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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SLE is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive B cells and IC formation, which causes systemic inflammation. B cell-targeted therapy could be a promising treatment strategy in SLE patients; nevertheless, randomized clinical trials have not always been successful. However, some groups have demonstrated beneficial effects in severe SLE patients with off-label rituximab (RTX) with belimumab (BLM), or bortezomib (BTZ), which targeted different B cells subsets. This study assembled sera from SLE cohorts treated with RTX+BLM (n = 15), BTZ (n = 11) and RTX (n = 16) to get an in-depth insight into the immunological effects of these therapies on autoantibodies and IC formation. METHODS: Autoantibodies relevant for IC formation and the avidity of anti-dsDNA were determined by ELISA. IC-mediated inflammation was studied by complement levels and ex vivo serum-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation. RESULTS: Reductions in autoantibodies were observed after all approaches, but the spectrum differed depending upon the treatment. Specifically, only RTX+BLM significantly decreased anti-C1q. Achieving seronegativity of ≥1 autoantibody, specifically anti-C1q, was associated with lower disease activity. In all SLE patients, the majority of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies had low avidity. RTX+BLM significantly reduced low-, medium- and high-avidity anti-dsDNA, while RTX and BTZ only significantly reduced medium avidity. IC-mediated inflammation, measured by C3 levels and neutrophil extracellular trap formation, improved after RTX+BLM and RTX but less after BTZ. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the impact of different B cell-targeted strategies on autoantibodies and IC formation and their potential clinical relevance in SLE.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.

4.
J Autoimmun ; 106: 102340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 72-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 67-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations, and outcomes of different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease in a multiethnic/multiracial, prospective inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including 7 types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, and patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, and 48.8% were white. The mean ± SD age was 35.1 ± 13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment was 5.6 ± 4.2 months, and follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139 (7.6%) of 1,827 patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy (66 of 161 [41.0%]), mononeuropathy (44 of 161 [27.3%]), and cranial neuropathy (39 of 161 [24.2%]), and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with a history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical and mental component summary scores versus no NP events. According to physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time, which was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life. The outcome is favorable for most patients, but our findings indicate that several factors are associated with longer time to resolution.

7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(1): 194-204, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory idiopathic myopathies (IIM) are a group of rare autoimmune diseases defined by muscle weakness and characterized by pro-inflammatory infiltrates in muscle. Little is known about the immunological profile in peripheral blood of these patients and how this relates to IIM subtypes. This study aimed to stratify adult and juvenile-onset IIM patients according to immune cell profile. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 44 patients with adult myositis (AM), 15 adolescent-onset juvenile dermatomyositis (a-JDM), and 40 age-matched healthy controls were analysed by flow cytometry to quantify 33 immune cell subsets. Adult myositis patients were grouped according to myositis subtype; DM and polymyositis; and also autoantibody specificity. Disease activity was determined by the myositis disease activity assessment tool and clinicians' decision on treatment. RESULTS: Unique immune signatures were identified for DM, polymyositis and a-JDM compared with healthy controls. DM patients had a T-cell signature comprising increased CD4+ and TH17 cell frequencies and increased immune cell expression of IL-6. Polymyositis patients had a B-cell signature with reduced memory B cells. A-JDM had decreased naïve B cells and increased CD4+T cells. All patient groups had decreased CD8+central memory T-cell frequencies. The distinct immune signatures were also seen when adult myositis patients were stratified according to auto-antibody expression; patients with anti-synthetase-antibodies had reduced memory B cells and patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease overlap had an elevated Th17 profile. CONCLUSION: Unique immune signatures were associated with adult vs juvenile disease. The Th17 signature in DM patients supports the potential use of IL-17 inhibitors in treatment of IIMs.

