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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351730

RESUMO

The etiology of maxillofacial fractures (MFFs) varies according to the geographical location and density of the population. This study aimed to analyze the etiology, pattern, and treatment of MFFs. Epidemiological characteristics and treatment modalities of MFFs have never been evaluated in Somalia. The study included 45 patients who were operated on for MFFs at a tertiary care hospital in Somalia (2018-2019). Patient demographics, fracture causes, types, associated non-facial injuries, treatment modalities, and hospitalization-time were evaluated. The most common etiological factors of the MFFs were explosion (24.4%) and assault (24.4%), followed by gunshot (22.2%), sports accident (15.6%), motor vehicle accident (11.1%), and fall from height (2.2%) patients, respectively. The main site of injury was the mandible bone (64.4%) followed by nasal bone, maxilla, zygomatic, and orbital region. The most common non-facial injuries of the MFFs were soft tissue laceration (37.8%) followed by femoral fracture (6.7%), clavicle fracture (4.4%), and femoral fracture with chest injuries (2.2%). The most applied treatment was open reduction microplate +/- intermaxillary fixation (77.8%). Due to the size of the mandible fractures, an iliac autograft (6.7%) was performed. The mean length of the hospital stay was 11.8 +/- 8.4 days (range, 1-45 days), and some patients (15.6%) needed intensive care due to severe injuries. This will be the first study aiming to analyze the etiology, pattern, and treatment of MFFs in Somalia. This study deals with the social aspects of Somalia, and it shows that MFFs develop as a result of highly interpersonal violence in a young man.

3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1654: 462476, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438301

RESUMO

The release of radiocesium (r-Cs) into natural aqueous systems is of concern because of its extended solubility as an alkaline metal ion and its facile incorporation into living beings. A technique for the selective separation of Cs from an aqueous matrix using dual solid-phase extraction (SPE) systems in a series is proposed in this paper. The SPEs equipped with chelates (Nobias Chelate-PA1 and Nobias Chelate-PB1), an ion-exchange resin (Nobias Ion SC-1), or macrocycles (MetaSEP AnaLig Cs-01 and MetaSEP AnaLig Cs-02) were evaluated in terms of selectivity and retention/recovery behavior toward Cs and other potentially competing ions (Li, Na, K, Rb, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr). The simulated solution of 133Cs, a chemical analog of r-Cs, was used to optimize the separation process. Operating parameters such as pH (3-13), flow rate (0.2-5.0 mL min-1), and elution behavior (HCl, 0.1-5.0 mol L-1) were optimized to ensure maximum removal of Cs from the aqueous matrices. The dual SPE system comprised Nobias Chelate-PB1 that minimized the competing impact of ions, while selective Cs retention was attained with MetaSEP AnaLig Cs-02. The proposed process was verified using real r-Cs-contaminated water from Fukushima, Japan, to observe the quantitative separation and preconcentration of r-Cs from the complex matrices.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extração em Fase Sólida , Água , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água/química
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placenta accreta spectrum is a major obstetric disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to establish a prediction model of clinical outcomes in these women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAS-ID is an international multicenter study that comprises 11 centers from 9 countries. Women who were diagnosed with PAS and were managed in the recruiting centers between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019 were included. Data were reanalyzed using machine learning (ML) models, and 2 models were created to predict outcomes using antepartum and perioperative features. ML model was conducted using python® programing language. The primary outcome was massive PAS-associated perioperative blood loss (intraoperative blood loss ≥2500 ml, triggering massive transfusion protocol, or complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy). Other outcomes include prolonged hospitalization >7 days and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: 727 women with PAS were included. The area under curve (AUC) for ML antepartum prediction model was 0.84, 0.81, and 0.82 for massive blood loss, prolonged hospitalization, and admission to ICU, respectively. Significant contributors to this model were parity, placental site, method of diagnosis, and antepartum hemoglobin. Combining baseline and perioperative variables, the ML model performed at 0.86, 0.90, and 0.86 for study outcomes, respectively. Ethnicity, pelvic invasion, and uterine incision were the most predictive factors in this model. DISCUSSION: ML models can be used to calculate the individualized risk of morbidity in women with PAS. Model-based risk assessment facilitates a priori delineation of management.

