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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 1-6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646504

RESUMO

Calcium signaling and its interacting networks are involved in mediating numerous processes including gene expression, excitation-contraction coupling, stimulus-secretion coupling, synaptic transmission, induction of synaptic plasticity, and embryonic development. Many structures, organelles, receptors, channels, calcium-binding proteins, pumps, transporters, enzymes, and transcription factors are involved in the generation and decoding of the different calcium signals in different cells. Powerful methods for measuring calcium concentrations, advanced statistical methods, and biophysical simulations are being used for modelling calcium signals. Calcium signaling is being studied in many cells, and in many model organisms to understand the mechanisms of many physiological processes, and the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Studies in calcium signaling are being used for understanding the mechanisms of actions of drugs, and for discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of many diseases.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Humanos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 271-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646514

RESUMO

Calcium signaling regulates secretion of hormones and many other cellular processes in the islets of Langerhans. The three subtypes of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1), 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2), 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3), and the three subtypes of the ryanodine receptors (RyRs), ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) and ryanodine receptor 3 (RyR3) are the main intracellular Ca2+-release channels. The identity and the relative levels of expression of these channels in the alpha-cells, and the beta-cells of the human islets of Langerhans are unknown. We have analyzed the RNA sequencing data obtained from highly purified human alpha-cells and beta-cells for quantitatively identifying the mRNA of the intracellular Ca2+-release channels in these cells. We found that among the three IP3Rs the IP3R3 is the most abundantly expressed one in the beta-cells, whereas IP3R1 is the most abundantly expressed one in the alpha-cells. In addition to the IP3R3, beta-cells also expressed the IP3R2, at a lower level. Among the RyRs, the RyR2 was the most abundantly expressed one in the beta-cells, whereas the RyR1 was the most abundantly expressed one in the alpha-cells. Information on the relative abundance of the different intracellular Ca2+-release channels in the human alpha-cells and the beta-cells may help the understanding of their roles in the generation of Ca2+ signals and many other related cellular processes in these cells.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina , Sinalização do Cálcio , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 943-963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646540

RESUMO

Insulin secretion in humans is usually induced by mixed meals, which upon ingestion, increase the plasma concentration of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and incretins like glucagon-like peptide 1. Beta-cells can stay in the off-mode, ready-mode or on-mode; the mode-switching being determined by the open state probability of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and the activity of enzymes like glucokinase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial metabolism is critical for insulin secretion. A sound understanding of the intermediary metabolism, electrophysiology, and cell signaling is essential for comprehension of the entire spectrum of the stimulus-secretion coupling. Depolarization brought about by inhibition of the ATP sensitive potassium channel, together with the inward depolarizing currents through the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, leads to electrical activities, opening of the voltage-gated calcium channels, and exocytosis of insulin. Calcium- and cAMP-signaling elicited by depolarization, and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, including the free fatty acid receptors, are intricately connected in the form of networks at different levels. Activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor augments insulin secretion by amplifying calcium signals by calcium induced calcium release (CICR). In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, use of the sulfonylureas that act on the ATP sensitive potassium channel, damages the beta cells, which eventually fail; these drugs do not improve the cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast, drugs acting through the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor protect the beta-cells, and improve cardiovascular outcomes. The use of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists is increasing and that of sulfonylurea is decreasing. A better understanding of the stimulus-secretion coupling may lead to the discovery of other molecular targets for development of drugs for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/enzimologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia
4.
F1000Res ; 8: 320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602298

RESUMO

Background: Hilsa shad ( Tenualosa ilisha), a widely distributed migratory fish, contributes substantially to the economy of Bangladesh. The harvest of hilsa from inland waters has been fluctuating due to anthropological and climate change-induced degradation of the riverine habitats.  The whole genome sequence of this valuable fish could provide genomic tools for sustainable harvest, conservation and productivity cycle maintenance. Here, we report the first draft genome of  T. ilisha from the Bay of Bengal, the largest reservoir of the migratory fish. Methods: A live specimen of T. ilisha was collected from the Bay of Bengal. The whole genome sequencing was performed by the Illumina HiSeqX platform (2 × 150 paired end configuration). We assembled the short reads using SOAPdenovo2 genome assembler and predicted protein coding genes by AUGUSTUS. The completeness of the T. ilisha genome assembly was evaluated by BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single Copy Orthologs). We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by calling them directly from unassembled sequence reads using discoSnp++. Results: We assembled the draft genome of 710.28 Mb having an N50 scaffold length of 64157 bp and GC content of 42.95%. A total of 37,450 protein coding genes were predicted of which 29,339 (78.34%) were annotated with other vertebrate genomes. We also identified 792,939 isolated SNPs with transversion:transition ratio of 1:1.8. The BUSCO evaluation showed 78.1% completeness of this genome. Conclusions: The genomic data generated in this study could be used as a reference to identify genes associated with physiological and ecological adaptations, population connectivity, and migration behaviour of this biologically and economically important anadromous fish species of the Clupeidae family.