8.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(1): 146-152, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: aPL are present in between 20 and 30% of patients with SLE. They can cause vascular events (VE) or pregnancy morbidity. aCL and anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) are measured in clinical practice. Domain I (DI) of ß2GPI is the main site for aPL binding. We investigated the prevalence of IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-ß2GPI antibodies in early SLE and their association with mortality and development of VE. METHODS: Samples from 501 patients with SLE that had been obtained and stored early during their disease were tested for IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-ß2GPI antibodies by ELISA. LA status and history of VE were obtained by reviewing medical records. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate mortality and occurrence of VE, comparing groups with and without aPL in early disease. RESULTS: Of 501 patients, 190 (38%) had at least one of these aPL, of whom 112 had anti-DI alone. Of 276 patients with complete vascular history, 83 had experienced VE. The 39 patients who were double or triple-ELISA-positive for any combination of the three aPL were more likely to have or develop lupus anticoagulant (P<0.0001) than those who were single-ELISA-positive or negative. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, they showed a trend towards developing more VE (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: IgG anti-DI antibodies were present in early serum samples from 29% of patients and were more common than IgG aCL or anti-ß2GPI. There was some evidence suggesting that double or triple-ELISA-positivity for these antibodies identified a group with worse outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the systemic phenotype of primary Sjögren's syndrome at diagnosis by analysing the EULAR-SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) scores. METHODS: The Sjögren Big Data Consortium is an international, multicentre registry based on worldwide data-sharing cooperative merging of pre-existing databases from leading centres in clinical research in Sjögren's syndrome from the five continents. RESULTS: The cohort included 10 007 patients (9352 female, mean 53 years) with recorded ESSDAI scores available. At diagnosis, the mean total ESSDAI score was 6.1; 81.8% of patients had systemic activity (ESSDAI score ≥1). Males had a higher mean ESSDAI (8.1 vs 6.0, P < 0.001) compared with females, as did patients diagnosed at <35 years (6.7 vs 5.6 in patients diagnosed at >65 years, P < 0.001). The highest global ESSDAI score was reported in Black/African Americans, followed by White, Asian and Hispanic patients (6.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 4.8, respectively; P < 0.001). The frequency of involvement of each systemic organ also differed between ethnic groups, with Black/African American patients showing the highest frequencies in the lymphadenopathy, articular, peripheral nervous system, CNS and biological domains, White patients in the glandular, cutaneous and muscular domains, Asian patients in the pulmonary, renal and haematological domains and Hispanic patients in the constitutional domain. Systemic activity measured by the ESSDAI, clinical ESSDAI (clinESSDAI) and disease activity states was higher in patients from southern countries (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The systemic phenotype of primary Sjögren's syndrome is strongly influenced by personal determinants such as age, gender, ethnicity and place of residence, which are key geoepidemiological players in driving the expression of systemic disease at diagnosis.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032569, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few treatment options exist for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who fail conventional therapy. Although widely used to treat lupus, the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy using rituximab has not been demonstrated in randomised clinical trials. Following rituximab, elevated levels of serum B cell activating factor (BAFF) have been associated with failure to remit or subsequent lupus relapse. The administration of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for BAFF and approved for lupus therapy, could potentiate the efficacy of rituximab and enable longer periods of disease remission. The aim of this trial is to assess the safety and efficacy of belimumab following rituximab in patients with SLE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: BEAT Lupus is a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, phase II clinical trial. Patients with SLE commencing a treatment cycle of rituximab (two 1g infusions, 2 weeks apart) as standard of care will be randomised to receive belimumab or placebo, 4 to 8 weeks following the first rituximab infusion. Belimumab or placebo infusions are administered for 52 weeks. The primary outcome measure is anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody levels at 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measures of adverse events, lupus disease activity and cumulative steroid dose. The kinetics of B cell repopulation will be assessed in a subgroup of participants. Belimumab administration after rituximab may provide a novel therapeutic pathway for patients with active lupus if safety is demonstrated in this proof of concept study, and lower anti-dsDNA antibodies levels are achieved in those patients treated with belimumab compared with placebo. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Hampstead Research Ethics Committee - London (reference 16/LO/1024). Trial information is available at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN47873003, and the results of this trial will be submitted for publication in relevant peer-reviewed journals. Key findings will also be presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN47873; date assigned to the registry: 28 November 2016. The stage is pre-results.

11.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 1(3): 145-155, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777790

RESUMO

Objective: A subset of patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not mount a C-reactive protein (CRP) response during flares. We hypothesize that these patients are more likely to experience poor clinical care and less likely to respond to traditional therapy. This study questioned whether this presentation was associated with worse disease outcome and distinct immunological features. Methods: Using Power Doppler ultrasound, 48 RA patients with active synovitis were recruited; 30 had normal (n)CRP (5 mg/L or less) and 18 had high (h)CRP (more than 5 mg/L) levels. All had equivalent disease burden assessed by other clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: Time to diagnosis and time to first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug were significantly longer in nCRP compared with hCRP patients (P < 0.05). Significantly more nCRP patients needed escalation to biologics after 2-year follow-up (P = 0.01). The inflammatory milieu was also different between the two subgroups. Synergy between inflammatory cytokines observed in hCRP patients was lost in nCRP patients, and nCRP patients had significantly increased regulatory T-cell (Treg) frequencies that correlated positively with predictors of poor disease outcome. Conversely, hCRP but not nCRP patients demonstrated a significant upregulation of alternative complement pathway factors that correlated negatively with Treg frequency. Conclusion: Patients with nCRP during flares of RA had an altered immunological profile compared with hCRP patients and experienced diagnostic delays and responded less favorably to conventional treatment.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15502, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664045