5.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104650, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329865

RESUMO

Due to the continued evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, researchers worldwide are working to mitigate, suppress its spread, and better understand it by deploying digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning approaches. This study presents an alignment-free approach to classify the SARS-CoV-2 using complementary DNA, which is DNA synthesized from the single-stranded RNA virus. Herein, a total of 1582 samples, with different lengths of genome sequences from different regions, were collected from various data sources and divided into a SARS-CoV-2 and a non-SARS-CoV-2 group. We extracted eight biomarkers based on three-base periodicity, using DSP techniques, and ranked those based on a filter-based feature selection. The ranked biomarkers were fed into k-nearest neighbor, support vector machines, decision trees, and random forest classifiers for the classification of SARS-CoV-2 from other coronaviruses. The training dataset was used to test the performance of the classifiers based on accuracy and F-measure via 10-fold cross-validation. Kappa-scores were estimated to check the influence of unbalanced data. Further, 10 × 10 cross-validation paired t-test was utilized to test the best model with unseen data. Random forest was elected as the best model, differentiating the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus from other coronaviruses and a control a group with an accuracy of 97.4 %, sensitivity of 96.2 %, and specificity of 98.2 %, when tested with unseen samples. Moreover, the proposed algorithm was computationally efficient, taking only 0.31 s to compute the genome biomarkers, outperforming previous studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 418: 126308, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329039

RESUMO

Economic and ecological issues motivate the recovery of precious metals (PMs: Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt) from secondary sources. From the viewpoint of eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness, biomass-based resins are superior to synthetic polymer-based resins for PM recovery. Herein, a detailed comparative study of bio-sorbent dithiocarbamate-modified cellulose (DMC) and synthetic polymer-based commercial resins (Q-10R, Lewatit MonoPlus TP 214, Diaion WA30, and Dowex 1X8) for PM recovery from waste resources was conducted. The performances and applicability of the selected resins were investigated in terms of sorption selectivity, effect of competing anions, sorption isotherms, impact of temperature, and PM extractability from industrial wastes. Although the sorption selectivity toward PMs in acidic solutions by DMC and other resins was comparable, the sorption efficiency of commercial resins was adversely affected by competing anions. The sorption of PMs fitted the Langmuir model for all the studied resins, except Q-10R, which followed the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity of DMC was 2.2-42 times higher than those of the resins. Furthermore, the PM extraction performance of DMC from industrial wastes exceeded that of the commercial resins, with a sorption efficiency ≥99% and a DMC dosage of 5-40 times lower.


Assuntos
Metais , Água , Adsorção , Celulose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
7.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted with confirmed Covid-19. Children admitted to the hospital between April 2, 2020 and August 26, 2020, were included. Telephone interview using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) Covid-19 Health and Wellbeing paediatric follow-up survey. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. FINDINGS: 518 of 853 (61%) of eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 3-15.2) and 270 (52.1%) were girls; median follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%,) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (odds ratio 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 5.75) and "12-18 years" (2.68, 1.41 to 5.4); and a history of allergic diseases (1.67, 1.04 to 2.67). INTERPRETATION: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalization with acute covid-19 infection, with almost one in ten experiencing multi-system involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.

8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320590

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In Somalia, which is located in the horn of Africa, a fragile and insecure state structure allowed the strengthening of terrorist groups provoking armed conflicts. Stray bullet injuries can be defined as an accidental bullet wound caused by an anonymous attacker and are usually associated with celebratory gunfire or urban violence. The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is complex and penetrating foreign body injuries pose even a greater challenge for the surgeon to operate in this area. Endoscopic approaches facilitate the removal of foreign bodies from the paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, and aerodigestive system, minimizing potential risks. This study presents a series of removal of stray bullets found in the PPF, as a result of urban violence in Somalia in a period of 6 months. Patient demographics, foreign body origin, treatment modalities, and surgery details were evaluated and assessed. All patients were male and aged 16, 2, and 24 years, respectively. The surgeries were quite straightforward with surgery times recorded as 25, 44, and 22 minutes, respectively. The endoscopic endonasal approach proved to provide safe and sufficient access for removal. Surprisingly, even the foreign body in the PPF of a 2-year-old patient could be removed with an endoscopic endonasal approach and did not require an external approach. The management of foreign body removal in the PPF is challenging due to the potential risks of iatrogenic vascular and nervous tissue injury. The endoscopic endonasal approach for removal proved efficient in 3 cases regardless of age and anatomical dimensions.

9.
Health Educ Res ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191009

RESUMO

This study explored the implementation of the Centrally Procured School Food Program (CPSFP)-a free, universal, volunteer-led snack program for elementary school children. To assess participants' perceptions and experiences with the CPSFP, interviews were conducted in school-level participants (n = 33) using a semi-structured interview guide. Fifteen on-site visits also were conducted at each school to observe implementation practices. Quantitative data were obtained through a general information form where participants provided school characteristics and weekly logbooks where they described program operations and food quality. Most participants expressed positive perceptions of the CPSFP, identifying it as a valuable program for their students. Successful program implementation was associated with an appreciation for the CPSFP and the participation of the school community. Challenges to program implementation included concerns with the volume and types of food provided, issues with classroom food delivery and distribution and communication challenges. Suggestions for improvement included building capacities and enhancing student engagement in the program. Participants provided an in-depth assessment of the implementation of the CPSFP. The lessons learned and suggestions provided may help not only enhance the reach, feasibility and fidelity of the CPSFP, but inform the best practices for similar programs.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105078, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161878

RESUMO

This study was focused on the synthesis of new pyrimidines 4a,b, 5a,b and pyrazoles 6a, b as ATP mimicking tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The new compounds were assessed as cytotoxic candidates against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2). All the new compounds appeared as more potent cytotoxic agents than erlotinib, while only compound 4a exhibited more potency than 5-flourouracil and 4b analogue was equipotent to it. Accordingly, the kinase suppression effect of 4a and 4b was further evaluated against EGFRWT, EGFRL858R and EGFRT790M. Both pyrimidine analogues 4a and 4b displayed outstanding inhibitory activity against EGFRWT and its two mutated isoforms EGFRL858R and EGFRT790M in comparing to erlotinib and osimertinib as reference drugs. Additionally, all the new analogues were subjected to antimicrobial assay. Interestingly, both 4a and 4b represented the most promising activity of wide spectrum antimicrobial effect against the examined microbes in comparison to gentamycin and ketoconazole as standard drugs. Moreover, docking results proved the good binding interactions of the compounds 4a and 4b with EGFRWT and EGFRT790M which were in accordance with the results of the in vitro enzyme assay. Additional in silico ADMET studies were performed for the new derivatives which represented their good oral absorption, good drug-likeness properties and low toxicity risks in human.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996711

RESUMO

Introduction: Teaching disaster response medicine (DRM) to medical students requires considerable resources. We evaluate the effectiveness of e-learning in teaching emergency disaster response (ELITE-DR), a novel initiative, in educating medical students of the cognitive aspect of DRM. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study among pre-clinical year medical students was carried out to determine their knowledge on DRM and perception regarding the ELITE-DR initiative using a validated online questionnaire. A three-part self-learning video covering the principles and medical management of DRM were distributed before answering the questionnaire served as the training. Results: A total of 168 students participated in the study. Their overall knowledge showed a significant increase in between pre-and-post-interventions. Recall and simple decision-making knowledge aspects were better than complex decision-making knowledge. It appeared that participants assimilate knowledge better from visual rather than audio stimuli. Participants with high perception-scores demonstrated better knowledge-scores. However, e-learning was not preferred as a substitute for face-to-face (F2F) teaching. Conclusion: ELITE-DR shows promise in teaching DRM. Simple recall and comprehension levels of knowledge were well-served through this technique. However, for more complex decision-making knowledge, a different approach might be required. ELITE-DR offers flexibility, accessibility, and personalized learning. The content presentation is improved by using several different visual stimuli. This approach is useful for cognitive aspect learning, but it should not replace standard F2F teaching.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Desastres , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7810, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833286

RESUMO

Caveolin-1 (CAV1), the caveolae coat protein, also associates with non-caveolar scaffold domains. Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) network analysis distinguishes caveolae and three scaffold domains, hemispherical S2 scaffolds and smaller S1B and S1A scaffolds. The caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) is a highly conserved hydrophobic region that mediates interaction of CAV1 with multiple effector molecules. F92A/V94A mutation disrupts CSD function, however the structural impact of CSD mutation on caveolae or scaffolds remains unknown. Here, SMLM network analysis quantitatively shows that expression of the CAV1 CSD F92A/V94A mutant in CRISPR/Cas CAV1 knockout MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reduces the size and volume and enhances the elongation of caveolae and scaffold domains, with more pronounced effects on S2 and S1B scaffolds. Convex hull analysis of the outer surface of the CAV1 point clouds confirms the size reduction of CSD mutant CAV1 blobs and shows that CSD mutation reduces volume variation amongst S2 and S1B CAV1 blobs at increasing shrink values, that may reflect retraction of the CAV1 N-terminus towards the membrane, potentially preventing accessibility of the CSD. Detection of point mutation-induced changes to CAV1 domains highlights the utility of SMLM network analysis for mesoscale structural analysis of oligomers in their native environment.

14.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256110

RESUMO

BackgroundThe long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors. MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study of children ([≤]18 years old) admitted with confirmed Covid-19 to Z.A. Bashlyaeva Childrens Municipal Clinical Hospital in Moscow, Russia. Children admitted to the hospital during the first wave of the pandemic, between April 2, 2020 and August 26, 2020, were included. Telephone interview using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) Covid-19 Health and Wellbeing paediatric follow up survey. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. FindingsOverall, 518 of 853 (61%) of eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 3-15.2) and 270 (52.1%) were girls; median follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%,) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: age "6-11 years" (odds ratio 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 5.75) and "12-18 years" (2.68, 1.41 to 5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (1.67, 1.04 to 2.67). InterpretationA quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalization with acute covid-19 infection, with almost one in ten experiencing multi-system involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight the need for replication and further investigation of potential mechanisms as well as clinical support to improve long term outcomes in children. FundingNone. O_TEXTBOXResearch in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSEvidence suggests that Covid-19 may result in short- and long-term consequences to health. Studies in children and adolescents are limited and available evidence is scarce. We searched Embase for publications from inception to April, 25, 2021, using the following phrases or combinations of phrases "post-covid condition" or "post-covid syndrome" or "covid sequalae" or "post-acute covid" or "long covid" or "long hauler" with "pediatric*" or "paediatric*" or "child*" or "infant*" or "newborn*" or "toddler*" or "neonate*" or "neonatal" or "adolescent*" or "teen*". We found small case series and small cohort studies looking at Covid-19 consequences in children. No large cohort studies of previously hospitalised children, assessing symptom duration, categorisation or attempting multivariable analyses to identify independent risk factors for long Covid development were identified. Added value of this studyTo our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study with the longest follow-up since hospital discharge of previously hospitalised children. We found that even months after discharge from the hospital, approximately a quarter of children experience persistent symptoms with one in ten having multi-system involvement. Older age and allergic diseases are associated with Covid-19 consequences. Parents of some children report emotional and behavioural changes in their children after Covid-19. Implications of all the available evidenceOur findings highlight the need for continued global research of Covid-19 consequences in the paediatric population. Older children admitted to the hospital should be carefully monitored upon discharge. Large, controlled studies aiming to identify risk groups and potential intervention strategies are required to fill knowledge gaps. C_TEXTBOX

15.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(3): 284-294, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769381

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Small bowel diseases pose a unique diagnostic and management challenge and often requires tertiary specialist referral. The use of biomarkers may provide a cheap, noninvasive tool to assess the small bowel in terms of diagnosis, offering a better way to triage referrals and select patients for early management. This review looks at the most recent evidence behind the use of several faecal and urine biomarkers for small bowel diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Faecal calprotectin shows the most promise, with evidence to support its role in predicting relapse postsurgery and monitoring treatment response in patients with Crohn's disease. A faecal calprotectin less than 50 µg/g may also be used as a cut-off to triage further investigation. Faecal lactoferrin also appears promising as a marker of small bowel inflammation. A positive faecal immunohistochemistry test precapsule may help to prioritize referrals for obscure bleeding. SUMMARY: The use of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of small bowel disease is still controversial and remains unclear. More studies are required to further develop their potential and before societal guidelines can be developed to direct their appropriate use in clinical practice.

16.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(2): 157-163, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Potassium level is measured for patients with high risk of hyperkalemia in the emergency department (ED) using both blood gas analyser (BGA) and biochemistry analyser (BCA). The study was conducted to evaluate the correlation and agreement of potassium measurement between BGA and BCA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study on the data obtained from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM) from Jun 2018 until May 2019. Blood samples were taken via a single prick from venous blood and sent separately using 1ml heparinised syringe and were analysed immediately in ED using BGA (Radiometer, ABL800 FLEX, Denmark) and another sample was sent to the central laboratory of Hospital USM and analysed by BCA (Architect, C8000, USA). Only patients who had potassium levels ≥5.0mmol/L on blood gas results were included. A total of 173 sample pairs were included. The correlation and agreement were evaluated using Passing and Bablok regression, Linear Regression and Bland-Altman test. RESULT: Of the 173 sample pairs, the median of potassium level based on BGA and BCA were 5.50mmol/L (IQR: 1.00) and 5.90mmol/L (IQR: 0.95) respectively. There was significant correlation between two measurements (p<0.001, r: 0.36). The agreement between the two measurements showed within acceptable mean difference which was 0.27 mmol/L with 95% limit of agreement were 1.21mmol/L to 1.73mmol/L. CONCLUSION: The result of blood gas can be used as a guide for initial treatment of hyperkalaemia in critical cases where time is of the essence. However, BCA result is still the definitive value.

17.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714665

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Research on implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology workflows and its impact on reports remains scarce. In this study, we aim to assess if an AI platform would perform better than clinical radiology reports in evaluating noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who had undergone noncontrast chest CT were retrospectively identified. The radiology reports were reviewed in a binary fashion for reporting of pulmonary lesions, pulmonary emphysema, aortic dilatation, coronary artery calcifications (CAC), and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). CT scans were then processed using an AI platform. The reports' findings and the AI results were subsequently compared to a consensus read by two board-certificated radiologists as reference. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 14.8 years; 57% males) were included in this study. Aortic segmentation and calcium quantification failed to be processed by AI in 2 and 3 cases, respectively. AI showed superior diagnostic performance in identifying aortic dilatation (AI: sensitivity: 96.3%, specificity: 81.4%, AUC: 0.89) vs (Reports: sensitivity: 25.9%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 0.63), p <0.001; and CAC (AI: sensitivity: 89.8%, specificity: 100, AUC: 0.95) vs (Reports: sensitivity: 75.4%, specificity: 94.9%, AUC: 0.85), p = 0.005. Reports had better performance than AI in identifying pulmonary lesions (Reports: sensitivity: 97.6%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 0.99) vs (AI: sensitivity: 92.8%, specificity: 82.4%, AUC: 0.88), p = 0.024; and VCF (Reports: sensitivity:100%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 1.0) vs (AI: sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 63.7%, AUC: 0.82), p <0.001. A comparable diagnostic performance was noted in identifying pulmonary emphysema on AI (sensitivity: 80.6%, specificity: 66.7%. AUC: 0.74) and reports (sensitivity: 74.2%, specificity: 97.1%, AUC: 0.86), p = 0.064. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that incorporating AI support platforms into radiology workflows can provide significant added value to clinical radiology reporting.