5.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420776

RESUMO

The D-shuttle dosimeter technique is a convenient approach for estimating the radiation dosimetry in a positron emission tomography (PET) study that employs multiple D-shuttle dosimeters attached to the body surface of a patient. To bring this technique into clinical usage, it is very important to evaluate its performance by investigating the bias associated with D-shuttle dosimeter positioning and by comparing the estimates with those of the whole-body dynamic PET imaging technique. The torso cavity and six spheres of the NEMA body phantom were filled with 18F-FDG solution, and then, the phantom was imaged for 1 h. We assumed the mislocated positioning of the D-shuttle dosimeters by shifting them in the z-direction (upper) in a range of 1-5 cm from the original positions. The cumulative radioactivities, absorbed doses, and effective dose were estimated using accurate and mislocated positions of the D-shuttle dosimeters. For comparison, the cumulative radioactivities were also estimated from the PET images, and then, the absorbed doses and effective dose were computed. The maximum bias of the average estimated cumulated radioactivities and the effective doses was - 15.0% and - 19.7% for the 1 cm shifted positions, respectively. The ratios of absorbed doses obtained from D-shuttle and PET measurement against the actual values were between 0.9 and 1.3, and 0.7 and 1.0, respectively. The bias associated with the D-shuttle dosimeter positions was significant and probably consistent, and both dosimetric techniques exhibited good performance in this phantom study.

6.
Neurotox Res ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422569

RESUMO

The neuroprotective activities of phenolics have been demonstrated in several studies, with their antioxidant properties playing an influential role. In this study, the therapeutic effect of ferulic acid was investigated on oxidative stress, purinergic and cholinergic enzymatic activities, and dysregulated metabolic pathways in oxidative brain injury. Ferulic acid significantly elevated the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and concomitantly depleted malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level. It also inhibited the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and increased the activities of ATPase. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed restoration of most depleted metabolites, with concomitant generation of dihydroferulic acid 4-O-glucuronide, diadenosine heptaphosphate, cis-4-decenoic acid, ganglioside GT3 (d18:0/23:0), phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoribosyl-ATP on treatment with ferulic acid. Pathway analysis of the identified metabolites revealed reactivation of oxidative-inactivated pathways, with concomitant activation of histidine and inositol phosphate metabolic pathways. There was no cytotoxicity on incubation of ferulic acid with HT22 cells. Molecular docking studies revealed a high affinity for acetylcholinesterase, with a binding energy of - 7.4 kcal/mol. In silico simulation analysis predicted permeability of ferulic acid across blood brain barrier (BBB) and an oral LD50 calculated value of 1772 mg/kg, with a toxicity class of 4. These results indicate the antioxidative and protective effects of ferulic acid in oxidative brain injury.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443047

RESUMO

RNA molecules play a significant role in cell function especially including pseudoknots. In past decades, several methods have been developed to predict RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots and the most popular one uses minimum free energy. It is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem. We have proposed an approach based on a metaheuristic algorithm named Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) to solve the RNA pseudoknotted structure prediction problem. The reaction operators of CRO algorithm have been redesigned and used on the generated population to find the structure with the minimum free energy. Besides, we have developed an additional operator called Repair operator which has a great influence on our algorithm in increasing accuracy. It helps to increase the true positive base pairs while decreasing the false positive and false negative base pairs. Four energy models have been applied to calculate the energy. To evaluate the performance, we have used four datasets containing RNA pseudoknotted sequences taken from the RNA STRAND and Pseudobase++ database. We have compared the proposed approach with some existing algorithms and shown that our CRO based model is a better prediction method in terms of accuracy and speed.

