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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 210, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612257

RESUMO

Antidepressant therapy is still associated with delays in symptomatic improvement and low response rates. Incomplete understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant effects hampered the identification of objective biomarkers for antidepressant response. In this work, we studied transcriptome-wide expression followed by pathway analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 17 patients documented for response to SSRI antidepressants from the Munich Antidepressant Response Signatures (MARS) study upon short-term incubation (24 and 48 h) with citalopram. Candidate transcripts were further validated with qPCR in MARS LCLs from responders (n = 33) vs. non-responders (n = 36) and afterward in an independent cohort of treatment-resistant patients (n = 20) vs. first-line responders (n = 24) from the STAR*D study. In MARS cohort we observed significant associations of GAD1 (glutamate decarboxylase 1; p = 0.045), TBC1D9 (TBC1 Domain Family Member 9; p = 0.014-0.021) and NFIB (nuclear factor I B; p = 0.015-0.025) expression with response status, remission status and improvement in depression scale, respectively. Pathway analysis of citalopram-altered gene expression indicated response-status-dependent transcriptional reactions. Whereas in clinical responders neural function pathways were primarily up- or downregulated after incubation with citalopram, deregulated pathways in non-responders LCLs mainly involved cell adhesion and immune response. Results from the STAR*D study showed a marginal association of treatment-resistant depression with NFIB (p = 0.068) but not with GAD1 (p = 0.23) and TBC1D9 (p = 0.27). Our results propose the existence of distinct pathway regulation mechanisms in responders vs. non-responders and suggest GAD1, TBC1D9, and NFIB as tentative predictors for clinical response, full remission, and improvement in depression scale, respectively, with only a weak overlap in predictors of different therapy outcome phenotypes.

2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

3.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(8): 611-618, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressed patients have an increased risk of myocardial infarction, for which acute stress is a frequent trigger. Prothrombotic changes could be one involved mechanism that can be modulated by psychological coping. PURPOSE: We examined the effects of remitted major depression and situation-specific coping strategies on stress-induced coagulation activation. METHODS: Forty patients with remitted depression and 23 healthy controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, rating applied coping strategies thereafter. Blood was sampled at baseline and 15 and 45 min poststress to measure fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and D-dimer. Coagulation activation over time was quantified as area under the curve (AUC) with respect to baseline activity. Standardized z-scores of individual coagulation AUC measures were added up to a prothrombotic index. RESULTS: Stress provoked significant VWF (p = .024) and D-dimer (p = .002) responses. Remitted depressed patients used positive distraction coping more frequently than controls did (p = .030). Coagulation AUC measures were similar in both groups. In all participants, higher positive coping total (p = 0.009), driven by devaluation/defense (p = .022) and distraction (p = .004) coping, was associated with a lower prothrombotic index. In controls, but not in remitted depressed patients, higher positive coping total (p = .008), driven by higher devaluation/defense (p = .010) and distraction (p = .023) coping, was associated with lower VWF AUC. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of favorable coping strategies in a specific stress situation, remitted depressed patients may benefit less from a positive effect of positive situational coping on coagulation activation than controls. Such a mechanism could partially explain the increased risk of myocardial infarction in depressed individuals.

4.
J Health Psychol ; 25(9): 1236-1247, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357698

RESUMO

Past studies examining the effect of chronotype and social jetlag on psychological well-being have been inconsistent so far. Here, we recruited participants from the general population and enquired about their natural sleeping behavior, sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. Partial correlations were computed between sleep variables and indicators of psychological well-being, controlling for age and sex. Less sleep during work days was found a good indicator for impairments in psychological well-being. In exploratory follow-up analyses, the same correlations were calculated within groups of early, intermediate, and late chronotype. We observed that the composition of the sample in terms of chronotype influenced whether associations between sleep variables and psychological well-being could be observed, a finding that is advised to be taken into account in future studies.

