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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811806

RESUMO

Proteins involved in transcriptional regulation harbor a demonstrated enrichment of mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. The Sin3 (Swi-independent 3)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex plays a central role in histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression. Among the two vertebrate paralogs encoding the Sin3 complex, SIN3A variants cause syndromic intellectual disability, but the clinical consequences of SIN3B haploinsufficiency in humans are uncharacterized. Here, we describe a syndrome hallmarked by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features with variably penetrant autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations, corpus callosum defects, and impaired growth caused by disruptive SIN3B variants. Using chromosomal microarray or exome sequencing, and through international data sharing efforts, we identified nine individuals with heterozygous SIN3B deletion or single-nucleotide variants. Five individuals harbor heterozygous deletions encompassing SIN3B that reside within a ∼230 kb minimal region of overlap on 19p13.11, two individuals have a rare nonsynonymous substitution, and two individuals have a single-nucleotide deletion that results in a frameshift and predicted premature termination codon. To test the relevance of SIN3B impairment to measurable aspects of the human phenotype, we disrupted the orthologous zebrafish locus by genome editing and transient suppression. The mutant and morphant larvae display altered craniofacial patterning, commissural axon defects, and reduced body length supportive of an essential role for Sin3 function in growth and patterning of anterior structures. To investigate further the molecular consequences of SIN3B variants, we quantified genome-wide enhancer and promoter activity states by using H3K27ac ChIP-seq. We show that, similar to SIN3A mutations, SIN3B disruption causes hyperacetylation of a subset of enhancers and promoters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, these data demonstrate that SIN3B haploinsufficiency leads to a hitherto unknown intellectual disability/autism syndrome, uncover a crucial role of SIN3B in the central nervous system, and define the epigenetic landscape associated with Sin3 complex impairment.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until very recently, preconception genetic testing was only conducted in particular communities, ethnic groups or families for which an increased risk of genetic disease was identified. To detect in general population a risk for a couple to have a child affected by a rare, recessive or X-linked, genetic disease, carrier screening is proposed in several countries. We aimed to determine the current public opinion relative to this approach in France, using either a printed or web-based questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the 1568 participants, 91% are favorable to preconception genetic tests and 57% declare to be willing to have the screening if the latter is available. A medical prescription by a family doctor or a gynecologist would be the best way to propose the test for 73%, with a reimbursement from the social security insurance. However, 19% declare not to be willing to use the test because of their ethic or moral convictions, and the fear that the outcome would question the pregnancy. Otherwise, most participants consider that the test is a medical progress despite the risk of an increased medicalization of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This first study in France highlights a global favorable opinion for the preconception genetic carrier testing under a medical prescription and a reimbursement by social security insurance. Our results emphasize as well the complex concerns underpinned by the use of this screening strategy. Therefore, the ethical issues related to these tests include the risk of eugenic drift mentioned by more than half of the participants.

3.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), encoded by DLG4, regulates excitatory synaptic function in the brain. Here we present the clinical and genetic features of 53 patients (42 previously unpublished) with DLG4 variants. METHODS: The clinical and genetic information were collected through GeneMatcher collaboration. All the individuals were investigated by local clinicians and the gene variants were identified by clinical exome/genome sequencing. RESULTS: The clinical picture was predominated by early onset global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, all of which point to a brain disorder. Marfanoid habitus, which was previously suggested to be a characteristic feature of DLG4-related phenotypes, was found in only nine individuals and despite some overlapping features, a distinct facial dysmorphism could not be established. Of the 45 different DLG4 variants, 39 were predicted to lead to loss of protein function and the majority occurred de novo (four with unknown origin). The six missense variants identified were suggested to lead to structural or functional changes by protein modeling studies. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that clinical manifestations associated with DLG4 overlap with those found in other neurodevelopmental disorders of synaptic dysfunction; thus, we designate this group of disorders as DLG4-related synaptopathy.

