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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 112693, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801652

RESUMO

The use of opioids during pregnancy has recently dramatically increased presenting major health problems, especially on the developing neonatal nervous system development. Nalufin is considered one of the most used opioid analgesics for treatment of moderate to severe pain, especially during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was firstly to assess the possible neurotoxic effects of nalufin injection during the organogenesis period of chick embryos, and second to investigate the ameliorative effects of selenium as a supplement. Fertilized chicken eggs were in ovo injected with 0.2ml of either nalufin (20 mg/kg egg) or selenium (0.1 mg/kg egg) or both. Nalufin injection resulted in cerebral cortical layer disruption, increase of Caspase-3 immunoexpression and chromatolytic nuclei, degenerated organelles, rarefied cytoplasm and hemorrhage. On the molecular levels, nalufin induced DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and increased the percentage of apoptosis of the neuronal cells. Selenium combined treatment restored the three-layered structure of the cerebral cortex, decreased caspase-3 immuno-expression, improved ultrastructure and recovered cell cycle arrest, decreased apoptosis, and DNA degradation. In conclusion, nalufin treatment during pregnancy imposes great concerns and should not be used during embryonic development, on the other hands, selenium appears to be a promising neuroprotective agent against nalufin-induced neurotoxicity.

5.
Phytomedicine ; : 153817, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer remains the most common malignancy and the second cause of death in women. Increasingly, preclinical evidence has suggested aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand activated transcription factor, a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer. PURPOSE: This study aims at screening a number of phenolic compounds to identify an Ahr ligand with suppressive effects on human breast cancer. METHODS: Potential interactions between Ahr and phenolic compounds were predicted in silico, and physical interaction was examined by ligand competitive binding in vitro. The MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cell lines were used to examine the expression of Ahr downstream genes and progression of breast cancer cells in vitro. Binding of Ahr/Ahr nuclear transporter (Arnt) complex to the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE)-box was examined by DNA-protein interaction (DPI)-ELISA, promoter activity was assessed using luciferase reporter system, and RNA interreference was carried out using electroporation. The real-time PCR and/or immunoblotting were used to quantify gene expressions. Tumor growth in vivo was assessed using a murine orthotopic model. RESULTS: A combined computational modeling and in vitro approaches identified gallic acid (GA) as an Ahr ligand with agonistic properties. It induced binding of Ahr/Arnt to the XRE-box, enhanced the promoter activity and expression of Ahr downstream genes including cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and SRY-related HMG-box4 (SOX4)-targeting miR-212/132 cluster and miR-335 in both MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells. GA increased apoptosis while decreased proliferation, migration and invasion capacities of breast cancer cells in an Ahr-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it reduced the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and SOX4, while selectively increased that of tumor protein 53 (P53), in an Ahr-dependent and -independent fashions. In an in vivo orthotopic model, GA activated Ahr signaling and reduced the growth of breast cancer cells. CONCLUSION: We identified GA as an Ahr phenolic ligand, and provided evidence on the role of Ahr in mediating its anti-breast cancer effects, indicating that GA, and possibly other phenolic compounds, have important therapeutic implications in human breast cancer through activation of Ahr signaling.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773592

RESUMO

Freeze storage of ejaculated sperms is a crucial technique for the semen preservation of valuable pet animals such as dogs. The current study was conducted to investigate if quercetin (QRN) may ameliorate apoptosis and oxidative stress in post-thaw dog sperm. Herein, we evaluated the post-thaw apoptosis and oxidative stress after treatment with QRN (control, 25, 50, and 100 µM) in the freezing of dog semen. Reactive oxygen species levels were significantly affected (p < 0.05) between the various concentrations of QRN and the control (17.56 ± 1.02, 7.54 ± 0.48, 5.66 ± 0.80, and 10.41 ± 0.69), respectively. The apoptosis index was 9.1 ± 1.34, 6.66 ± 0.58, 6.77 ± 0.66, and 5.38 ± 0.86 in the control, and 25, 50, and 100 µM QRN treatment groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The effects of ameliorated cryo-induced damage by QRN on post-thaw sperm quality were also observed through improved structural and functional tests. Sperm treated with 50 µM QRN showed significantly higher motility (51.8 ± 2.1% vs. 43.1 ± 1.4%, P < 0.05), survival rates (46.9 ± 0.7% vs. 43.9 ± 0.4%, P < 0.05), and mucus penetration than control group, respectively. Results also indicated that higher concentrations of QRN (100 µM) were not effective on sperm quality and parameters when compared with the medium levels (50 µM). In conclusion, supplementation of freezing buffer with 50 µM QRN reduced oxidative damage and improved the quality of post-thaw dog sperm.