5.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755344

RESUMO

Objectives: Hypercoagulability is one mechanism to explain the increased risk of incident atherothrombotic disease in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined whether patients with remitted MDD show an enhanced procoagulant state.Methods: 63 individuals (median age 35 years, 59% women), 40 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of remitted MDD, made by a clinical interview, and 23 healthy controls provided blood samples for the measurement of fibrinogen, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Standardised z-scores of plasma levels of these haemostatic factors were added to form a procoagulant index (PCI) as the primary outcome variable. Self-ratings of residual depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were also obtained.Results: Compared with controls, remitted MDD patients had higher PCI (p = 0.013, Cohen's d = 0.69) and fibrinogen (p = 0.001, d = 0.91), controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking and C-reactive protein. There were no significant associations of the PCI and individual haemostatic molecules with age of MDD onset, time since the last MDD episode, the number of previous MDD episodes and residual depressive symptoms. Additional adjustment for anxiety symptoms did not change these results.Conclusions: Remitted MDD is associated with an enhanced procoagulant state. Hypercoagulability seems more a trait than a state characteristic of depression.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 187, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383853

RESUMO

The identification of generalizable treatment response classes (TRC[s]) in major depressive disorder (MDD) would facilitate comparisons across studies and the development of treatment prediction algorithms. Here, we investigated whether such stable TRCs can be identified and predicted by clinical baseline items. We analyzed data from an observational MDD cohort (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature [MARS] study, N = 1017), treated individually by psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic means, and a multicenter, partially randomized clinical/pharmacogenomic study (Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP], N = 809). Symptoms were evaluated up to week 16 (or discharge) in MARS and week 12 in GENDEP. Clustering was performed on 809 MARS patients (discovery sample) using a mixed model with the integrated completed likelihood criterion for the assessment of cluster stability, and validated through a distinct MARS validation sample and GENDEP. A random forest algorithm was used to identify prediction patterns based on 50 clinical baseline items. From the clustering of the MARS discovery sample, seven TRCs emerged ranging from fast and complete response (average 4.9 weeks until discharge, 94% remitted patients) to slow and incomplete response (10% remitted patients at week 16). These proved stable representations of treatment response dynamics in both the MARS and the GENDEP validation sample. TRCs were strongly associated with established response markers, particularly the rate of remitted patients at discharge. TRCs were predictable from clinical items, particularly personality items, life events, episode duration, and specific psychopathological features. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when cluster-derived slopes were modelled instead of individual slopes. In conclusion, model-based clustering identified distinct and clinically meaningful treatment response classes in MDD that proved robust with regard to capturing response profiles of differently designed studies. Response classes were predictable from clinical baseline characteristics. Conceptually, model-based clustering is translatable to any outcome measure and could advance the large-scale integration of studies on treatment efficacy or the neurobiology of treatment response.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Farmacogenética , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295515