4.
Mol Autism ; 12(1): 8, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sensory processing atypicalities are frequent in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Different domains of sensory processing appear to be differentially altered in these disorders. In this study, we explored the sensory profile of two clinical cohorts, in comparison with a sample of typically developing children. METHODS: Behavioral responses to sensory stimuli were assessed using the Sensory Processing Measure (parent-report questionnaire). We included 121 ASD children, 17 carriers of the 16p11.2 deletion (Del 16p11.2) and 45 typically developing (TD) children. All participants were aged between 2 and 12 years. Additional measures included the Tactile Defensiveness and Discrimination Test-Revised, Wechsler Intelligence Scales and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2). Statistical analyses included MANCOVA and regression analyses. RESULTS: ASD children score significantly higher on all SPM subscales compared to TD. Del16p11.2 also scored higher than TD on all subscales except for tactile and olfactory/taste processing, in which they score similarly to TD. When assessing sensory modulation patterns (hyper-, hypo-responsiveness and seeking), ASD did not significantly differ from del16p11.2. Both groups had significantly higher scores across all patterns than the TD group. There was no significant association between the SPM Touch subscale and the TDDT-R. LIMITATIONS: Sensory processing was assessed using a parent-report questionnaire. Even though it captures observable behavior, a questionnaire does not assess sensory processing in all its complexity. The sample size of the genetic cohort and the small subset of ASD children with TDDT-R data render some of our results exploratory. Divergence between SPM Touch and TDDT-R raises important questions about the nature of the process that is assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Touch and olfaction/taste seem to be particularly affected in ASD children compared to del16p11.2. These results indicate that parent report measures can provide a useful perspective on behavioral expression. Sensory phenotyping, when combined with neurobiological and psychophysical methods, might have the potential to provide a better understanding of the sensory processing in ASD and in other NDD.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(4): 625-636, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437032

RESUMO

Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (OMIM 613406) is a recently defined neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SIN3A. We define the clinical and neurodevelopmental phenotypes related to SIN3A-haploinsufficiency in 28 unreported patients. Patients with SIN3A variants adversely affecting protein function have mild intellectual disability, growth and feeding difficulties. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team including a geneticist, paediatrician and neurologist should be considered in managing these patients. Patients described here were identified through a combination of clinical evaluation and gene matching strategies (GeneMatcher and Decipher). All patients consented to participate in this study. Mean age of this cohort was 8.2 years (17 males, 11 females). Out of 16 patients ≥ 8 years old assessed, eight (50%) had mild intellectual disability (ID), four had moderate ID (22%), and one had severe ID (6%). Four (25%) did not have any cognitive impairment. Other neurological symptoms such as seizures (4/28) and hypotonia (12/28) were common. Behaviour problems were reported in a minority. In patients ≥2 years, three were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and four with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We report 27 novel variants and one previously reported variant. 24 were truncating variants; three were missense variants and one large in-frame gain including exons 10-12.

7.
Clin Genet ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: White-Sutton syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disabilities (ID), and neurobehavioral abnormalities secondary to pathogenic POGZ variants. The purpose of our study was to describe the neurocognitive phenotype of an unbiased national cohort of patients with identified POGZ pathogenic variants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is based on a French collaboration through the AnDDI-Rares network, and includes 19 patients from 18 families with POGZ pathogenic variants. All clinical data and neuropsychological tests were collected from medical files. RESULTS: Among the 19 patients, 14 patients exhibited ID (6 mild, 5 moderate and 3 severe). The 5 remaining patients had learning disabilities and shared a similar neurocognitive profile, including language difficulties, dysexecutive syndrome, attention disorders, slowness and social difficulties. One patient evaluated for autism was found to have moderate autism spectrum disorder. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the cognitive phenotype of patients with POGZ pathogenic variants can range from learning disabilities to severe ID. It highlights that pathogenic variations in the same genes can be reported in a large spectrum of neurocognitive profiles, and that children with learning disabilities could benefit from next generation sequencing techniques.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1157-1169, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159883