7.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796604

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses have a detrimental impact on plant growth and productivity and are a major threat to sustainable crop production in rapidly changing environments. Proline, an important amino acid, plays an important role in maintaining the metabolism and growth of plants under abiotic stress conditions. Many insights indicate a positive relationship between proline accumulation and tolerance of plants to various abiotic stresses. Because of its metal chelator properties, it acts as a molecular chaperone, an antioxidative defence molecule that scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as having signalling behaviour to activate specific gene functions that are crucial for plant recovery from stresses. It also acts as an osmoprotectant, a potential source to acquire nitrogen as well as carbon, and plays a significant role in the flowering and development of plants. Overproduction of proline in plant cells contributes to maintaining cellular homeostasis, water uptake, osmotic adjustment and redox balance to restore the cell structures and mitigate oxidative damage. Many reports reveal that transgenic plants, particularly those overexpressing genes tailored for proline accumulation, exhibit better adaptation to abiotic stresses. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive update on proline biosynthesis and accumulation in plants and its putative regulatory roles in mediating plant defence against abiotic stresses. Additionally, the current and future directions in research concerning manipulation of proline to induce gene functions that appear promising in genetics and genomics approaches to improve plant adaptive responses under changing climate conditions are also highlighted.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19777, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611238

RESUMO

The microbiome of the anaerobic digester (AD) regulates the level of energy production. To assess the microbiome diversity and composition in different stages of anaerobic digestion, we collected 16 samples from the AD of cow dung (CD) origin. The samples were categorized into four groups (Group-I, Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV) based on the level of energy production (CH4%), and sequenced through whole metagenome sequencing (WMS). Group-I (n = 2) belonged to initial time of energy production whereas Group-II (n = 5), Group-III (n = 5), and Group-IV (n = 4) had 21-34%, 47-58% and 71-74% of CH4, respectively. The physicochemical analysis revealed that level of energy production (CH4%) had significant positive correlation with digester pH (r = 0.92, p < 0.001), O2 level (%) (r = 0.54, p < 0.05), and environmental temperature (°C) (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). The WMS data mapped to 2800 distinct bacterial, archaeal and viral genomes through PathoScope (PS) and MG-RAST (MR) analyses. We detected 768, 1421, 1819 and 1774 bacterial strains in Group-I, Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV, respectively through PS analysis which were represented by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres phyla (> 93.0% of the total abundances). Simultaneously, 343 archaeal strains were detected, of which 95.90% strains shared across four metagenomes. We identified 43 dominant species including 31 bacterial and 12 archaeal species in AD microbiomes, of which only archaea showed positive correlation with digester pH, CH4 concentration, pressure and temperature (Spearman correlation; r > 0.6, p < 0.01). The indicator species analysis showed that the species Methanosarcina vacuolate, Dehalococcoides mccartyi, Methanosarcina sp. Kolksee and Methanosarcina barkeri were highly specific for energy production. The correlation network analysis showed that different strains of Euryarcheota and Firmicutes phyla exhibited significant correlation (p = 0.021, Kruskal-Wallis test; with a cutoff of 1.0) with the highest level (74.1%) of energy production (Group-IV). In addition, top CH4 producing microbiomes showed increased genomic functional activities related to one carbon and biotin metabolism, oxidative stress, proteolytic pathways, membrane-type-1-matrix-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) pericellular network, acetyl-CoA production, motility and chemotaxis. Importantly, the physicochemical properties of the AD including pH, CH4 concentration (%), pressure, temperature and environmental temperature were found to be positively correlated with these genomic functional potentials and distribution of ARGs and metal resistance pathways (Spearman correlation; r > 0.5, p < 0.01). This study reveals distinct changes in composition and diversity of the AD microbiomes including different indicator species, and their genomic features that are highly specific for energy production.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 897-902, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605453

