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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Free radicals and reactive oxygen species are related to deteriorating pathological conditions after head trauma because of their secondary effects. 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) scavenges free radicals; however, this molecule is also toxic. Here we have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of antioxidant nanoparticles, which consisted of a novel core-shell type nanoparticle containing 4-amino-4-hydroxy-TEMPO, i.e., redox-active nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticles (RNP). METHODS: Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were subjected to a head-impact procedure, randomly divided into four groups and intravenously (3 mg/kg) administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Tempo, micelle (a self-assembling block copolymer micelle without a TEMPO moiety), or RNP through the tail vein immediately thereafter and intraperitoneally at days 1, 3, and 5 after traumatic brain injury (TBI). RNP distribution was detected by rhodamine labeling. Cognitive behavior was assessed using the Neurological severity score and a rotarod test at days 1, 3, and 7 following TBI, and contusion volume was measured at day 7 after TBI. Free radical-scavenging capacity was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance on day 1 after TBI, and immunostaining was used to observe mobilization of microglia (Iba-1) and rescued neuronal cells (NeuN). RESULTS: RNP was detected in the microvessels around the injured area in the brain. Cognitive behavior assessment was significantly better, and contusion volume was significantly smaller in the RNP group compared to the other groups. Superoxide anion scavenging capacity was significantly higher in the RNP group and neuronal loss was significantly suppressed around the injured area at day 7 after TBI. Furthermore, in the RNP group, neurodegenerative microglia production was suppressed at days 3 and 7 after TBI, while neuroprotective microglia production was higher at day 7 after TBI. CONCLUSION: RNP administration after TBI improved cognitive behavior and reduced contusion volume by improving reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. Therefore, RNP may have a neuroprotective effect after TBI. STUDY TYPE: Therapeutic test.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic glioma, characterized by large pleomorphic and frequently multinucleated cells, spindle and lipidized cells, a dense pericellular reticulin network, and numerous eosinophilic granular bodies according to the grade II glial tumor standards of the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2016 guidelines. PXA rarely transforms into anaplastic PXA or glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic PXA, classified as WHO grade III, has a more aggressive clinical behavior with poorer prognosis than PXA. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe an unusual case of PXA in a 19-year-old woman, first admitted with headache and a mass in the left temporal lobe in 2005 that was removed. Twelve years later, she returned with left temporal headache, diplopia and tinnitus. A local tumor recurrence was found, and a second resection was performed. The specimen showed highly malignant findings, such as necrosis, microvascular proliferation, and multiple mitoses. The integrated diagnosis was made as high grade glioma, probably derived from PXA. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains were positive for oligo2, and approximately 21% positive for Ki-67, while negative for CD34, IDH1 R132H. INI1 and ATRX were retained. As the histological classification was glioblastoma, the patient received GBM-appropriate chemotherapy and radiation therapy and outpatient follow-ups have demonstrated no obvious symptoms for 1 year after surgery. Additional molecular analyses found BRAF V600E mutations in both resections, supporting the idea that the recurrent tumor had derived from PXA. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the complexities of differential diagnosis based on the World Health Organization's 2016 guidelines. More integrated criteria to differentiate anaplastic PXA from GBM and epithelioid GBM, combined with genetic screening results, might be needed.

3.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 1591019919900821, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent ischemic complications during carotid artery stenting, accurate detection of plaque protrusion and appropriate additional treatment are essential. Here, we introduce a novel method for the detection of plaque protrusion under distal balloon protection using three-dimensional rotation angiography-"retrograde 3DRA." We evaluated the safety and efficacy of this method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 28 consecutive carotid artery stenting procedures under distal balloon protection at our hospital between July 2017 and August 2019. The first line of protection was dual balloon protection (proximal and distal balloon). After stent deployment, balloon dilatation, and subsequent blood aspiration, 3DRA was performed with the injection of diluted contrast medium from the aspiration catheter positioned just proximal to the distal protection balloon. The stent lumen was analyzed by obtaining the reconstruction maximum intensity projection image. RESULTS: Among the 28 cases, all cases could be assessed for in-stent plaque protrusion using "retrograde 3DRA." We were able to evaluate the stent lumen clearly. There were three cases (10.7%) in which plaque protrusion could be confirmed. Since additional balloon dilatation was performed for all protrusion cases under continuing balloon protection, no ischemic complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Retrograde 3DRA could be safe and useful for the detection of plaque protrusions and to avoid ischemic complication for tolerable cases of internal carotid artery transient balloon protection.