RESUMO

Interpretation of the significance of maternally inherited X chromosome variants in males with neurocognitive phenotypes continues to present a challenge to clinical geneticists and diagnostic laboratories. Here we report 14 males from 9 families with duplications at the Xq13.2-q13.3 locus with a common facial phenotype, intellectual disability (ID), distinctive behavioral features, and a seizure disorder in two cases. All tested carrier mothers had normal intelligence. The duplication arose de novo in three mothers where grandparental testing was possible. In one family the duplication segregated with ID across three generations. RLIM is the only gene common to our duplications. However, flanking genes duplicated in some but not all the affected individuals included the brain-expressed genes NEXMIF, SLC16A2, and the long non-coding RNA gene FTX. The contribution of the RLIM-flanking genes to the phenotypes of individuals with different size duplications has not been fully resolved. Missense variants in RLIM have recently been identified to cause X-linked ID in males, with heterozygous females typically having normal intelligence and highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We detected consistent and significant increase of RLIM mRNA and protein levels in cells derived from seven affected males from five families with the duplication. Subsequent analysis of MDM2, one of the targets of the RLIM E3 ligase activity, showed consistent downregulation in cells from the affected males. All the carrier mothers displayed normal RLIM mRNA levels and had highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We propose that duplications at Xq13.2-13.3 including RLIM cause a recognizable but mild neurocognitive phenotype in hemizygous males.

9.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene NEXMIF (previously KIAA2022) are associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. We aimed to delineate the female and male phenotypic spectrum of NEXMIF encephalopathy. METHODS: Through an international collaboration, we analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes of 87 patients with NEXMIF encephalopathy. RESULTS: Sixty-three females and 24 males (46 new patients) with NEXMIF encephalopathy were studied, with 30 novel variants. Phenotypic features included developmental delay/ID in 86/87 (99%), seizures in 71/86 (83%) and multiple comorbidities. Generalized seizures predominated including myoclonic seizures and absence seizures (both 46/70, 66%), absence with eyelid myoclonia (17/70, 24%), and atonic seizures (30/70, 43%). Males had more severe developmental impairment; females had epilepsy more frequently, and varied from unaffected to severely affected. All NEXMIF pathogenic variants led to a premature stop codon or were deleterious structural variants. Most arose de novo, although X-linked segregation occurred for both sexes. Somatic mosaicism occurred in two males and a family with suspected parental mosaicism. CONCLUSION: NEXMIF encephalopathy is an X-linked, generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by myoclonic-atonic epilepsy overlapping with eyelid myoclonia with absence. Some patients have developmental encephalopathy without epilepsy. Males have more severe developmental impairment. NEXMIF encephalopathy arises due to loss-of-function variants.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2167-2178, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131162

RESUMO

Herein, we report the screening of a large panel of genes in a series of 80 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and/or heterotaxy and no cytogenetic anomalies. There were 49 males (61%/39%), with a family history in 28 cases (35%) and no parental consanguinity in 77 cases (96%). All fetuses had complex CHD except one who had heterotaxy and midline anomalies while 52 cases (65%) had heterotaxy in addition to CHD. Altogether, 29 cases (36%) had extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies. A pathogenic variant was found in 10/80 (12.5%) cases with a higher percentage in the heterotaxy group (8/52 cases, 15%) compared with the non-heterotaxy group (2/28 cases, 7%), and in 3 cases with extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies (3/29, 10%). The inheritance was recessive in six genes (DNAI1, GDF1, MMP21, MYH6, NEK8, and ZIC3) and dominant in two genes (SHH and TAB2). A homozygous pathogenic variant was found in three cases including only one case with known consanguinity. In conclusion, after removing fetuses with cytogenetic anomalies, next-generation sequencing discovered a causal variant in 12.5% of fetal cases with CHD and/or heterotaxy. Genetic counseling for future pregnancies was greatly improved. Surprisingly, unexpected consanguinity accounts for 20% of cases with identified pathogenic variants.