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease. Hepatitis B Virus may present with varying degree of severity. In older children, 5-10% cases leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This descriptive cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection among hospitalized children with liver disease in pediatric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from December 2015 to October 2016. All the children of both sexes having age between six months to twelve years admitted in the pediatric ward with acute or chronic liver disease were included in this study by purposive sampling. A written consent was obtained from legal guardian of children before inclusion. Ethical clearance was obtained from competent authority. A detailed history was taken from parents in each case according to pre-designed questionnaire about demography of the patients and the risk factors of the liver disease. A thorough clinical examination and available relevant investigations like serological testing for HBV infection was done in all patients. We had figure out the seropositivity of HBV among patients having liver disease by doing HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Progress of the patient was monitored by daily clinical examinations and by investigating HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Finally data analysis was done by SPSS version 21.0. Among total 100 patients most (44%) patients were in 7-10 years old and most (62%) of the participants were male. Acute liver disease was 58% cases and chronic liver disease was 42% cases. HBsAg was positive in 1 case among acute liver disease and 5 cases among chronic cases. Total 6 (six) patients were found positive for HBsAg. Anti HBc IgM was positive in 4 patients among acute liver disease. Among these Anti HBc IgM positive (4) patients only one had both HBsAg and Anti HBc IgM positive. So, four patients were confirming suffered from acute viral hepatitis because they had anti HBc IgM positive. On the contrary 5 patients suffered from chronic hepatitis by hepatitis B because they were only HBsAg positive. So, in this study 9 patients (9%) were confirming suffered from HBV infection. Possible transmission factors of hepatitis B were history of (H/O) blood transfusion/trauma/parenteral injection, H/O umbilical sepsis, H/O maternal illness/infection during pregnancy. HBV still is a major cause of morbidity. All the children with liver disease should be routinely tested for HBV.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 980-985, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605466

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), being one of the fastest-growing disabilities in children, is an omnipresent, immutable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired socialization, impaired verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviour patterns. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 30 October to 30 November 2019 among the MBBS students of 21 medical colleges in Bangladesh to assess their knowledge of autism. The 'Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW)' questionnaire containing 19 item questions divided into four domains was used. The total median score in the KCAHW questionnaire is 13 out of 19. The final total of respondents numbered 483. There were 215 (44.51%) male and 268 (55.49%) female students. Among 21 medical colleges, 10 are situated in the Dhaka district and 11 outside Dhaka; 14 medical colleges were public, and seven were private. The study shows that students' knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not up to the mark. While assessing the knowledge in each domain, Domain 4 (knowledge regarding nature, comorbidities, and onset) shows that only 32.6% of students of 4th phase and 21.5% of other phases have scored more than the median value, revealing that medical students were not familiar with nature, comorbidities, and the onset of ASD. It can be reliably diagnosed before two years of age, but the practical scenario is a different picturesque. Thus, medical students should have bona fide knowledge to diagnose this progressively prevailing disorder at the earliest possible time. We hope this study's aftermath will significantly impact the integrity and diversity of autism spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Estudantes de Medicina , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1043-1050, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605475

RESUMO

Medical education is associated with a great psychological distress that affects many aspects of students' lives, including their academic performance and professional development. The objective of the study was to determine the level of depression, anxiety and stress and their academic performance among fifth year medical students. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Dhaka Medical College, Mymensingh Medical College, Anwar Khan Modern Medical College and Community Based Medical College of Bangladesh. For this purpose, 359 students were taken as sample and self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed by using short form DASS-21 BV score. The results showed that, the mean age of students was 22.74 years with female predominance 230(64.0%). Majority 319(88.9%) of the respondents' parents monthly income was ≤100000 taka and one third 126(35.1%) respondents' monthly study expenditure was in between 5001 to 10000 taka. Four fifth 317(88.0%) of the respondents came from nuclear type of family and two third 245(68.2%) lived in hostel. Half 178(50.0%) of the respondents were eldest in birth order. Majority 221(61.6%) of the students were admitted to medical college by their own motivation and interest. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were present in 179(49.9%), 215(59.9%) and 161(44.8%) respectively. No significant association was found between academic performance with depression or anxiety or stress, except class attendance of Gynaecology and Obstetrics which was significantly associated with stress (p=0.016); the students who suffered from more stress, their class attendance were very poor. Students who reappeared in MBBS professional examination were significantly associated with depression (p=0.032) and stress (p=0.036). There was significant difference between students of public and private medical colleges in terms of anxiety (p=0.031) that is students of public medical colleges more suffered from depression, anxiety and stress in comparison to private medical colleges. Depression (p=0.001) and anxiety (p=0.010) were significantly associated with motivation to study MBBS. No significant difference of depression, anxiety or stress was found with sex difference. This study revealed that fifth year MBBS students suffered more from depression, anxiety and stress. The causes of depression, anxiety and stress should be identified and resolved to improve their mental health and academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1067-1072, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605478