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous disease with unpredictable patterns of activity. Patients with similar activity levels may have different prognosis and molecular abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to measure the main differences in drug-induced gene expression signatures across SLE patients and to evaluate the potential for clinical data to build a machine learning classifier able to predict the SLE subset for individual patients. SLE transcriptomic data from two cohorts were compared with drug-induced gene signatures from the CLUE database to compute a connectivity score that reflects the capability of a drug to revert the patient signatures. Patient stratification based on drug connectivity scores revealed robust clusters of SLE patients identical to the clusters previously obtained through longitudinal gene expression data, implying that differential treatment depends on the cluster to which patients belongs. The best drug candidates found, mTOR inhibitors or those reducing oxidative stress, showed stronger cluster specificity. We report that drug patterns for reverting disease gene expression follow the cell-specificity of the disease clusters. We used 2 cohorts to train and test a logistic regression model that we employed to classify patients from 3 independent cohorts into the SLE subsets and provide a clinically useful model to predict subset assignment and drug efficacy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the ability of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria sets to provide information regarding organ damage and mortality, over a 10-year follow-up period. METHODS: Using data from 100 patients, we completed each classification set at the time of diagnosis and recorded the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI), renal damage, major cardiovascular (CV) events and death, 10 years later. We reviewed the presence of other autoantibodies, linked to SLE, but not included in the classification criteria sets, and assessed whether they impacted the predictive capacity of the classification sets. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant association between the EULAR/ACR set and renal damage and SDI, the latter, after adjustment for age and sex. In the patients negative for other autoantibodies, higher EULAR/ACR scores were associated with higher rates of organ damage. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the EULAR/ACR set may offer useful prognostic information, as higher scores were associated with higher rates of organ damage. These findings were clearer in patients negative for non-diagnostic-SLE autoantibodies, who may benefit more from the predictive capacity of the EULAR/ACR set.

17.
BMC Rheumatol ; 3: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485560

RESUMO

Background: To undertake a retrospective review of patients with SLE who had received Rituximab in order to determine the rates and associated patient characteristics of clinically significant adverse infusion reactions. Methods: A descriptive analysis was undertaken of each infusion reaction, which was then assessed using the clinical information available to hypothesise on the possible underlying mechanism(s). Results: Records of 136 SLE patients previously treated with 481 individual infusions of Rituximab were reviewed. A total of 22 patients (17.6%) had 28 (5.8% of total infusions) documented clinically significant adverse infusion reactions. Average age at first Rituximab infusion in patients without a reaction was 37 years (range 16-73) compared with 30 years (range 18-56) in those with a reaction. A high proportion of men (18.2%) experienced an infusion reaction. Severity and type of reaction varied. 6.4% of those who had a reaction were not retreated. Conclusions: While Rituximab remains an important tool in the treatment of SLE it is important to be aware that rates of infusion reactions may be more significant in SLE than in other diseases. A prospective study is required to better characterise the reactions.

18.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 3(2)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is most commonly caused by thrombosis occurring on a background of coronary atherosclerosis, resulting in reduced coronary flow. Less often, myocardial infarction can occur in the absence of coronary disease. The pathomechanism of myocardial infarction in such patients is heterogeneous and more challenging to diagnose and treat. European Society of Cardiology published a position paper on myocardial infarction in patients with non-obstructive coronary disease, with definitions and recommendations for investigations, in what has hitherto been an under-recognized and under-investigated Cinderella-like condition. However, the importance of obtaining a diagnosis is all the more important, since one treatment approach with revascularization and antithrombotic treatment does not 'fit all'. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old male patient presented with chest pain at rest, associated with rise in troponin and without ECG changes. A diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was made. Coronary angiography showed a smooth stenosis which resolved with administration of intracoronary nitrate. A diagnosis of coronary artery spasm was made, and treatment initiated. After 18 months, the patient had recurrent chest pains at rest, unresponsive to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Cardiac magnetic resonance revealed extension of subendocardial infarction, without inducible ischaemia. CT coronary angiogram (CTCA) showed non-obstructive coronaries. Blood tests showed significant eosinophilia, raised troponin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) that fluctuated without correlation with symptoms or any ECG changes. A diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made, and immunosuppression commenced. DISCUSSION: Churg-Strauss syndrome is an autoimmune vasculitis in patients with history of atopy or late-onset asthma which when involving coronary arteries can lead to myocardial injury mimicking acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Identification is important to allow initiation of immunosuppression which can prevent development or progression.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is irreversible change in organs due to disease activity, concomitant disease or medication side-effects. It is measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (SDI) and is associated with increased mortality. Previous reports have suggested associations between damage accrual and various ethnic, disease and treatment factors, but there is a dearth of long-term follow-up data from large multi-ethnic cohorts. We describe a study of damage and mortality in 300 patients from London, UK followed for up to 40 years. METHODS: We carried out retrospective analysis of medical records and SDI scores of 300 patients followed for up to 40 years (median 13.3 years). Characteristics of the groups who did and did not develop damage and those who died or survived to the end of follow-up were compared using univariable and multivariable analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyse factors affecting mortality and accrual of damage. RESULTS: Damage developed in 231/300 (77%) of patients. There was a linear accrual of damage over 40 years follow-up. Factors associated with damage were African/Caribbean ethnicity, renal and cerebral involvement, early use of high-dose corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, anti-RNP and antiphospholipid antibodies. Damage was strongly associated with mortality. Of 87 patients who died, 93% had damage compared with 70% of survivors (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Development of damage is strongly associated with increased mortality. We identified groups at increased risk of developing damage, including those treated with high-dose steroids and immunosuppressants within the first two years.

20.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 15(8): 509, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270422

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

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