11.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: JARID2, located on chromosome 6p22.3, is a regulator of histone methyltransferase complexes that is expressed in human neurons. So far, 13 individuals sharing clinical features including intellectual disability (ID) were reported with de novo heterozygous deletions in 6p22-p24 encompassing the full length JARID2 gene (OMIM 601594). However, all published individuals to date have a deletion of at least one other adjoining gene, making it difficult to determine if JARID2 is the critical gene responsible for the shared features. We aim to confirm JARID2 as a human disease gene and further elucidate the associated clinical phenotype. METHODS: Chromosome microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and an online matching platform (GeneMatcher) were used to identify individuals with single-nucleotide variants or deletions involving JARID2. RESULTS: We report 16 individuals in 15 families with a deletion or single-nucleotide variant in JARID2. Several of these variants are likely to result in haploinsufficiency due to nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay. All individuals have developmental delay and/or ID and share some overlapping clinical characteristics such as facial features with those who have larger deletions involving JARID2. CONCLUSION: We report that JARID2 haploinsufficiency leads to a clinically distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome, thus establishing gene-disease validity for the purpose of diagnostic reporting.

12.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932838

RESUMO

Ribosomopathies are a group of rare diseases in which genetic mutations cause defects in either ribosome biogenesis or function, given specific phenotypes. Ribosomal proteins, and multiple other factors that are necessary for ribosome biogenesis (rRNA processing, assembly of subunits, export to cytoplasm), can be affected in ribosomopathies. Despite the need for ribosomes in all cell types, these diseases result mainly in tissue-specific impairments. Depending on the type of ribosomopathy and its pathogenicity, there are many potential therapeutic targets. The present manuscript will review our knowledge of ribosomopathies, discuss current treatments, and introduce the new therapeutic perspectives based on recent research. Diamond-Blackfan anemia, currently treated with blood transfusion prior to steroids, could be managed with a range of new compounds, acting mainly on anemia, such as L-leucine. Treacher Collins syndrome could be managed by various treatments, but it has recently been shown that proteasomal inhibition by MG132 or Bortezomib may improve cranial skeleton malformations. Developmental defects resulting from ribosomopathies could be also treated pharmacologically after birth. It might thus be possible to treat certain ribosomopathies without using multiple treatments such as surgery and transplants. Ribosomopathies remain an open field in the search for new therapeutic approaches based on our recent understanding of the role of ribosomes and progress in gene therapy for curing genetic disorders.

13.
Epilepsia ; 61(11): 2461-2473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to delineate the phenotypic spectrum and long-term outcome of individuals with KCNB1 encephalopathy. METHODS: We collected genetic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data of individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants recruited through an international collaboration, with the support of the family association "KCNB1 France." Patients were classified as having developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or developmental encephalopathy (DE). In addition, we reviewed published cases and provided the long-term outcome in patients older than 12 years from our series and from literature. RESULTS: Our series included 36 patients (21 males, median age = 10 years, range = 1.6 months-34 years). Twenty patients (56%) had DEE with infantile onset seizures (seizure onset = 10 months, range = 10 days-3.5 years), whereas 16 (33%) had DE with late onset epilepsy in 10 (seizure onset = 5 years, range = 18 months-25 years) and without epilepsy in six. Cognitive impairment was more severe in individuals with DEE compared to those with DE. Analysis of 73 individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants (36 from our series and 37 published individuals in nine reports) showed developmental delay in all with severe to profound intellectual disability in 67% (n = 41/61) and autistic features in 56% (n = 32/57). Long-term outcome in 22 individuals older than 12 years (14 in our series and eight published individuals) showed poor cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral outcome. Epilepsy course was variable. Missense variants were associated with more frequent and more severe epilepsy compared to truncating variants. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study describes the phenotypic spectrum of KCNB1 encephalopathy, which varies from severe DEE to DE with or without epilepsy. Although cognitive impairment is worse in patients with DEE, long-term outcome is poor for most and missense variants are associated with more severe epilepsy outcome. Further understanding of disease mechanisms should facilitate the development of targeted therapies, much needed to improve the neurodevelopmental prognosis.