RESUMO

The timing of milestone is influenced by many factors. Sex and socioeconomic status has significant effect to some psycomotor milestones. The study was conducted to determine the pattern of milestones of development of infants in our country and to compare it in different sex and socioeconomic condition. It was a hospital based prospective study done in Sir Sallimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2014 to November 2015. Healthy term newborn infants with average birth weight were included in this study and milestones of this birth cohort were assessed monthly from birth to 12 months of age by using a set of 60 milestones. Total number of 217 babies was enrolled but during follow up 0.9% developed meningitis, 43.7% was lost to follow up and 55.2% of the cohort was followed up to 12 months of age. Among 120 babies 51.7% were male, 48.3% were female babies and 51.7% belong to lower, 32.5% middle and 15.8% upper socioeconomic group. There was no significant difference between male and female infants achieving most of the milestones of development except in language development in which female infants were little bit higher than male infants.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Classe Social , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1079-1085, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605480

RESUMO

Complete assessment of obstructive jaundice requires the use of various imaging modalities that are required to detect the cause and level of obstruction thus helping in treatment planning. Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography (MRCP) is a current available technology which is a non-invasive technique that visualizes the gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreatic duct and also provides information about surrounding structures. This study was done to correlate the MRCP findings with post-operative result and thereby demonstrate the specificity, sensitivity and efficacy of MRCP as an accurate investigatory tool for biliary obstruction. Total of fifty (50) patients of clinically diagnosed obstructive jaundice were studied from March 2017 to August 2017 in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. In all these cases, USG was the initial screening investigation followed by MRCP. Cause and level of obstruction were evaluated using MRCP findings. MRCP results were correlated with surgical findings and few cases also with direct ERCP findings. Statistical analysis was done to see the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of MRCP in diagnosis of biliary obstruction. In this study, USG detected level of obstruction in 56% (28 out of 50) cases. USG could detect causes of obstruction in 100% (02 out of 02) cases of choledocal cyst and 66.67% (02 out of 03) benign stricture, 60% (03 out of 05) cases of periampullary carcinoma, 57.70% (06 out of 14) cases of choledocholithiasis, and 42.86% (15 out of 26) cases of cholangiocarcinoma. On the other hand, MRCP detected level of obstruction in 98% (49 out of 50) cases. MRCP could detect causes of obstruction in 100% cases of cholangiocarcinoma, choledocholithiasis, benign stricture and choledocal cyst and 80% (04 out of 05) cases of periampullary carcinoma. In this study, ERCP could detect causes of obstruction in 32 cases of choledocholithiasis and benign stricture, but in case of cholangiocarcinoma ERCP was failed in 3 cases. In this study, for detection of cause of obstruction, ERCP had the highest sensitivity (97.79%); followed by MRCP (96.65%) and USG (60.25%). The overall diagnostic accuracy for detection of cause of obstruction was the highest for ERCP (95.50%); followed by MRCP (94.50%) and USG (64.50%). MRCP can be done in a short duration and is a noninvasive diagnostic modality compared to ERCP. MRCP needs to be advocated as a viable and non-invasive alternative with compararable sensitivity and specificity to ERCP.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Colestase , Bangladesh , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Colestase/diagnóstico por imagem , Colestase/etiologia , Humanos
15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1131-1138, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605487

