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J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 89-92, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996531


The oral hygiene and oral status of children with severe disabilities with both nutritional and respiratory complications who were institutionalized at Karugamonoie (KNI), a facility for children with disabilities, were investigated in this study. Their oral hygiene management was solely dependent on caregivers and nurses at the institution. Thirty children (13 females, 17 males; average age, 7.6 years) who had a tracheotomy and feeding tube (gastrostomy, nasogastric, or jejunostomy feeding tube) were included in the study. As for oral characteristics, poor control of tongue movement, anterior open-bite, abnormal strain of facial muscles, dry mouth, and swallowing dysfunction were found in 63.3%, 63.3%, 13.3%, 20.0%, and 100.0%, of the children, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth score was 0.13 ± 0.57. The Gingival Index (GI) showed that the children had mild (53.3%) to moderate (46.7%) gingivitis. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index was excellent in 50.0% of the children, good in 23.3%, fair in 20.0%, and poor in 6.7% of the children. These indices were satisfactory in general except for GI management, which may have been hampered by abnormal oral functions and anterior open-bite. In conclusion, oral hygiene management of children with nutritional and respiratory complications at KNI was shown to be of high quality even without on-site intervention by dental specialists.

Cárie Dentária , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Criança Institucionalizada , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Índice de Higiene Oral
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635390


The deletion of Mecp2, the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, causes severe breathing defects and developmental anomalies in mammals. In Mecp2-null mice, impaired GABAergic neurotransmission is demonstrated at the early stage of life. GABAergic dysfunction in neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is considered as a primary cause of breathing abnormality in Mecp2-null mice, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that mRNA expression levels of Gad1, which encodes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), in the RVLM of Mecp2-null (Mecp2-/y, B6.129P2(C)-Mecp2tm1.1Bird/J) mice is closely related to the methylation status of its promoter, and valproate (VPA) can upregulate transcription from Gad1 through epigenetic mechanisms. The administration of VPA (300 mg/kg/day) together with L-carnitine (30 mg/kg/day) from day 8 to day 14 after birth increased Gad1 mRNA expression in the RVLM and reduced apnea counts in Mecp2-/y mice on postnatal day 15. Cytosine methylation levels in the Gad1 promoter were higher in the RVLM of Mecp2-/y mice compared to wild-type mice born to C57BL/6J females, while VPA treatment decreased the methylation levels in Mecp2-/y mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the VPA treatment reduced the binding of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1 (MBD1) to the Gad1 promoter in Mecp2-/y mice. These results suggest that VPA improves breathing of Mecp2-/y mice by reducing the Gad1 promoter methylation, which potentially leads to the enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission in the RVLM.

J Oral Sci ; 60(4): 519-525, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587686


Hypoxia induces complex cellular responses that are mediated by a key transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 promotes production of cytokines and angiogenic factors and contributes to recovery of injured tissues. In the present study, expressions of angiogenin (ANG) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are potent angiogenic factors in mammalian tissues, were examined in immortalized fibroblasts exposed to hypoxia. After 24 h of exposure to hypoxia, ANG and VEGF mRNAs expressions were significantly elevated in periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts but not in embryonic fibroblasts. Hypoxia also increased productions of ANG and VEGF proteins in PDL fibroblasts. HIF-1α mRNA expression was not affected by hypoxia in either fibroblast, although HIF-1α protein expression was enhanced after exposure to hypoxia. Treatment of PDL fibroblasts with dimethyloxaloylglycine, a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stabilizes the HIF-1α protein, significantly increased expressions of ANG and VEGF mRNAs under normoxia. This suggests that stabilization of HIF-1α is crucial for upregulation of ANG and VEGF in PDL fibroblasts. These results indicate that, under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α upregulates synthesis of ANG and VEGF in PDL fibroblasts and promotes angiogenesis.

Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ribonuclease Pancreático/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Regulação para Cima
J Oral Sci ; 60(4): 544-551, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587688


Hypoxia after traumatic injuries to a tooth is one of the causes of subsequent root resorption. Inflammatory cytokines produced under hypoxic conditions are associated with root resorption, but the mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling in the regulation of CCAAT (cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine)/enhancer-binding protein-ß (C/EBPß) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expressions in immortalized human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells was investigated. PDL cells cultured under a hypoxic condition showed an increase in the expression of C/EBPß and RANKL messenger RNAs (mRNAs), whereas the expression of osteoprotegerin and HIF-1α mRNAs was unaffected. Hypoxia had no effects on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with dimethyloxaloylglycine, a competitive HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, significantly increased the expression of C/EBPß and RANKL mRNAs. This suggested that the hypoxia-induced elevation of C/EBPß and RANKL mRNAs was dependent on the HIF-1 activity. PDL cells transfected with a specific small interfering RNA designed to target the C/EBPß gene showed a significant suppression of the RANKL mRNA. These findings indicated that C/EBPß may play an important role in tooth root resorption via RANKL activation in hypoxia-exposed PDL cells.

Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Dicarboxílicos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção