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1.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(3): 234-240, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are still few studies on predictors of smoking cessation in Brazilian samples. Experimentation with tobacco during adolescence (ETA) may be one of the important predictors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed, within the context of a treatment-seeking group of subjects, to test the hypothesis that ETA negatively affects the outcome of smoking cessation during adulthood. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective (historic) cohort study conducted at a psychosocial care center in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2010. METHODS: Data on sociodemographics, smoking and medical profiles were obtained through self-report questionnaires that were completed at the baseline and at any follow-up appointment. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe factors associated with the outcome of smoking cessation, measured according to the self-reported four-week success rate among 367 outpatient smokers. RESULTS: ETA was found to be associated with not quitting smoking through the treatment (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = 0.33-0.96; P < 0.05), even after adjustment for dependence level, sociodemographics, nicotine patch use and number of years of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Early exposure to nicotine may lead to higher risk of continuing smoking after treatment, in adulthood.

2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 324-335, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011506

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. Conclusion: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

3.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 121-127, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1014735

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To assess the sociodemographic and diagnostic profile of data related to psychiatric readmissions to the psychiatric ward at Hospital Estadual Mário Covas between January 2008 and September 2015, in order to investigate the possible correlation between the rate of admission and readmission and the presence or absence of a discharged patient unit or other outpatient treatment unit. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data on patients readmitted during the study period were sourced from a statistical analysis of the Hospital Estadual Mário Covas database using STATA 11.0. Results During the study period, hospitalization rates decreased, while the readmission rates increased over the years, at a total of 662 readmissions. This rise in readmissions had no correlation with the presence of a discharged patient unit or other outpatient unit. Women comprised the majority of the sample, with a mean age of 42; the most prevalent disorder among women was bipolar affective disorder, while among men it was schizophrenia. The length of hospitalization increased over time, with a maximum mean time of 23 days in 2015. Most of the patients were referred from Santo André as well as from hospitals in São Paulo. Conclusion The increase in the rate of readmissions over the years suggests that the mental healthcare model may have shortcomings along the chain. It is important to understand the epidemiological profile and chain of events that led to repeated hospitalizations in order to design new strategies and approaches to care so as to keep the patients stabilized.


Resumo Objetivos Obter o perfil sociodemográfico e diagnóstico dos pacientes reinternados no Hospital Estadual Mário Covas entre janeiro de 2008 e setembro de 2015, com o intuito de investigar a possível relação entre as taxas de admissão e readmissão e a existência ou ausência do serviço para pacientes de alta clinica do hospital ou de outros serviços. Métodos Este foi um estudo descritivo transversal. Os dados foram obtidos do Hospital Estadual Mário Covas e analisados pelo programa STATA 11.0 Resultados Durante o período do estudo, as taxas de hospitalização diminuíram, enquanto as taxas de readmissão aumentaram progressivamente, com um total de 662 reinternações. O aumento dessas reinternações não teve relação com a presença da unidade pós-alta hospitalar do próprio hospital ou de outros serviços. A maioria dos pacientes era composta de mulheres, com idade média de 42 anos; o principal diagnóstico entre mulheres foi o transtorno afetivo bipolar, enquanto que para homens foi a esquizofrenia. O tempo de hospitalização aumentou com os anos, com uma média máxima em 2015 de 23 dias. A maior parte dos pacientes era referenciado de Santo André e outros hospitais de São Paulo. Conclusão O aumento das taxas de reinternação ao longo dos anos sugere que o sistema de cuidado mental tem deficiências em sua prática. É importante entender o perfil epidemiológico e a cascata de eventos que levam a rehospitalizações e, assim, traçar novas estratégias e abordagens de cuidado, mantendo os pacientes estabilizados.

