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J Appl Lab Med ; 4(2): 170-179, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639662


BACKGROUND: Studies have illustrated how a low or undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentration at emergency department (ED) presentation can rule out myocardial infarction (MI). A problem with using an undetectable hs-cTn cutoff is that this value may be defined differently among hospitals and is also difficult to monitor. In the present study, we assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical chemistry score (CCS) vs hs-cTn alone in the presentation blood sample in the ED for patient hospital admission in a multicenter setting. METHODS: From January 1 to June 30, 2018, consecutive patients with random glucose, creatinine (for an estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation), and hs-cTnI (Abbott, 2 hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario, n = 10496) or hs-cTnT (Roche, 4 hospitals, Calgary, Alberta, n = 25177) were assessed for hospital admission with the CCS (range of scores, 0-5) or hs-cTn alone. Sensitivity, specificity, predicative values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for a CCS of 0 and 5 and for hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI cutoffs, 5 and 26 ng/L; hs-cTnT cutoffs, 6 and 14 ng/L). RESULTS: The CCS of 0 (CCS <1) identified approximately 10% of all patients as low risk and had a sensitivity for hospital admission of nearly 98% as compared to <93% when hs-cTnT (<6 ng/L) or hs-cTnI (<5 ng/L) cutoffs alone were used. A CCS ≥5 had a specificity for hospital admission >95%, with approximately 14% of patients at high risk. CONCLUSIONS: An ED disposition (admit or send home) using the presentation blood sample could occur in nearly 25% of all patients by use of the CCS.

J Cell Physiol ; 233(10): 6877-6895, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693725


Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is specifically upregulated on proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) during acute kidney injury and mitigates tissue damage by mediating efferocytosis (the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells). The signaling molecules that regulate efferocytosis in TECs are not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the dynein light chain protein, Tctex-1, as a novel KIM-1-interacting protein. Immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging studies suggested that Tctex-1 associates with KIM-1 in cells at baseline, but, dissociates from KIM-1 within 90 min of initiation of efferocytosis. Interfering with actin or microtubule polymerization interestingly prevented the dissociation of KIM-1 from Tctex-1. Moreover, the subcellular localization of Tctex-1 changed from being microtubule-associated to mainly cytosolic upon expression of KIM-1. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous Tctex-1 in cells significantly inhibited efferocytosis to levels comparable to that of knock down of KIM-1 in the same cells. Importantly, Tctex-1 was not involved in the delivery of KIM-1 to the cell-surface. On the other hand, KIM-1 expression significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Tctex-1 at threonine 94 (T94), a post-translational modification which is known to disrupt the binding of Tctex-1 to dynein on microtubules. In keeping with this, we found that KIM-1 bound less efficiently to the phosphomimic (T94E) mutant of Tctex-1 compared to wild type Tctex-1. Surprisingly, expression of Tctex-1 T94E did not influence KIM-1-mediated efferocytosis. Our studies uncover a previously unknown role for Tctex-1 in KIM-1-dependent efferocytosis in epithelial cells.

Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Dineínas/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
Am J Transplant ; 18(8): 2021-2028, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603641


Ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplantation predisposes to delayed graft function, rejection, and premature graft failure. Exacerbation of tissue damage and alloimmune responses may be explained by necroinflammation: an autoamplification loop of cell death and inflammation, which is mediated by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (eg, high-mobility group box-1; HMGB1) from necrotic cells that activate both innate and adaptive immune pathways. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is upregulated on injured proximal tubular epithelial cells and enables them to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Here we show a pivotal role for clearance of dying cells in regulating necroinflammation in a syngeneic murine kidney transplant model. We found persistent KIM-1 expression in KIM-1+/+ kidney grafts posttransplantation. Compared to recipients of KIM-1+/+ kidneys, recipients of KIM-1-/- kidneys exhibited significantly more renal dysfunction, apoptosis and necrosis, tubular obstruction, and graft failure. KIM-1-/- grafts also had more inflammatory cytokines, infiltrating neutrophils, and macrophages compared to KIM-1+/+ grafts. Most significantly, passive release of HMGB1 from apoptotic and necrotic cells led to dramatically higher serum HMGB1 levels and increased proinflammatory macrophages in recipients of KIM-1-/- grafts. Our data identify an endogenous protective mechanism against necroinflammation in kidney grafts that may be of therapeutic relevance in transplantation.

Função Retardada do Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/fisiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Necrose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Doadores de Tecidos , Animais , Apoptose , Função Retardada do Enxerto/metabolismo , Função Retardada do Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fagocitose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
Clin Biochem ; 50(18): 1275-1280, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720341


Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this review is to investigate whether serum lipase alone is a sufficient biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We have examined various studies looking at the utilization, sensitivity, specificity and cost associated savings of lipase and amylase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. When comparing different studies, serum lipase offers a higher sensitivity than serum amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Lipase also offers a larger diagnostic window than amylase since it is elevated for a longer time, thus allowing it to be a useful diagnostic biomarker in early and late stages of acute pancreatitis. Several recent evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of lipase over amylase. Nevertheless, both lipase and amylase alone lack the ability to determine the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis. The co-ordering of both tests has shown little to no increase in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Thus, unnecessary testing and laboratory expenditures can be reduced by testing lipase alone.

Amilases/sangue , Lipase/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 310(7): F607-F620, 2016 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26697979


Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a receptor for the "eat me" signal, phosphatidylserine, on apoptotic cells. The specific upregulation of KIM-1 by injured tubular epithelial cells (TECs) enables them to clear apoptotic cells (also known as efferocytosis), thereby protecting from acute kidney injury. Recently, we uncovered that KIM-1 binds directly to the α-subunit of heterotrimeric G12 protein (Gα12) and inhibits its activation by reactive oxygen species during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (Ismail OZ, Zhang X, Wei J, Haig A, Denker BM, Suri RS, Sener A, Gunaratnam L. Am J Pathol 185: 1207-1215, 2015). Here, we investigated the role that Gα12 plays in KIM-1-mediated efferocytosis by TECs. We showed that KIM-1 remains bound to Gα12 and suppresses its activity during phagocytosis. When we silenced Gα12 expression using small interefering RNA, KIM-1-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells was increased significantly; in contrast overexpression of constitutively active Gα12 (QLGα12) resulted in inhibition of efferocytosis. Inhibition of RhoA, a key effector of Gα12, using a chemical inhibitor or expression of dominant-negative RhoA, had the same effect as inhibition of Gα12 on efferocytosis. Consistent with this, silencing Gα12 suppressed active RhoA in KIM-1-expressing cells. Finally, using primary TECs from Kim-1+/+ and Kim-1-/- mice, we confirmed that engulfment of apoptotic cells requires KIM-1 expression and that silencing Gα12 enhanced efferocytosis by primary TECs. Our data reveal a previously unknown role for Gα12 in regulating efferocytosis and that renal TECs require KIM-1 to mediate this process. These results may have therapeutic implications given the known harmful role of Gα12 in acute kidney injury.

Subunidades alfa G12-G13 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Suínos
Am J Pathol ; 185(5): 1207-15, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25759266


Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1(+/+) mice, Kim-1(-/-) mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1-deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12.

Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa G12-G13 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Imunofluorescência , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Confocal , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia