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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848210

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple underlying inflammatory pathways and structural airway abnormalities that impact disease persistence and severity. Recent progress has been made in developing targeted asthma therapeutics, especially for subjects with eosinophilic asthma. However, there is an unmet need for new approaches to treat patients with severe and exacerbation prone asthma, who contribute disproportionately to disease burden. Extensive deep phenotyping has revealed the heterogeneous nature of severe asthma and identified distinct disease subtypes. A current challenge in the field is to translate new and emerging knowledge about different pathobiologic mechanisms in asthma into patient-specific therapies, with the ultimate goal of modifying the natural history of disease. Here we describe the Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation Prone Asthma (PrecISE) Network, a groundbreaking collaborative effort of asthma researchers and biostatisticians from around the U.S. The PrecISE Network was designed to conduct phase II/proof of concept clinical trials of precision interventions in the severe asthma population, and is supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Using an innovative adaptive platform trial design, the Network will evaluate up to six interventions simultaneously in biomarker-defined subgroups of subjects. We review the development and organizational structure of the Network, and choice of interventions being studied. We hope that the PrecISE Network will enhance our understanding of asthma subtypes and accelerate the development of therapeutics for of severe asthma.

2.
J Asthma ; : 1-17, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy and safety of mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma in randomized controlled trials is well established. Following approval of mepolizumab as add-on therapy for severe eosinophilic asthma in multiple regions worldwide, it is now important to determine its impact in real-world settings in which patients are not subject to stringent eligibility criteria. This systematic literature review assessed published evidence of clinical outcomes, safety, and healthcare resource use among patients with severe asthma receiving mepolizumab in real-world settings. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in Embase, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process via Ovid. STUDY SELECTIONS: Eligible studies were observational, and enrolled ≥10 patients with asthma who received mepolizumab 100 mg subcutaneously. Data extracted included annualized exacerbation rate, mean daily oral corticosteroid (OCS) dose, proportion of patients using OCS, several measures of lung function, patient-reported asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), safety, and economic burden. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles (22 unique studies; 2,040 patients with severe asthma on mepolizumab) were identified. Mepolizumab use was associated with a reduction in annualized exacerbation rates (requiring OCS) of 54-97% (p < 0.05 in all studies), reduced mean/median daily OCS doses, and OCS discontinuation during follow-up (27-84% of patients). Improvements in lung function, asthma control, and HRQoL were also observed. The most commonly reported adverse events included headache and arthralgia; discontinuation of mepolizumab due to adverse events occurred in 0-10.6% of patients. CONCLUSION: Findings show that patients with severe asthma consistently demonstrate clinically relevant benefits with mepolizumab treatment in a real-world setting.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at www.tandfonline.com/ijas .

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(12): 862-872, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetic studies in asthma cohorts, primarily made up of White people of European descent, have identified loci associated with response to inhaled beta agonists and corticosteroids (ICSs). Differences exist in how individuals from different ancestral backgrounds respond to long-acting beta agonist (LABA) and ICSs. Therefore, we sought to understand the pharmacogenetic mechanisms regulating therapeutic responsiveness in individuals of African descent. METHODS: We did ancestry-based pharmacogenetic studies of children (aged 5-11 years) and adolescents and adults (aged 12-69 years) from the Best African Response to Drug (BARD) trials, in which participants with asthma uncontrolled with low-dose ICS (fluticasone propionate 50 µg in children, 100 µg in adolescents and adults) received different step-up combination therapies. The hierarchal composite outcome of pairwise superior responsiveness in BARD was based on asthma exacerbations, a 31-day difference in annualised asthma-control days, or a 5% difference in percentage predicted FEV1. We did whole-genome admixture mapping of 15 159 ancestral segments within 312 independent regions, stratified by the two age groups. The two co-primary outcome comparisons were the step up from low-dose ICS to the quintuple dose of ICS (5 × ICS: 250 µg twice daily in children and 500 µg twice daily in adolescents and adults) versus double dose (2-2·5 × ICS: 100 µg twice daily in children, 250 µg twice daily in adolescents and adults), and 5 × ICS versus 100 µg fluticasone plus a LABA (salmeterol 50 µg twice daily). We used a genome-wide significance threshold of p<1·6 × 10-4, and tested for replication using independent cohorts of individuals of African descent with asthma. FINDINGS: We included 249 unrelated children and 267 unrelated adolescents and adults in the BARD pharmacogenetic analysis. In children, we identified a significant admixture mapping peak for superior responsiveness to 5 × ICS versus 100 µg fluticasone plus salmeterol on chromosome 12 (odds ratio [ORlocal African] 3·95, 95% CI 2·02-7·72, p=6·1 × 10-5) fine mapped to a locus adjacent to RNFT2 and NOS1 (rs73399224, ORallele dose 0·17, 95% CI 0·07-0·42, p=8·4 × 10-5). In adolescents and adults, we identified a peak for superior responsiveness to 5 × ICS versus 2·5 × ICS on chromosome 22 (ORlocal African 3·35, 1·98-5·67, p=6·8 × 10-6) containing a locus adjacent to TPST2 (rs5752429, ORallele dose 0·21, 0·09-0·52, p=5·7 × 10-4). We replicated rs5752429 and nominally replicated rs73399224 in independent African American cohorts. INTERPRETATION: BARD is the first genome-wide pharmacogenetic study of LABA and ICS response in clinical trials of individuals of African descent to detect and replicate genome-wide significant loci. Admixture mapping of the composite BARD trial outcome enabled the identification of novel pharmacogenetic variation accounting for differential therapeutic responses in people of African descent with asthma. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793687