8.
J Food Biochem ; 43(8): e12930, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368570

RESUMO

Crassocephalum rubens falls under the wild edible, under-cultivated traditional leafy vegetables (TLV) in Africa; it is used by locals in managing diabetes mellitus among other diseases. This study investigated the in vitro, ex vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of different extracts of C. rubens. The ameliorative effects of the extracts on Fe2+ -induced oxidative injury was investigated ex vivo together with the effects of the aqueous extract on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake in freshly harvested tissues from normal rats. The aqueous extract was subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis to identify possible bioactive compounds which were then docked with the tested enzymes through in silico modeling. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activity, inhibited α-glucosidase and lipase enzyme activities, intestinal glucose absorption and enhanced muscle glucose uptake compared to controls. Sanguisorbic acid dilactone identified through LC-MS analysis showed a high binding affinity for catalase and lipase enzymes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The results of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of C. rubens possesses better antioxidant and possible antidiabetic potentials compared to other extracts which could be associated to the synergistic action of its identified bioactive compounds.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269746

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the ongoing physical and psychological health vulnerabilities of the readymade garment (RMG) factory workers involved in the Rana Plaza building collapse in 2013, along with their experiences within the current socioeconomic and political contexts of Bangladesh. Seventeen Rana Plaza survivors participated in unstructured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Interviews were thematically analyzed using Haddon's matrix to examine pre-event, event, and post-event injury experiences. The collapse of the Rana Plaza building resulted in significant physical and emotional trauma for those who survived the event. The majority of the participants were forced to attend work on the day of the collapse. Participants reported physical health complaints related to bone injuries/fractures and amputation, severe headache, kidney problems, and functional difficulties. In addition to the reported physical health issues, the participants revealed psychological health issues including trauma, depression and suicidal ideation, sleep disorders, anxiety, and sudden anger. Participants described barriers to their potential for re-employment in the RMG sector and outlined their limited access to free healthcare for follow-up treatment. Those who survived the collapse of the Rana Plaza building continue to experience significant adverse physical and emotional outcomes related to the disaster. Yet, they have little recourse to ensure the availability of adequate health care and rehabilitation. Given the international reliance on the Bangladeshi RMG industry, continued pressure to ensure care is provided for these survivors, and to reduce the risk of future disasters, is necessary.

10.
J Food Biochem ; 43(3): e12764, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353550

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of Raffia palm wine (RPW) on redox imbalance, glycolytic and cholinergic enzymes, and ATPase activities in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative testicular injury. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced in male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley) by first administering 10% fructose solution for 14 days, before injecting with an intraperitoneal injection (40 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Raffia palm wine was administered to two diabetic groups at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight (bw), when untreated diabetic group was used as a negative control, and metformin-fed group was served as a positive control. The rats were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment, and testes were harvested. Treatment with RPW led to lower levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, with concomitant elevation of reduced glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, catalase and ATPase activities. Raffia palm wine also inhibited glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and acetylcholinesterase, while restoring the altered testicular morphology to near-normal. The results of this study suggest the therapeutic potentials of RPW against the effects of T2D on testicular functions and morphology. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing global epidemy, with most developing countries being at the receiving end owing to the cost of treatment. Testicular damage has been recognized as one of the complications of diabetes, and if left untreated will lead to erectile dysfunction followed by infertility. Raffia palm wine is among the common natural beverage in West Africa, which is utilized for both social and medicinal purposes. In this study, for the first time we showed its ability to protect diabetes-induced testicular injury in type 2 diabetic rats. This may be of great benefit in managing diabetes associated erectly dysfunction and male infertility, as Raffia palm wine is readily available in all seasons. This study will also improve the medicinal use of this wine, which may also indirectly improve its commercial benefit.

