likely to have a history of prior complications related to AWS (including seizures and delirium), patients initiated on phenobarbital (n = 143) had overall similar primary and secondary treatment outcomes to those in the benzodiazepine treatment protocol (n = 419). Additionally, a subset of patients (n = 16) initially treated with benzodiazepines displayed signs of treatment nonresponse, including significantly higher rates of AWS-related delirium and ICU admission rates, but were well-managed following transition to the phenobarbital protocol. CONCLUSION: The data from this retrospective chart review lend further support to effectiveness and safety of phenobarbital for the treatment and management of AWS. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted.

Am J Addict ; 27(8): 632-638, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387896


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit high rates of executive functioning (EF) impairment, and that EF level can predict treatment retention. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if patients who completed a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD demonstrated recovered EF. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire. RESULTS: The final sample included 15 patients who completed the one month IOP and for whom data were available (53% male, aged 36 years ± 13.4). Despite exhibiting general improvements in EF and significant improvements in organization, subjects continued to manifest significant executive dysfunction as evaluated by self-report and computerized assessment. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with SUD often manifest high levels of executive dysfunction upon entry into SUD treatment that, while improving minimally, appears to persist despite intensive outpatient treatment at 1 month. These persistent EF deficits may affect patient engagement and participation in treatment, thus necessitating SUD programs to assess and accommodate EF issues throughout treatment. (Am J Addict 2018;XX:1-7).

Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Função Executiva , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 20(11): 100, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221318


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extensive research has been conducted on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults; however, less is known about ADHD during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Transitional aged youth (TAY) with ADHD represents a particularly vulnerable population as their newfound independence and responsibility often coincides with the development of comorbid disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of TAY-ADHD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies discovering ADHD symptoms emerging in TAY call the classification of ADHD as a disorder necessarily developing in childhood into question. TAY-ADHD are also shown to be vulnerable to academic and social impairments, increased risky behavior, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Due to the risk of stimulant diversion in TAY, providers are advised to take precaution when prescribing medication to this population. Recent studies demonstrating the efficacy of psychotherapy in conjunction with non-stimulant or extended release stimulant medication provide a feasible alternative. This review highlights research on the course and evaluation of ADHD, impairments and comorbidities specific to TAY, and treatments tailored to address the unique challenges associated with TAY-ADHD.

Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Adulto Jovem