4.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980975

RESUMO

Although chemoimmunotherapy often lengthens glioblastoma (GBM) survival, early relapses remain problematic as immunosuppressive M2 macrophages (Mϕ) that function via inhibitory cytokine and PD-L1 production cause immunotherapy resistance. Here, we detail anti-PD-L1 antibody effects on the tumor microenvironment, including Mϕ infiltration, using a temozolomide (TMZ)-treated glioma model. In addition, we tested combinations of anti-PD-L1 antibody and the M2Mϕ inhibitor IPI-549 on tumor growth. We simulated late TMZ treatment or relapse stage, persistent GBM cells by generating TMZ-resistant TS (TMZRTS) cells. M2Mϕ-associated cytokine production and PD-L1 expression in these cells were investigated. TMZRTS cells were then subcutaneously implanted into C57BL/6 mice to determine the effectiveness of an anti-PD-L1 antibody and/or IPI-549 treatment on infiltration of CD163-positive Mϕ, usually considered as an M2Mϕ marker into tumor tissues. CD163 expression in samples from human GBM patients were also evaluated. CD163-positive Mϕ heavily infiltrated TMZRS tumor tissues after in vivo anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment. Tumor growth was strongly inhibited by anti-PD-L1 antibody and IPI-549 combination therapy. Anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment significantly reduced infiltration of CD163-positive Mϕ into tumors, while combined PD-L1 antibody and IPI-549 therapy remarkably inhibited tumor growth. These therapies may be useful for recurrent or chronic GBM after TMZ treatment, but clinical safety and effectiveness studies are needed.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 136: 205-207, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has been considered to be a congenital vascular malformation, morphologic differences associated with age have been indicated in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of infant fistula-type AVM that developed into a nidus-type AVM 15 years later. This is the first report to document morphologic changes of AVM over time in 1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The present case suggests the possibly that AVM morphology may change with age and is an important when considering the history of AVM.

6.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 60(2): 94-100, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866664

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cerebral hyperperfusion phenomenon (CHP) and carotid artery flow volume as measured by a transit time flowmeter during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We retrospectively investigated 74 patients who underwent both transit time flowmetry and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The flow volumes of the internal carotid artery (ICA) before and after the endarterectomy were recorded during surgery as the pre- and the post-ICA (mL/min), respectively. We defined the difference between the pre- and the post-ICA as the ΔIC (mL/min). Two independent board-certified neurosurgeons analyzed the asymmetry index (affected side/contralateral side) of regional qualitative cerebral blood flow before and after the CEA respectively. We defined the CHP as an excessive increase in this asymmetry index between preoperative and postoperative SPECT. The CHP was observed in five of the 74 patients (6.8%). The pre-ICA of the CHP cases was significantly lower than that of the non-CHP cases (in mL/min, median 29 vs. 97; P = 0.01). The ΔIC of the CHP cases was significantly higher than that of the non-CHP cases (in mL/min, median 154 vs. 50; P = 0.002). The cut-off value of the ΔIC was 81 mL/min (sensitivity 100%, specificity 78.3%, area under the curve 0.912). The findings of this study suggest that the ΔIC is associated with the CHP. The transit time flowmeter is useful to predict the CHP during surgery.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 134: 297-301, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An aneurysm embedded in a pituitary adenoma is rare, and treatment for both the aneurysm and pituitary adenoma is complex and controversial. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old woman presented with a visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary adenoma and coexistence of an aneurysm located at the orifice of the superior hypophyseal artery (SHA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA). The aneurysm was embedded in the pituitary adenoma; therefore, obliteration of the aneurysm was needed prior to tumor removal to prevent intraoperative rupture of the aneurysm. Although endovascular coil embolization was tried first, it was not successful. A combined endoscopic endonasal approach and transcranial approach was performed for simultaneous tumor removal and aneurysm clipping. A bilateral subfrontal approach was selected for aneurysm clipping because, using this approach, the parent artery was safely controlled from the ipsilateral trajectory, whereas exposure and clipping of the aneurysm were easily done from the contralateral trajectory. Additionally, the supine head position without rotation is comfortable for endoscopic endonasal surgery. The tumor was totally removed, and the aneurysm was safely and completely obliterated with a clip. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and her visual disturbance improved. CONCLUSIONS: A combined endoscopic endonasal and bilateral subfrontal approach is effective for a pituitary adenoma associated with an ICA-SHA aneurysm.