11.
J Food Biochem ; 43(3): e12775, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353552

RESUMO

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are increasingly being used by diabetics, but little is known about their effects on antioxidant status. We investigated the effects of ad libitum consumption of commercially available NNS (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, and cyclamate-based sweeteners) on antioxidative markers in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). NNS consumption reduced (p < 0.05) T2D-induced lipid peroxidation and boosted serum, hepatic, renal, cardiac, and pancreatic glutathione (GSH) levels. Catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the serum and most organs upon diabetes induction, perhaps due to adaptative antioxidant response to the diabetes-induced lipid peroxidation. NNS showed varying effects on serum and tissue antioxidant enzymes of animals. An antioxidant capacity scores sheet of NNS, suggest that aspartame-based NNS may not exert antioxidant effects in diabetics, while saccharin-based NNS may be a potent antioxidative sweetener as seen in the animal model of T2D. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The use of NNS is becoming more popular, especially for diabetic individuals. While there are several commercial NNS available in the market, little is known about how they affect the antioxidant status of consumers. We therefore investigated how some commercially available NNS affect the antioxidant status of diabetic rats. Observed data revealed varying effects of NNS on serum and different organs, which suggest that some NNS may be better than others for diabetic oxidative stress and thus may be recommended for consumers. However, this finding is subject to additional corroborative clinical studies.

12.
J Food Biochem ; 43(3): e12749, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353563

RESUMO

Raffia palm wine is a natural drink from the stem of Raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) tree with nutritional and medicinal properties. The effect of fermentation was investigated on its antidiabetic and antioxidative effects in yeast cells and pancreatic tissues, respectively. Both unfermented and fermented palm wine significantly increased glucose uptake, reduced glutathione level (GSH), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. They also inhibited glucose diffusion, myeloperoxidase, and ATPase activities as well as decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. They also led to the inactivation of oxidative metabolic pathways in oxidative pancreas with the generation of adenosine, sugar and inositol metabolites, selenium (enzyme co-factor) and vitamin metabolites owing to concomitant activation of vitamins, lipid, steroids, inositol, and sulfate/sulfite metabolic pathways. The results suggest the antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials of unfermented and fermented palm wine and may be attributed to the LC-MS-identified compounds which were mainly polyphenols and its glycosides, vitamins, and amino acids. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Raffia palm wine is among the natural beverages employed for social, nutritional, and medicinal purposes. However, there are limited studies on its medicinal properties. This study reports for the first time, the ability of Raffia palm wine to stimulate glucose uptake, inhibit glucose diffusion, and ameliorate pancreatic oxidative injury, as well as the possible associated metabolic pathways that may be involved. These findings will further contribute in understanding the antidiabetic effect of Raffia palm wine, and the possible metabolic pathways involved.

13.
J Food Biochem ; 43(2): e12737, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353661

RESUMO

Vernonia amygdalina leaves were investigated for their histochemical properties and antidiabetic activities. Histochemical analysis of the leaf revealed distributions of acidic lipid, mucilage, and pectin, lipids, polyphenols, and alkaloids at the mid rib, glandular trichome, and epidermis. HPLC analysis of the leaves hot water infusion revealed the presence of quercetin and (-)-epi-catechin. The infusion had significant (p < 0.05) 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Ex vivo antioxidative analysis revealed the ability of the infusion to increase glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities, while concomitantly depleting malondialdehyde level and DNA fragmentation in Fe2+ -induced hepatic injury. The infusion showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. It also inhibited intestinal glucose absorption and enhanced muscle glucose uptake, respectively. The ability of the infusion to abate oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and stimulate muscle glucose uptake may suggest the antioxidative, anti-apoptotic, and insulin-sensitizing activity of V. amygdalina. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) is among the common leafy vegetables in West Africa reported for its various medicinal and nutritional properties. It is utilized as a food ingredient as well as supplement for the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Its ability to inhibit intestinal glucose absorption, enhance muscle glucose uptake, and protect against hepatic oxidative stress gives more credence to its reported antidiabetic properties. Being a common leafy vegetable, V. amygdalina can be a cheap source of nutraceutical for the treatment and management of T2D and its complications.