15.
Genet Med ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855533

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a life-threatening disease with often unrecognized inherited forms. We sought to identify novel pathogenic variants associated with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD. METHODS: We analyzed exome sequencing data from 35 French TAAD families and performed next-generation sequencing capture panel of genes in 1114 unrelated TAAD patients. Functional effects of pathogenic variants identified were validated in cell, tissue, and mouse models. RESULTS: We identified five functional variants in THSD4 of which two heterozygous variants lead to a premature termination codon. THSD4 encodes ADAMTSL6 (member of the ADAMTS/L superfamily), a microfibril-associated protein that promotes fibrillin-1 matrix assembly. The THSD4 variants studied lead to haploinsufficiency or impaired assembly of fibrillin-1 microfibrils. Thsd4+/- mice showed progressive dilation of the thoracic aorta. Histologic examination of aortic samples from a patient carrying a THSD4 variant and from Thsd4+/- mice, revealed typical medial degeneration and diffuse disruption of extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the role of ADAMTSL6 in aortic physiology and TAAD pathogenesis. They will improve TAAD management and help develop new targeted therapies.

16.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1863-1873, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic variants in LARS1, coding for the cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase, cause infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1). Since its description in 2012, there has been no systematic analysis of the clinical spectrum and genetic findings. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in LARS1 were included through an international, multicenter collaboration including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed and functional studies were performed in patient-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals from 15 families were ascertained including 12 novel patients with eight previously unreported variants. The most prominent clinical findings are recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure and encephalopathic episodes, both triggered by febrile illness. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) changes during an encephalopathic episode can be consistent with metabolic stroke. Furthermore, growth retardation, microcytic anemia, neurodevelopmental delay, muscular hypotonia, and infection-related seizures are prevalent. Aminoacylation activity is significantly decreased in all patient cells studied upon temperature elevation in vitro. CONCLUSION: ILFS1 is characterized by recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure in conjunction with abnormalities of growth, blood, nervous system, and musculature. Encephalopathic episodes with seizures can occur independently from liver crises and may present with metabolic stroke.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1689-1693, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. The etiology of OA is varied, ranging from multifactorial to environmental to monogenic. In a condition called early-onset OA, OA occurs at an earlier age than is typical in the general population. To our knowledge, there have been no large-scale genetic studies of individuals with early-onset OA. The present study was undertaken to investigate causes of monogenic OA in individuals with nonsyndromic early-onset OA. METHODS: The study probands were 45 patients with nonsyndromic early-onset OA who were referred to our skeletal disease center by skeletal dysplasia experts between 2013 and 2019. Criteria for early-onset OA included radiographic evidence, body mass index ≤30 kg/m2 , age at onset ≤50 years, and involvement of ≥1 joint site. Molecular analysis was performed with a next-generation sequencing panel. RESULTS: We identified a genetic variant in 13 probands (29%); the affected gene was COL2A1 in 11, ACAN in 1, and SLC26A2 in 1. After familial segregation analysis, 20 additional individuals were identified. The mean ± SD age at onset of joint pain was 19.5 ± 3.9 years (95% confidence interval 3-47). Eighteen of 33 subjects (55%) with nonsyndromic early-onset OA and a genetic variant had had at least 1 joint replacement (mean ± SD age at first joint replacement 41 ± 4.2 years; mean number of joint replacements 2.6 per individual), and 21 (45%) of the joint replacement surgeries were performed when the patient was <45 years old. Of the 20 patients age >40 years, 17 (85%) had had at least 1 joint replacement. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that COL2A1 is the main monogenic cause of nonsyndromic early-onset OA. However, on the basis of genetic heterogeneity of early-onset OA, we recommend next-generation sequencing for all individuals who undergo joint replacement prior to the age of 45 years. Lifestyle recommendations for prevention should be implemented.