8.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 59(12): 492-497, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708513

RESUMO

A subgroup analysis of spinal vascular lesions registered in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 2 (JR-NET2) and JR-NET3 was performed. About 172 analyzable cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) were assessed, including the characteristics, treatment strategy, and treatment outcome. SDAVF was more common in middle-aged and older males. The most commonly affected area was the thoracolumbosacral region (83.7%), and most cases had a non-hemorrhagic onset (89.0%). Complete obliteration was achieved in 54.7%. Treatment-related complications occurred in three patients (7.0%). Post-treatment neurological improvement was achieved in 48.3%. The primary endpoint [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 on postoperative day 30] was achieved in 60.5% of the cases. As a new discovery, the incidence of cervical SDAVF increased from 1.8% in JR-NET2 to 19.7% in JR-NET3. Compared with non-cervical SDAVF, cervical SDAVF was characterized by a higher proportion of hemorrhagic onset (P <0.01), incomplete obliteration of the shunt (P <0.01), and embolization-related complications (P = 0.01). Overall, a mRS of 0-2 on postoperative day 30 was correlated with a pre-treatment mRS of 0-2 (P <0.01) in a univariate analysis. Complete obliteration of the shunt was the only predictor of postoperative neurological improvement (P = 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. Endovascular treatment for SDAVF has been safely administered in Japan. The incidence of cervical SDAVF, which has more aggressive features, appears to be increasing. Early diagnosis and complete obliteration of the shunt are important for improving the treatment outcomes of patients with SDAVF.

9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a type of brain malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Although various radiation and chemotherapy protocols have been attempted, only conventional radiotherapy has yielded improvements in survival. In this study, we aimed to compare proton therapy versus conventional photon radiotherapy in terms of the outcomes of pediatric patients with DIPG. METHODS: This retrospective review included 12 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed DIPG who received a total proton therapy dose of 54 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 30 fractions at the University of Tsukuba Hospital between 2011 and 2017 (proton group). We additionally reviewed the medical records of 10 patients with DIPG who previously underwent conventional photon radiotherapy at our institute (historical cohort). RESULTS: The median progression-free survival (PFS) duration was 5 months (range 1-11 months), and the 6-, 12-, and 18-month PFS rates were 50%, 33%, and 25%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) duration was 9 months (range 4-48 months), and the 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month OS rates were 66.8%, 50%, 41%, and 20%, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival between the proton and historical groups (PFS, p = 0.169 and OS, p = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Proton therapy was well tolerated by the majority of patients. No severe adverse events, including radiation necrosis, were recorded. Proton therapy did not yield superior survival outcomes vs. conventional photon radiotherapy in patients with DIPG at our institution. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with better survival in this population.