14.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(5): 1385-1399, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201727

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease have been recognized as one of the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, the effect of T2D on neuronal integrity and elemental distribution in the cerebellar cortex, as well as the therapeutic effect of Raffia Palm (Raphia hookeri) wine (RPW) were investigated in male albino rats. T2D was induced in 4 groups of rats using fructose and streptozotocin. One group served as negative control which was administered water, the second and third group were administered 150 and 300 mg/kg bodyweight of RPW, while the fourth was administered metformin (200 mg/kg bodyweight). Two other groups of normal rats were administered distilled water (control) and of RPW (300 mg/kg bodyweight). The rats were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment, and brains were collected. The cerebellum was removed, and several parts analyzed by immunochemistry, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remaining brain tissues were used to analyze for the oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity. These analyses revealed oxidative damage with concomitantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and upregulation of Nrf2 expression in the diabetic brain cerebellar cortexes. Histological and microscopic analysis also revealed altered distribution of neurons and axonal nodes with concomitant elevated levels of several heavy metals. Treatment with RPW significantly elevated glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, as well as depleted acetylcholinesterase and malondialdehyde (MDA) level and concomitantly inhibited Nrf2 expression. It also improved neuronal integrity and reduced the levels of heavy metals in brain. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the RPW may afford a novel neuroprotective potential against diabetic neurodegeneration.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112033, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220600

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cola nitida is amongst the evergreen plants native to West Africa used in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic effects of the hot water extract of C. nitida seeds in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic rats were orally administered with low (150 mg/kg bw) and high (300 mg/kg bw) doses of the hot water extract for 6 wk and thereafter, blood glucose, insulin level, lipid profile, pancreatic ß-cell function, perfusion and morphology, redox imbalance, glycolytic and cholinergic enzymes, as well as of caspase-3 and Nrf2 expressions were measured. RESULTS: Treatment with the extract led to significant depletion of blood glucose, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, fructosamine, ALT, and uric acids, while elevating serum insulin and HDL-cholesterol levels. The infusion also significantly (p < 0.05) elevated GSH level, SOD, catalase, α-amylase, and ATPase activities, with concomitant depletion of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, and NO and MDA levels in the serum and pancreas. Significantly (p < 0.05) improved pancreatic ß-cell function and morphology were observed in rats treated with C. nitida, with restored pancreatic capillary networks. C. nitida inhibited the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, fructose 1,6 biphosphatase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and acetylcholinesterase while downregulated the Nrf2 expression. NMR analysis of the extract revealed the presence of caffeine and theobromine. The molecular docking studies indicated that identified compounds displayed strong molecular interactions with caspase-3 and Nrf2. CONCLUSION: These results insinuate the antidiabetic activities of C. nitida hot water extract and may be attributed to the NMR-identified compounds.

16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-13, 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204494

RESUMO

Xylitol and erythritol are widely used in a variety of food and oral care products as sugar substitutes. Although a number of studies have been conducted on the health benefits of xylitol since the 1960s, erythritol only attracted the attention of researchers during the early 1990s. Historically, researchers mainly focused on the effects of xylitol and other sugar alcohols on oral and dental healthcare while the anti-diabetic or antihyperglycemic effects have only been revealed recently. Though a few reviews have been published on the health benefits of sugar alcohols in the last few decades, none of them closely evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential and underlying mechanisms, particularly with a focus on xylitol and erythritol. The current review thoroughly analyzes the anti-diabetic and antihyperglycemic effects as well as other metabolic effects of xylitol and erythritol using articles published in PubMed since the 1960s, containing research done on experimental animals and humans. This review will help researchers ascertain the controversies surrounding sugar alcohols, investigate further beneficial effects of them as well as aid food industries in exploring the possibilities of using sugar alcohols as anti-diabetic supplements in diabetic foods and food products.

17.
BMC Mol Biol ; 20(1): 13, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the availability of genome sequences, gene expression analysis of jute has drawn considerable attention for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of fiber development and improving fiber quality. Gene expression profiles of a target gene can provide valuable clues towards the understanding of its biological function. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the best method for targeted gene expression analysis due to its sensitivity and reproducibility. However, calculating relative expression requires reference genes, which must be stable across various biological conditions. For this purposes, 11 prospective genes namely, 28S RNA, ACT7, CYP, EF1A, EF2, ETIF3E, GAPDH, PP2Ac, PTB, UBC2 and UBI1 were evaluated for their potential use as reference genes in jute. RESULTS: The expression stabilities of eleven prospective genes were analyzed in various jute plant tissues, such as the root, stick, bark, leaf, flower, seed and fiber, as well as under abiotic (waterlogged, drought and salinity) and biotic stress (infestation with Macrophomina phaseolina) conditions with different time points. All 11 genes were variably expressed in different tissues and stress conditions. To find suitable reference genes in different sample sets, a comprehensive approach based on four statistical algorithms such as GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder the ΔCt was used. The PP2Ac and EF2 genes were the most stably expressed across the different tissues. ACT7 and UBC2 were suitable reference genes under drought stress, and CYP and PP2Ac were the most appropriate after inoculation with Macrophomina phaseolina. Under salinity stress, PP2Ac and UBC2 were the best genes, and ACT7 and PP2Ac were the most suitable under waterlogged conditions. CONCLUSION: Expression stability of reference genes from jute varied in different tissues and selected experimental conditions. Our results provide a valuable resource for the accurate normalization of gene expression experiments in fiber research for important bast fiber crops.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990061