4.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 153-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990823

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. Conclusion: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

5.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(4): 324-335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. CONCLUSION: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/classificação , Benzodiazepinas/classificação , Brasil , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico
6.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(2): 121-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sociodemographic and diagnostic profile of data related to psychiatric readmissions to the psychiatric ward at Hospital Estadual Mário Covas between January 2008 and September 2015, in order to investigate the possible correlation between the rate of admission and readmission and the presence or absence of a discharged patient unit or other outpatient treatment unit. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data on patients readmitted during the study period were sourced from a statistical analysis of the Hospital Estadual Mário Covas database using STATA 11.0. RESULTS: During the study period, hospitalization rates decreased, while the readmission rates increased over the years, at a total of 662 readmissions. This rise in readmissions had no correlation with the presence of a discharged patient unit or other outpatient unit. Women comprised the majority of the sample, with a mean age of 42; the most prevalent disorder among women was bipolar affective disorder, while among men it was schizophrenia. The length of hospitalization increased over time, with a maximum mean time of 23 days in 2015. Most of the patients were referred from Santo André as well as from hospitals in São Paulo. CONCLUSION: The increase in the rate of readmissions over the years suggests that the mental healthcare model may have shortcomings along the chain. It is important to understand the epidemiological profile and chain of events that led to repeated hospitalizations in order to design new strategies and approaches to care so as to keep the patients stabilized.

7.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(2): 153-167, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. CONCLUSION: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Brasil , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 52: 22-28, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of studies evaluating smoking cessation treatment protocols which include people with and without mental and substance use disorders (MSUD), and which allows for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment. METHODS: We compared treatment success between participants with (n = 277) and without (n = 419) MSUD among patients in a 6-week treatment provided by a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) from 2007 to 2013. Sociodemographic, medical and tobacco use characteristics were assessed at baseline. Tobacco treatment consisted of 1) group cognitive behavior therapy, which included people with and without MSUD in the same groups, and 2) pharmacotherapy, which could include either nicotine patches, nicotine gum, bupropion or nortriptyline. For participants with MSUD, tobacco treatment was integrated into their ongoing mental health treatment. The main outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence, measured at last day of treatment. RESULTS: Abstinence rates did not differ significantly between participants with and without MSUD (31.1% and 34.4%, respectively). Variables that were significantly associated with treatment success included years smoking, the Heaviness of Smoking Index, and use of nicotine patch or bupropion. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of individuals with and without MSUD in the same protocol, allowing for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment, generates at least comparable success rates between the groups. Predictors of treatment success were similar to those found in the general population. Facilities that treat patients with MSUD should treat tobacco use in order to reduce the disparities in morbidity and mortality experienced by this population.

9.
J Dual Diagn ; 13(4): 238-246, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28489501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate smoking treatment effectiveness and retention in a population with and without mental disorders (MD). Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus nicotine patch alone or in combination with other medications (i.e., gum, bupropion, or nortriptyline) for smoking cessation treatment in a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center unit (CAPS), taking into account sociodemographics and smoking profile covariates. METHODS: The study involved comparison of treatment success (seven-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of the treatment) and retention (presence of the individual in all of the four medical consultations and six group sessions) in two subsamples of patients with MD (n = 267) and without MD (n = 397) who were included in a six-week treatment provided by a CAPS from 2007 to 2013. The treatment protocol comprised group CBT and pharmacotherapy (nicotine patches, nicotine gums, and bupropion and nortriptyline available, prescribed by psychiatrists). RESULTS: Within patients with MD, CBT plus nicotine patch plus bupropion (aOR = 2.00, 95% CI [1.14, 3.50], p = .015) and CBT plus nicotine patch plus gum (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.04, 4.23], p = .036) were associated with treatment success. Within patients without MD, female gender (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.37, 0.95], p = .031) and lower Heaviness of Smoking Index score (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI [0.65, 0.99], p = .048) were associated with treatment success. No variable was associated with dropout or retention within patients with or without MD. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of CBT plus nicotine patch plus bupropion as well as CBT plus nicotine patch plus gum in samples with high rates of medical, psychiatric, and addiction disorders. These findings support those of previous studies in the general population. Pharmacological treatment associated with group CBT based on cognitive-behavioral concepts and combined with ongoing MD treatment seems to be the best option for smoking cessation treatment among patients with MD. Units that deal with patients with MD, such as CAPS in Brazil, should be encouraged to treat smoking addiction in this population. Future studies should investigate retention rates in other samples of patients with MD.


Assuntos
Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Adulto , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nortriptilina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz J Psychiatr ; 36(1): 24-31, 2014 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24604459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. METHOD: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. RESULTS: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase) cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. CONCLUSION: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/fisiopatologia , Cocaína Crack/administração & dosagem , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 36(1): 24-31, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-702643

RESUMO

Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase) cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/fisiopatologia , Cocaína Crack/administração & dosagem , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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