10.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a benign cystic lesion with a relatively high incidence of local recurrence that occasionally requires repeat surgery. To prevent recurrence, simple cyst fenestration and drainage of the cyst contents to the sphenoid sinus is recommended, but it occasionally recurs. The authors postulated that obstruction of fenestration is a main cause of recurrence, and they developed a method, named the "mucosa coupling method (MC method)," that maintains persistent drainage. In this method, the RCC epithelium and the mucosa of the sphenoid sinus are connected, which promotes re-epithelialization between the two epithelia, maintaining persistent drainage. The outcome of this method was compared with that of conventional cyst fenestration. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 40 patients with RCC, the surgical strategy was changed during the study period: from December 2009 to September 2014 (the conventional period), 24 patients were scheduled to be treated using the conventional fenestration method, whereas from September 2014 to September 2017 (the MC period), 16 patients were scheduled to be treated using the MC method. However, because of an intraoperative CSF leak, the fenestration was closed during surgery in 3 patients in the conventional period and 2 in the MC period; therefore, these 5 patients were excluded from the analysis. Twenty-one patients treated with the conventional fenestration method (conventional group) and 14 patients treated with the MC method (MC group) were analyzed. All patients regularly underwent MRI after surgery to detect reaccumulation of cyst contents. The rate of reaccumulation with and without reoperation, visual outcomes, endocrinological outcomes, and postoperative complications were compared between these two groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up period in all 35 patients was 48.0 months (range 1-96 months), 54.0 months (range 1-96 months) in the conventional group and 35.5 months (range 12-51 months) in the MC group. No reaccumulation was detected on MRI in the 14 patients in the MC group, whereas it was noted in 9 (42.9%) of 21 patients in the conventional group, and 2 of these 9 patients required repeat surgery. There were no significant differences in visual and endocrinological outcomes and complications between these two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The MC method for RCC is effective for preventing obstruction of cyst fenestration, which contributes to preventing cyst reaccumulation. Furthermore, this method is equivalent to the conventional fenestration method in terms of visual and endocrinological outcomes and the complication rate.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), headache management is often difficult owing to the need to use multiple analgesic drugs. Fentanyl is an opioid we can use after surgery, and it can decrease pain post SAH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of fentanyl for management of headache after SAH. METHODS: Twenty-two patients who underwent surgical clipping for ruptured intracranial aneurysms and complained of severe headache after the surgery were enrolled. Among them, 9 patients were given fentanyl combined with other analgesic drugs. The numeric rating scale score and dietary intake were measured in the acute phase after the SAH. RESULTS: The numeric rating scale scores were significantly lower in the fentanyl (+) group. The maximum numeric rating scale decreased to <5 points within 16.5 ± 2.9 days in the fentanyl (-) group and within 12.0 ± 2.6 days in the fentanyl (+) group. The median numeric rating scale decreased to <5 points over 14.0 ± 4.2 days in the fentanyl (-) group and >7.7 ± 3.8 days in the fentanyl (+) group. At day 14, the fentanyl (+) group showed significantly better dietary intake than that of the fentanyl (-) group. CONCLUSIONS: Using fentanyl after surgical clipping for ruptured intracranial aneurysms might decrease headache and produce few adverse effects. Adequate headache control showed improved dietary intake after SAH.

12.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 54(6): 419-423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Terminal deletion of chromosome 6q is a rare chromosomal abnormality associated with intellectual disabilities and various structural brain abnormalities. We present a case of 6q terminal deletion syndrome with unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a neonate. CASE PRESENTATION: The neonate, who was prenatally diagnosed with dilation of both lateral ventricles, was born at 38 weeks of gestation. MRI demonstrated abnormal membranous structure continuing to the hypertrophic massa intermedia in the third ventricle that had obscured the cerebrospinal fluid pathway, causing hydrocephalus. G-band analysis revealed a terminal deletion of 6q with the karyotype 46, XY, add(6)(q25.3) or del(6)(q26). He underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt successfully, and his head circumference has been stable. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: 6q terminal deletion impacts the molecular pathway, which is an essential intracellular signaling cascade inducing neurological proliferation, migration, and differentiation during neuronal development. In patients with hydrocephalus in association with hypertrophy of the massa intermedia, this chromosomal abnormality should be taken into consideration. This case may offer an insight into the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus in this rare chromosomal abnormality.