18.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of histone methyltransferases and chromatin modifiers has been implicated in complex neurodevelopmental syndromes and cancers. SETD1B encodes a lysine-specific methyltransferase that assists in transcriptional activation of genes by depositing H3K4 methyl marks. Previous reports of patients with rare variants in SETD1B describe a distinctive phenotype that includes seizures, global developmental delay and intellectual disability. METHODS: Two of the patients described herein were identified via genome-wide and exome-wide testing, with microarray and research-based exome, through the CAUSES (Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service) Research Clinic at the University of British Columbia. The third Vancouver patient had clinical trio exome sequencing through Blueprint Genetics. The fourth patient underwent singleton exome sequencing in Nantes, with subsequent recruitment to this cohort through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: Here we present clinical reports of four patients with rare coding variants in SETD1B that demonstrate a shared phenotype, including intellectual disability, language delay, conserved musculoskeletal findings and seizures that may be treatment-refractory. We include supporting evidence from next-generation sequencing among a cohort of paediatric patients with epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Rare coding variants in SETD1B can cause a diagnosable syndrome and could contribute as a risk factor for epilepsy, autism and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In the long term, some patients may also be at increased risk for cancers and other complex diseases. Thus, longitudinal studies are required to further elucidate the precise role of SETD1B in neurodevelopmental disorders and other systemic disease.

19.
J Med Genet ; 57(12): 808-819, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pigmentary mosaicism (PM) manifests by pigmentation anomalies along Blaschko's lines and represents a clue toward the molecular diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Together with new insights on the role for lysosomal signalling in embryonic stem cell differentiation, mutations in the X-linked transcription factor 3 (TFE3) have recently been reported in five patients. Functional analysis suggested these mutations to result in ectopic nuclear gain of functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subsequent data sharing allowed the clustering of de novo TFE3 variants identified by exome sequencing on DNA extracted from leucocytes in patients referred for syndromic ID with or without PM. RESULTS: We describe the detailed clinical and molecular data of 17 individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 variant, including the patients that initially allowed reporting TFE3 as a new disease-causing gene. The 12 females and 5 males presented with pigmentation anomalies on Blaschko's lines, severe ID, epilepsy, storage disorder-like features, growth retardation and recognisable facial dysmorphism. The variant was at a mosaic state in at least two male patients. All variants were missense except one splice variant. Eleven of the 13 variants were localised in exon 4, 2 in exon 3, and 3 were recurrent variants. CONCLUSION: This series further delineates the specific storage disorder-like phenotype with PM ascribed to de novo TFE3 mutation in exons 3 and 4. It confirms the identification of a novel X-linked human condition associated with mosaicism and dysregulation within the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as well as a link between lysosomal signalling and human development.

20.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384747

RESUMO

Predictive genetic testing (PGT) is offered to asymptomatic relatives at risk of hereditary heart disease, but the impact of result disclosure has been little studied. We evaluated the psychosocial impacts of PGT in hereditary heart disease, using self-report questionnaires (including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) in 517 adults, administered three times to the prospective cohort (PCo: n = 264) and once to the retrospective cohort (RCo: n = 253). The main motivations for undergoing PGT were "to remove doubt" and "for their children". The level of anxiety increased between pre-test and result appointments (p <0.0001), returned to baseline after the result (PCo), and was moderately elevated at 4.4 years (RCo). Subjects with a history of depression or with high baseline anxiety were more likely to develop anxiety after PGT result (p = 0.004 and p <0.0001, respectively), whatever it was. Unfavourable changes in professional and/or family life were observed in 12.4% (PCo) and 18.7% (RCo) of subjects. Few regrets about PGT were expressed (0.8% RCo, 2.3% PCo). Medical benefit was not the main motivation, which emphasises the role of pre/post-test counselling. When PGT was performed by expert teams, the negative impact was modest, but careful management is required in specific categories of subjects, whatever the genetic test result.

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