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a sensitive and specific alternative method to clinical FIGO criteria in the staging of cervical carcinoma. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, BSMMU, Dhaka during the period of September 2018 to August 2020. A total of 60 patients were selected purposively and all are staged clinically by EUA. Then all samples underwent MRI in Department of Radiology and Imaging, BSMMU. Images of uterine cervix, corpus, vagina and parametrium were taken with a prefixed standard protocol (TIWI axial, T2WI axial and sagittal, DWI axial & DCE) and reporting was done by Radiologist. Comparison was done between the MRI and clinical FIGO criteria of staging of cervical carcinoma. P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Sensitivity & specificity of the MRI was measured. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Out of 60 patients in this study the mean age was found 47.5±10.1 years with range from 22 to 60 years. Positive correlation (r=0.993; p=0.001) between histopathological size and MRI size of tumour. Positive correlation (r=0.950; p=0.001) between histopathological size and FIGO size of tumour. MRI findings more correlates with histopathology than clinically detected tumor size. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of MRI diagnosis evaluation for vaginal extension was 100.00%, 95.20%, 100.00%, 98.30% and 97.50% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of MRI diagnosis evaluation for parametrial invasion was 100.00%, all. In this study we observed that MRI staging was more likely to be concordant with pathological stage in comparison to the clinical stage. There was a concordance rate of 95.00% in MRI and 65.00% in clinical staging respectively. Out of 3 non-concordant cases in MRI, 2 were upstaged and 1 case was down staged in histopathology. FIGO staging concurred with histopathology in 39(65.00%) cases and differed in 21(35.00%) cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive and specific modality for accurate staging of cervical carcinoma in comparison with clinical FIGO criteria considering histopathology as gold standard.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(3): 995-1001, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602424

RESUMO

A novel method, for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that are eco-friendly by means of mixed reductants method, has been developed. The combined extract of Mentha viridis plant and Prunus domestica gum were used as reducing agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles of the size less than 40 nm in diameter. The effect of time and concentration on the formation of silver nanoparticles were also monitored. The silver nanoparticles formed were verified by surface Plasmon spectra using single and double beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD technique and scanning electron microscopy were performed to analyze the crystalline structure, crystallite size and morphology. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against different bacterial and fungus strains. The silver nanoparticles showed good inhibition in antimicrobial study and low MIC for bacterial strains. The antioxidant assay was performed to check the scavenging activity. In DPPH, the silver nanoparticles showed good scavenging activity and were found close to that of ascorbic acid.

18.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641185

RESUMO

A novel nanomaterial, bacterial cellulose (BC), has become noteworthy recently due to its better physicochemical properties and biodegradability, which are desirable for various applications. Since cost is a significant limitation in the production of cellulose, current efforts are focused on the use of industrial waste as a cost-effective substrate for the synthesis of BC or microbial cellulose. The utilization of industrial wastes and byproduct streams as fermentation media could improve the cost-competitiveness of BC production. This paper examines the feasibility of using typical wastes generated by industry sectors as sources of nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) for the commercial-scale production of BC. Numerous preliminary findings in the literature data have revealed the potential to yield a high concentration of BC from various industrial wastes. These findings indicated the need to optimize culture conditions, aiming for improved large-scale production of BC from waste streams.

20.
Environ Eng Sci ; 38(6): 481-488, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675467

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely used engineered nanomaterials in consumer products, primarily due to their antimicrobial properties. This widespread usage has resulted in concerns regarding potential adverse environmental impacts and increased probability of human exposure. As the number of AgNP consumer products grows, the likelihood of interactions with other household materials increases. AgNP products have the potential to interact with household cleaning products in laundry, dishwashers, or during general use of all-purpose surface cleaners. This study has investigated the interaction between surfactant-based surface cleaning products and AgNPs of different sizes and with different capping agents. One AgNP consumer product, two laboratory-synthesized AgNPs, and ionic silver were selected for interaction with one cationic, one anionic, and one nonionic surfactant product to simulate AgNP transformations during consumer product usage before disposal and subsequent environmental release. Changes in size, morphology, and chemical composition were detected during a 60 min exposure to surfactant-based surface cleaning products using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Generally, once AgNP suspensions were exposed to surfactant-based surface cleaning products, all the particles showed an initial aggregation, likely due to disruption of their capping agents. Over the 60 min exposure, cleaning agent-1 (cationic) showed more significant particle aggregates than cleaning agent-2 (anionic) and cleaning agent-3 (nonionic). In addition, UV/Vis, TEM-EDX, and DLS confirmed formation of incidental AgNPs from interaction of ionic silver with all surfactant types.

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