RESUMO

Major depression is a stress-related disorder with robust clinical and preclinical data implicating that both, dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and of the neurotrophin system of the brain are involved in the pathophysiology. Genetic variations within the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene region, a major representative of the brain neurotrophins, are suggested to influence response to antidepressant treatment. Specifically, we recently identified two BDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs2049046 and rs11030094, as associated with antidepressant treatment response in a large pharmacogenetic study of hospitalized patients. We now analyzed these two SNPs in a sub-sample for their association with HPA axis dysregulation using the combined dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin releasing hormone challenge (dex/CRH) test at hospital admission (N = 266) and at discharge (N = 190). Rs11030094, located 3' outside the coding region of BDNF, is also located in an intron of BDNFOS coding for a functional antagonist of BDNF. We further included the non-synonymous Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism in our analysis, for which - albeit being extensively studied - conflicting results in respect to its role in antidepressant treatment response have been reported. Similar to the previous analysis, rs2049046 and rs11030094 showed a significant effect on antidepressant response. In a gene-dose dependent manner, we found significant lower cortisol responses to the dex/CRH test at discharge in carriers of the respective SNP alleles ('T' of rs2049046 and 'G' of rs11030094) that were associated with antidepressant response (beneficial alleles). These genetic effects on HPA axis regulation were independent of age, sex, medication and depressive symptomatology. Although not reaching statistical significance, the same direction of effect was observed for cortisol at admission, as well as the ACTH response at admission and discharge. An interaction analysis of both SNPs revealed highest cortisol levels in subjects that were non-carriers of both beneficial alleles. The Val66Met (rs6265) was neither associated with antidepressant response nor with HPA axis regulation. Our findings provide further evidence for an interaction of the HPA axis and the neurotrophin system in major depression. This study stresses the importance investigating BDNF variants beyond the extensively studied Val66Met polymorphism. In-depth analyses of both pathophysiologically relevant systems may point to possible new targets for pharmaceutical intervention and precision medicine of major depression in the future.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Íntrons , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Schizophr Res ; 209: 185-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being recommended for use in clinical trials, the consensus remission criteria were found to leave patients with persisting symptoms, relevant areas of functional impairment and a decreased sense of wellbeing. Therefore, to evaluate the appropriateness of the schizophrenia consensus criteria, a definition of remission based on the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) was developed and remitter subgroups were compared. METHODS: 239 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were evaluated regarding their remission status after inpatient treatment. Remission in schizophrenia was defined according to the symptom-severity component of the consensus criteria by Andreasen et al. and a CGI based definition was calculated using sensitivity and specificity using receiver operating curves (asymptomatic remitter). Both remitter groups (schizophrenia consensus versus asymptomatic remitters) were compared regarding different clinical variables at discharge as well as the likelihood to relapse within a 1-year follow-up period. Both schizophrenia remitter subgroups were compared to remitters in major depression as a reference value. RESULTS: Following the consensus criteria, 63% of the schizophrenia patients were in remission compared to only 18% following the asymptomatic criterion. The schizophrenia consensus remitters were less likely to be concurrent treatment responders (p < 0.0001), had a significantly greater illness severity (p < 0.0001) and less functioning (p = 0.0358) as well as a significantly greater risk to relapse (p = 0.0174) compared to the schizophrenia asymptomatic remitters as well as the depressed remitters. CONCLUSION: It should be critically re-evaluated if the currently proposed consensus criteria are adequate to measure what is traditionally understood to be remission.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Esquizofrenia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Consenso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 28-37, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major Depression (MD) results from a complex interplay between environmental stressors and biological factors. Previous studies in adults have shown that adverse life events interact with genetic variation in FKBP5, a gene implicated in the stress-response system, to predict depressive symptoms and MD. This is the first study to investigate interactions between FKBP5 variants and a range of environmental stressors in adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of MD. METHOD: 148 male and female adolescents with MD and 143 typically developing (TD) controls (13-18 years) were included in the present study. For self-reported environmental stressors, subjective severity was assessed to allow a classification of these factors as mild, moderate and severe. Sociodemographic stressors were assessed via parental-report. RESULTS: With a heightened number of sociodemographic, moderate and total number of stressors, participants carrying at least one copy of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype or at least one minor allele of various FKBP5 SNPs had the highest risk for being in the MD group. No genetic main effects were found. Sociodemographic stressors as well as self-reported mild, moderate, and severe stressors were more common in depressed than in TD adolescents. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show interactions between genetic variation in FKBP5 and environmental stressors in a sample of clinically depressed adolescents. The current study provides important starting-points for preventive efforts and highlights the need for a fine-grained analysis of different forms and severities of environmental stressors and their interplay with genetic variation for understanding the complex etiology of (youth) MD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo
10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 104: 228-237, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in mammals indicate a role for sex hormones in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis reactivity. However, in humans, experimental paradigms investigating long-term exposure to sex hormones are sparse, limiting the understanding of the influence of sex hormones on HPA-axis activity. Gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) in transgender persons enables to study the physiological role of sex steroids partially uncoupled from the distinct genetic background of men and women. METHODS: Ten transwomen (male genotype and female gender identity) and 15 transmen (female genotype and male gender identity) were investigated at baseline and following three months of GAHT by means of the combined dexamethasone (dex)/CRH-test. Linear mixed-effects model analysis was used to assess changes over time and to identify determinants of HPA-axis reactivity. RESULTS: In response to CRH, overall ACTH (+18%) as well as cortisol (+15%) output were increased in transwomen after 3-months of estrogen and antiandrogen treatment, while the opposite was the case for transmen after testosterone treatment (-15% and -58%, respectively). The ACTH/Cortisol-ratio indicated that testosterone attenuated sensitivity for ACTH at the adrenal level in transmen. Interestingly, copeptin levels before CRH administration were a strong predictor of overall cortisol secretion. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating long-term effects of a complete reversal of the sex-hormonal milieu on HPA-axis activity in humans. Our findings hereby expand the current knowledge of the physiology of HPA-axis regulation. and may be particularly relevant for transgender and cisgender people undergoing hormonal suppression or substitution therapies.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Adulto , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Esteroides/metabolismo , Esteroides/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678080