RESUMO

The present study was designed to conduct the bioassay-guided isolation of possible bioactive compound(s) responsible for the antidiabetic action of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. fruit. The isolation of compound was guided by α-glycosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Molecular docking with Autodock Vina was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of the possible compound(s) with the selected enzymes. A pentacyclic triterpene, oleanolic acid (OA) was isolated from fruit and exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower IC50 values (α-amylase: 89.02 ± 1.12 µM, α-glucosidase: 46.05 ± 0.25 µM) than other fractions and the acarbose. Interestingly, OA was found to bind to the α-amylase and α-glucosidase with minimum binding energy values of -0.9 and -1.2 kcal/mol respectively and none of the interactions involved hydrogen bond formation. Data of this study suggest that OA is responsible for the antidiabetic action of X. aethiopica fruit through the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activities.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 127: 206-217, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914353

RESUMO

The therapeutic effect of the hot water infusion of Cola nitida against hyperglycemia-induced neurotoxicity, cerebellar neurodegeneration and elemental deregulations was investigated in fructose-streptozotocin induced rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A diabetic group was administered drinking water, two other diabetic groups were treated with C. nitida at 150 and 300 mg/kg bodyweight respectively, while another group was administered metformin (200 mg/kg bodyweight). Two other groups consisting of normal rats, were administered drinking water and C. nitida (300 mg/kg bodyweight). After 6 weeks of treatment, their brains were collected. Treatment with C. nitida led to suppression of oxidative stress, significantly elevating reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, concomitant with depletion of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Acetylcholinesterase and ATPase activities were significantly inhibited in C. nitida-treated diabetic rats. Histological and microscopic analysis also revealed a restorative effect of C. nitida on T2D-altered distribution of elements, neurons and axonal nodes. Treatment with C. nitida also led to significant inhibition of Nrf2 expression in the cerebellar cortex. These results suggest the therapeutic effects of C. nitida in maintenance of the neuronal integrity and antioxidant status of the brain in T2D. These neuroprotective activities can be attributed to the identified alkaloid, caffeine in the infusion.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cola/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 159-170, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902747

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) wine (RPW) is amongst the natural products from plants, utilized singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for the treatment of several ailments including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). However, there is a scientific dearth on its antidiabetic activity. AIM: The antidiabetic effect of RPW and its possible mechanism of actions were investigated in diabetic rats. METHODS: Four groups of male SD rats were first supplied with 10% fructose solution ad libitum for 2 weeks instead of drinking water followed by an intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) to induce diabetes. Two diabetic groups were administered RPW at 150 and 300 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) respectively; a group was administered with metformin, while the other one was served as a negative control. Two groups of normal rats were administered with water and RPW (300 mg/kg BW) and served as normal control and normal toxicology group, respectively. RESULTS: Five weeks treatment of RPW led to significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum insulin and HDL-c levels with concomitant reduction in blood glucose, fructosamine, ALT, uric acid, triglycerides and LDL-c levels in diabetic rats. Rats treated with RPW had elevated levels of GSH, SOD, catalase, ATPase and α-amylase activities, while reduced NO level and myeloperoxidase activity was observed in their serum and pancreatic tissues. RPW also improved pancreatic ß-cell function and restored ß- and acinar cells morphology, and capillary networks. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase, fructose 1,6 biphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and acetylcholinesterase were also inhibited in RPW-treated diabetic rats, with concomitant down regulation of Nrf2 gene expression. CONCLUSION: The data of this study suggest that RPW modulates glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion as well as inhibiting redox imbalance in diabetic rats, which may be attributed to the synergetic effects of its phytochemical constituents as identified by GC-MS analysis.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Vinho , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Frutose , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
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