13.
No Shinkei Geka ; 47(9): 949-956, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564655

RESUMO

The cognitive function of children who underwent surgical therapy after a traumatic brain injury is poorly studied. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of 27 children who received surgical therapy at our institution. The children were between 1 and 16 years of age, of which 15 had cognitive dysfunction. Their Glasgow Coma Scale score at the acute stage of dysfunction was worse than in children who did not have cognitive dysfunction. Acute subdural hematoma was more frequent in the cognitive dysfunction group. Moreover, all children in this group showed brain injury by imaging analysis. Differences in imaging characteristics and the association with cognitive dysfunction could not be readily associated with a specific injury. Memory and verbal disorder were the most common cognitive dysfunctions:these symptoms were present among children of all ages;conversely, behavior disorder, impaired attention, and infeasibility were limited to the children under 9 years of age. Since the immature brain is developing, the acquisition of new abilities may be blocked by the injury;thus, we speculate that brain injury at a younger age causes greater cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Disfunção Cognitiva , Adolescente , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Lactente
15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(12): 2423-2426, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385089

RESUMO

Intracranial mature teratomas have good prognoses and are usually treated by total tumor resection. We report a rare case of a germinoma that occurred 11 years after total removal of a pineal mature teratoma. A 5-year-old boy presented with headache and nausea and was diagnosed with a pineal tumor and obstructive hydrocephalus on MRI. He underwent total removal of the lesion, which was pathologically diagnosed as a mature teratoma without any other germ cell tumor components. MR images after 11 years showed a newly developed pineal tumor, which was confirmed as a germinoma after neuroendoscopic biopsy. Chemoradiotherapy resulted in complete remission, without any symptoms. This case demonstrated possible late occurrence of germinoma even after total removal of a mature teratoma had been achieved. A long-term follow-up of 10 years or more should be planned for these patients.

16.
World Neurosurg ; 132: e812-e819, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in the very elderly, who have lived beyond average life expectancy. Our aim is to appraise treatment outcomes of burr-hole craniotomy for CSDH in the elderly, focusing on cure, recurrence, and complications. METHODS: Fifty patients ≤79 years of age (group A) and 73 patients ≥80 years of age (group B) were studied. Recurrence was defined as requiring reoperation for hematoma regrowth or symptomatic failure. A cure was regarded as having been achieved in the absence of hematoma on postoperative computed tomography. Complications were defined as any harmful event related to the treatment procedure for CSDH. RESULTS: Cure was documented in 31 patients in group A (63%) and 24 patients in group B (33%) (P = 0.0017). Median intervals to cure were 2.76 and 3.73 months, respectively (P = 0.06). Cumulative cure rates were 51%/76% and 36%/59%, respectively, at the sixth/twelfth postoperative months. Recurrence was documented in 2 patients (4%) and 11 patients (15%), respectively (P = 0.07). Median intervals to recurrence were 0.81 and 1.25 months, respectively (P = 0.049). Cumulative recurrence-free rates were 96%/92% and 87%/75%, respectively, at the third/sixth postoperative months. Complications were observed in 2 patients (4%) and 4 patients (5%), respectively (P = 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: With advancing age, CSDH might show a greater tendency to recur and a longer time is required to achieve a cure. However, complications developed only in high-risk patients. Thus, surgical treatment for CSDH in elderly patients, even those who have lived beyond life expectancy, might provide acceptably effective results.


Assuntos
Hematoma Subdural Crônico/cirurgia , Trepanação/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Trepanação/mortalidade
17.
World Neurosurg ; 131: e425-e432, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an alternative monitoring method during carotid artery stenting (CAS). NIRS has been reported to be effective in emergency care; however, it is unknown whether it can predict intraoperative ischemic intolerance and cerebral hyperperfusion during CAS. Perioperative ischemic intolerance and cerebral hyperperfusion are potential events during CAS for carotid artery stenosis. We evaluated whether perioperative monitoring of the tissue oxygenation index (TOI) using NIRS with the NIRO system can predict the occurrence of ischemic intolerance and cerebral hyperperfusion. METHODS: The TOI of 27 patients was measured during CAS. The relationship between the TOI and ischemic intolerance or cerebral hyperperfusion was analyzed, and the cutoff TOI was calculated to predict their occurrence. RESULTS: Ischemic intolerance occurred in 5 patients during balloon protection. The TOI in the presence of ischemic intolerance was significantly lower than that without ischemic intolerance. The cutoff TOI to detect ischemic intolerance was 50% and that of the TOI change rate before and after balloon protection was 80%. The ischemic symptoms in all patients had resolved immediately after balloon deflation. The cerebral hyperperfusion phenomenon was detected using single-photon emission computed tomography in 4 patients. These patients showed a transient increase in the TOI immediately after CAS; however, none of these patients showed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion phenomenon. The cutoff TOI to detect cerebral hyperperfusion was 109% compared with the TOI before CAS. CONCLUSION: Monitoring of the TOI using the NIRO system could be useful for the detection of ischemic intolerance and cerebral hyperperfusion during CAS and to prevent perioperative adverse events.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 101-104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337581