18.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 28(9): 911-923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558704

RESUMO

The combination of cancer immunotherapy with efficient functionalized nanosystems has emerged as a beneficial treatment strategy and its use has increased rapidly. The roles of stimuli-responsive nanosystems and nanomedicine-based cancer immunotherapy, a subsidiary discipline in the field of immunology, are pivotal. The present era is witnessing rapid advancements in the use of nanomedicine as a platform for investigating novel therapeutic applications and modern intelligent healthcare management strategies. The development of cancer nanomedicine has posthaste ratified the outcomes of immunotherapy to the subsequent stage in the current era of medical research. This review focuses on key findings with respect to the effectiveness of nanomedicine-based cancer immunotherapies and their applications, which include i) immune checkpoint inhibitors and nanomedicine, ii) CRISPR-Cas nanoparticles (NPs) in cancer immunotherapy, iii) combination cancer immunotherapy with core-shell nanoparticles, iv) biomimetic NPs for cancer immunotherapy, and v) CAR-T cells and cancer nanoimmunotherapy. By evaluating the state-of-the-art tools and taking the challenges involved into consideration, various aspects of the proposed nano-enabled therapeutic approaches have been discussed in this review.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558809

RESUMO

Global concerns have been observed due to the outbreak and lockdown causal-based COVID-19, and hence, a global pandemic was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in January 2020. The Movement Control Order (MCO) in Malaysia acts to moderate the spread of COVID-19 through the enacted measures. Furthermore, massive industrial, agricultural activities and human encroachment were significantly reduced following the MCO guidelines. In this study, first, a reconnaissance survey was carried out on the effects of MCO on the health conditions of two urban rivers (i.e., Rivers of Klang and Penang) in Malaysia. Secondly, the effect of MCO lockdown on the water quality index (WQI) of a lake (Putrajaya Lake) in Malaysia is considered in this study. Finally, four machine learning algorithms have been investigated to predict WQI and the class in Putrajaya Lake. The main observations based on the analysis showed that noticeable enhancements of varying degrees in the WQI had occurred in the two investigated rivers. With regard to Putrajaya Lake, there is a significant increase in the WQI Class I, from 24% in February 2020 to 94% during the MCO month of March 2020. For WQI prediction, Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) outperformed other models in predicting the changes in the index with a high level of accuracy. For sensitivity analysis results, it is shown that NH3-N and COD play vital rule and contributing significantly to predicting the class of WQI, followed by BOD, while the remaining three parameters (i.e. pH, DO, and TSS) exhibit a low level of importance.

20.
Bioorg Chem ; 109: 104704, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609915

RESUMO

New substituted pyrazolone and dipyrazolotriazine derivatives have been synthesized, designed and well characterized as promising dual antimicrobial/antioxidant agents to overcome multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR), oxidative stress and their related diseases. Among all strains, S. aureus was found to be the most susceptible for all compounds except 10b and 12b. Out of the three investigated series, sulfonamide analogues 5a-c displayed excellent antibacterial activity with 5b (MIC = 7.61 µM) and 5a (MIC = 8.98 µM) displaying activity that exceeds the reference drug tetracycline (MIC = 11.77 µM). The same sulfonamide derivatives 5a-c demonstrates high ABTS scavenging capacity comparable to standard. Moreover, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) revealed that benzenesulfonamide is a crucial group for enhancing activity. Molecular docking studies of the potent analogues were performed by targeting the crystal structures of S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and human peroxiredoxin-5 enzymes and the obtained results supported well the in vitro data revealing stronger binding interactions. Pharmacokinetics prediction together with modeling outcomes suggests that our sulfonamide derivatives may serve as useful lead compounds for the treatment of infectious disease.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peroxirredoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazolonas/química , Pirazolonas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Tirosina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazinas/química
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