RESUMO

Adverse experiences and chronic stress are well-known risk factors for the development of major depression, and an impaired stress response regulation is frequently observed in acute depression. Impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling plays an important role in these alterations, and a restoration of GR signalling appears to be a prerequisite of successful antidepressant treatment. Variants in genes of the stress response regulation contribute to the vulnerability to depression in traumatized subjects. Consistent findings point to an important role of FKBP5, the gene expressing FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), which is a strong inhibitor of the GR, and thus, an important regulator of the stress response. We investigated the role of FKBP5 and FKB51 expression with respect to stress response regulation and antidepressant treatment outcome in depressed patients. This study included 297 inpatients, who participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and were treated for acute depression. In this open-label study, patients received antidepressant treatment according to the attending doctor's choice. In addition to the FKBP5 genotype, changes in blood FKBP51 expression during antidepressant treatment were analyzed using RT-PCR and ZeptoMARKTM reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM). Stress response regulation was evaluated in a subgroup of patients using the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test. As expected, increased FKBP51 expression was associated with an impaired stress response regulation at baseline and after six weeks was accompanied by an elevated cortisol response to the combined dex/CRH test. Further, we demonstrated an active involvement of FKBP51 in antidepressant treatment outcome. While patients responding to antidepressant treatment had a pronounced reduction of FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein expression, increasing expression levels were observed in nonresponders. This effect was moderated by the genotype of the FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, with carriers of the minor allele showing the most pronounced association. Our findings demonstrate that FKBP5 and, specifically, its expression product FKBP51 are important modulators of antidepressant treatment outcome, pointing to a new, promising target for future antidepressant drug development.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 94: 134-142, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants. The mediation analysis using a case-control approach included childhood trauma, i.e., physical and sexual abuse, as predictor variables and an allostatic load index comprised of 12 stress-related biomarkers as mediator. Age and sex were included as covariates. RESULTS: Mediation analyses revealed that the influence of physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, during childhood on depression in adulthood was mediated by allostatic load. This effect was moderated by age: particularly young (18-42 years) and middle-aged (43-54 years) adults with a history of physical abuse during childhood exhibited high allostatic load, which in turn was associated with increased rates of depression, but this was not the case for older participants (55-81 years). CONCLUSIONS: Results support the theoretical assumption of allostatic load mediating the effect of physical abuse during childhood on depression in adulthood. This predominantly holds for younger participants, while depression in older participants was independent of physical abuse and allostatic load. The effect of sexual abuse on depression, however, was not mediated by allostatic load. Identifying allostatic load biomarkers prospectively in the developmental course of depression is an important target for future research.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 61, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792225

RESUMO

Upon publication of the original article [1] it was highlighted by the authors that a transposition error affected Additional file 1, causing the misplacement of several columns and rendering the table difficult to read. This transposition does not influence any of the results nor analyses presented in the paper and has since been formally noted in this correction article; the corrected file is available here as an Additional File. The publisher apologizes for this error.

15.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 10: 272, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912679

RESUMO

The current inability of clinical psychiatry to objectively select the most appropriate treatment is a major factor contributing to the severity and clinical burden of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have attempted to identify plasma protein signatures in 39 MDD patients to predict response over a 6-week treatment period with antidepressants. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that differences in the levels of 29 proteins at baseline were found in the group with a favorable treatment outcome. Most of these proteins were components of metabolism or immune response pathways as well as multiple components of the coagulation cascade. After 6 weeks of treatment, 43 proteins were altered in responders of which 2 (alpha-actinin and nardilysin) had been identified at baseline. In addition, 46 proteins were altered in non-responders and 9 of these (alpha-actinin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein B-100, attractin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain, nardilysin and serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1) had been identified at baseline. However, it should be stressed that the small sample size precludes generalization of the main results. Further studies to validate these as potential biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response are warranted considering the potential importance to the field of psychiatric disorders. This study provides the groundwork for development of novel objective clinical tests that can help psychiatrists in the clinical management of MDD through improved prediction and monitoring of patient responses to antidepressant treatments.

16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(9): 1011-1013, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836675

RESUMO

We greatly appreciate Dr. Fisher's commentary that provides an excellent backdrop and well-considered perspective on our findings. We agree that our results mesh well with previous work documenting hypocortisolism among youth who experienced early adversity, especially neglect. Moreover, as also perceptively noted by Dr. Fisher, our cross-sectional data provide support for the notion that hypocortisolism is not simply a transient phenomenon, but, rather, a persistent pattern characterizing maltreated youth. Specifically, the consistency of the between group effect (from age 9.69 onwards) on a multimonth index of cumulative cortisol and the dose-dependent gradient of cortisol secretion within the maltreated group, which was related to the number of subtypes and the length of exposure to maltreatment, lend weight to this view.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Hidrocortisona , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cabelo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Psicopatologia
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(7)2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