RESUMO

To investigate whether Robot Suit HAL treatment (HAL-T) is safe and feasible for gait disorders in adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). We tested HAL-T in adolescents and adults with bilateral spastic CP (four men, four women; mean age: 18.2 years). Three participants were classified as level III under the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and five were classified as level IV. The participants underwent HAL-T twice per week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures, which were assessed before and after HAL-T, included comfortable gait speed (CGS), step length (SL), cadence, and GMFCS level. Adverse events were noted. All participants completed the HAL-T sessions despite some mild adverse events occurring. The mean increases in CGS, SL, and cadence were 0.19 ±â€¯0.14 m/s (p = 0.006), 0.09 ±â€¯0.08 m (p = 0.020), and 18.0 ±â€¯15.9 steps/min (p = 0.015), respectively. HAL-T is safe and feasible for gait disorders in patients with CP. HAL-T can significantly improve CGS, SL, and cadence and may be effective for improving walking ability in adolescents and adults with CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 14(2): 499-505, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143269

RESUMO

Background: Optic neuropathy due to an aneurysm is relatively rare, with only a few small case series on this topic, and no randomized trials having been published until now. As such, the functional prognosis and treatment for aneurysm-induced optic neuropathy remain controversial. Objective: We quantified optic nerve injuries using an objective index (the visual impairment score) and evaluated prognostic factors of postoperative visual function. Materials and Methods: Of 960 patients treated for an unruptured intracranial aneurysm, 18 (1.9%) patients had optic neuropathy. Visual acuity and visual field were assessed before surgery and 6 months' postoperatively. Cases were classified on the basis of treatment modality (coil embolization or flow alteration [FA]) and prognostic factors of the two treatment groups. Results: Of the 18 patients with an intracranial aneurysm and optic neuropathy, 12 (67%) were treated using coil embolization and 6 (33%) were FA. Visual function improved after surgery in 8 patients (44%), 5 (42%) in the coil embolization group, and 3 (50%) in the FA group. The visual function remained stable after surgery in 6 (33%) patients and worsened in 4 (22%). Patients with an aneurysms <15 mm in size had a favorable outcome (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Surgical treatment improved vision in 44% of cases, with no difference in the prognosis of coil embolization and FA and no effect of the duration of symptoms on outcomes. Further, the prognosis of visual function recovery was better for aneurysms <15 mm in diameter.

20.
World Neurosurg ; 126: 151-155, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVFs) of the anatomically complex anterior condylar confluence (ACC) are often examined by computed tomography (CT) angiography and conventional angiography before treatment. Contrasted vessels often overlap with skull bones in enhanced CT scan and make it difficult to detect the shunt point of the dAVF. Bone subtraction CT angiography (BSCTA) can overcome this limitation and allow for superior imaging of dAVFs that may help to find an alternative access for catheterization. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 80-year-old woman suffered from right ear tinnitus, headache, and an audible bruit. Preoperative imaging showed a dAVF of the ACC. It was fed by the bilateral ascending pharyngeal artery, drained to the internal jugular vein (IJV) via the inferior petrosal sinus, and had an intraosseous shunt pouch. We therefore performed transvenous embolization (TVE) via the intercavernous sinus because the angle between the anterior condylar vein and the IJV was too sharp to catheterize vessels through the ipsilateral IJV. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the inherently complex and individually unique venous anatomy of the ACC is crucial for treatment of dAVFs. BSCTA is an effective visualization technique for dAVFs of the ACC and allows for precise preoperative vascular structure evaluation. We suggest that in the case of the angle between the ACV and the IJV being too sharp to catheterize vessels through the ipsilateral IJV, TVE via the intercavernous sinus can be efficiently used.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Cavidades Cranianas/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
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