18.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(9): 998-1007, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enduring impact of childhood maltreatment on biological systems and ensuing psychopathology remains incompletely understood. Long-term effects of stress may be reflected in cumulative cortisol secretion over several months, which is now quantifiable via hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). We conducted a first comprehensive investigation utilizing the potential of hair cortisol analysis in a large sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children and adolescents. METHOD: Participants included 537 children and adolescents (3-16 years; 272 females) with maltreatment (n = 245) or without maltreatment histories (n = 292). Maltreated subjects were recruited from child protection services (CPS; n = 95), youth psychiatric services (n = 56), and the community (n = 94). Maltreatment was coded using the Maltreatment Classification System drawing on caregiver interviews and complemented with CPS records. Caregivers and teachers reported on child mental health. HCC were assessed in the first 3 cm hair segment. RESULTS: Analyses uniformly supported that maltreatment coincides with a gradual and dose-dependent reduction in HCC from 9 to 10 years onwards relative to nonmaltreated controls. This pattern emerged consistently from both group comparisons between maltreated and nonmaltreated subjects (27.6% HCC reduction in maltreated 9-16-year-olds) and dimensional analyses within maltreated subjects, with lower HCC related to greater maltreatment chronicity and number of subtypes. Moreover, both group comparisons and dimensional analyses within maltreated youth revealed that relative HCC reduction mediates the effect of maltreatment on externalizing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: From middle childhood onwards, maltreatment coincides with a relative reduction in cortisol secretion, which, in turn, may predispose to externalizing symptoms.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/metabolismo , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(5): 911-928, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28226201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1,748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms (MOs) to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol (EtOH)-response behaviors. We tested 1 primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control postmortem brain tissue. RESULTS: We detected significant association in COL6A3 and suggestive association in 2 previously implicated loci, KLF12 and RYR3. None of these signals are significant in replication. A suggestive signal in the long noncoding RNA LOC339975 is significant in case:control meta-analysis, but not in a population sample. Knockdown of a COL6A3 ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans reduced EtOH sensitivity. Col6a3 expression correlated with handling-induced convulsions in mice. Loss of function of the KLF12 ortholog in C. elegans impaired development of acute functional tolerance (AFT). Klf12 expression correlated with locomotor activation following EtOH injection in mice. Loss of function of the RYR3 ortholog reduced EtOH sensitivity in C. elegans and rapid tolerance in Drosophila. The ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene reduced motivation to self-administer EtOH in rats. Expression of LOC339975 does not differ between cases and controls but is reduced in carriers of the associated rs11726136 allele in nucleus accumbens (NAc). CONCLUSIONS: We detect association between AD and COL6A3, KLF12, RYR3, and LOC339975. Despite nonreplication of COL6A3, KLF12, and RYR3 signals, orthologs of these genes influence behavioral response to EtOH in MOs, suggesting potential involvement in human EtOH response and AD liability. The associated LOC339975 allele may influence gene expression in human NAc. Although the functions of long noncoding RNAs are poorly understood, there is mounting evidence implicating these genes in multiple brain functions and disorders.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Animais , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos
20.
Neuroendocrinology ; 105(2): 115-122, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of acromegaly is delayed up to 10 years after disease onset despite obvious external/objective changes such as bone and soft tissue deformities. We hypothesized that a lack of subjective perception of the disease state, possibly mediated by psychiatric or cognitive alterations, might contribute to the delayed initiation of a diagnostic workup. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We investigated perceived body image by standardized questionnaires (FKB-20: Fragebogen zum Körperbild; FBeK: Fragebogen zur Beurteilung des eigenen Körpers) in 81 acromegalic patients and contrasted them to (a) a clinical control group of 60 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) who lack severe facial and physical alterations and (b) healthy controls. We further evaluated body image in relation to objective acromegalic changes as judged by medical experts and psychiatric pathology, e.g. depression and cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Patients with acromegaly did not lack subjective perception of the disease state; they showed more negative body image, less vitality, more insecurity/paresthesia and more accentuation of the body compared to normal controls. NFPA patients differed from acromegalic patients only in the 'vital body dynamics' scale of the FKB-20, although they hardly exhibit any physical/bodily changes. Depression correlated with worse body image. No associations were found between body image and objective acromegalic changes as judged by medical experts, cognitive decline or treatment status. CONCLUSIONS: Negative body image in acromegalic patients is unrelated to their objective appearance and similar to those of NFPA patients without major bodily changes. Depression, but not cognitive decline or treatment status, contributes to negative body image.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Depressão , Acromegalia/patologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
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