RESUMO

Rationale Whether biomarkers can be used to predict response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) in mild persistent asthma is unclear. Objectives In a pre-specified exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial of 295 participants >12 years old with uncontrolled mild persistent asthma, we sought to identify biomarkers of treatment response after 12 weeks of ICS (mometasone 200µg or 220µg twice/day), LAMA (tiotropium 5µg/day), or placebo in adults (>18 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) separately. Methods The primary outcome was a composite outcome of asthma control (treatment failure, asthma control days, and forced expired volume in the first second [FEV1]). Analyses examined Type 2 inflammatory biomarkers and physiologic biomarkers. We assessed the area under curve (AUC) for response to ICS and LAMA (each vs. placebo). An AUC of 0.5 suggests no discrimination, 0.7 to 0.8 is considered acceptable, more than 0.8 to 0.9 is considered excellent, and more than 0.9 is considered outstanding. Results In 237 adults, sputum and blood eosinophil levels and FeNO each predicted ICS response (AUCs 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.69), 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.72), and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.54-0.70), respectively; all p-values<0.01); the AUC for blood eosinophil levels and FeNO together = 0.66 (95% CI, 0.58-0.74), p<0.001. In 58 adolescents, the number of positive aeroallergens and total serum IgE each predicted ICS response (AUCs 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.85) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87), respectively; both p-values<0.03); the AUC for both together was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87), p=0.003. Post-ipratropium bromide FEV1 reversibility predicted LAMA response in adults (AUC 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69), p=0.007), but not in adolescents. Conclusions The AUCs of the Type 2 inflammatory biomarkers and physiologic biomarkers we examined may not be high enough to confidently identify individuals with asthma who respond to ICS and LAMA. However, our findings indicate that the biomarkers that predict response to ICS or LAMA may differ in adults versus adolescents with uncontrolled mild persistent asthma. Prospective, biomarker-stratified clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings and to identify first-line controllers tailored for each population. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02066298).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, a short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) delivered via metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is recommended for quick relief of asthma symptoms. However, in the PeRson EmPowered Asthma RElief (PREPARE) pragmatic trial, 67% of patients reported having used a nebulizer for SABA administration. OBJECTIVE: To understand preferences, experiences, and decision making regarding the use of nebulizers in Black and Latinx adults with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: We interviewed 40 of the 1,201 PREPARE patients employing a matrix analysis. Those interviewed were Black (n = 20) and Latinx (n = 20) adults with uncontrolled asthma seeking primary or specialty care in clinics throughout the United States. Data were analyzed used a Rapid Assessment Procedures qualitative methodology, informed by grounded theory. RESULTS: Substudy participants, on average, reported using a nebulizer 3.5 times/wk. Daily use was common, and frequency ranged from less than daily to up to 6 times daily. Nearly all participants reported a longstanding history of nebulizer use. Participants tended to use their nebulizer at home, and some shared it with others in the home. Many reported preferring a nebulizer over an MDI for relief of severe symptoms and to avoid emergency room visits or hospitalizations. The extent to which cost affected nebulizer use varied among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite asthma guideline recommendations that MDIs be used rather than nebulizers for SABA administration, nebulizer use was common among PREPARE study participants. Clinicians should explore patients' history and experiences with nebulizer use as part of evaluation of asthma control.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(18): 1656-1668, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, interleukin-4 and -13, and interleukin-5 are effective in treating severe type 2 asthma, but new targets are needed. Itepekimab is a new monoclonal antibody against the upstream alarmin interleukin-33. The efficacy and safety of itepekimab as monotherapy, as well as in combination with dupilumab, in patients with asthma are unclear. METHODS: In a phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, adults with moderate-to-severe asthma receiving inhaled glucocorticoids plus long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) to receive subcutaneous itepekimab (at a dose of 300 mg), itepekimab plus dupilumab (both at 300 mg; combination therapy), dupilumab (300 mg), or placebo every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. After randomization, LABA was discontinued at week 4, and inhaled glucocorticoids were tapered over weeks 6 through 9. The primary end point was an event indicating a loss of asthma control, assessed in the itepekimab group and the combination group, as compared with the placebo group. Secondary and other end points included lung function, asthma control, quality of life, type 2 biomarkers, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients underwent randomization. By 12 weeks, an event indicating a loss of asthma control occurred in 22% of the patients in the itepekimab group, 27% of those in the combination group, and 19% of those in the dupilumab group, as compared with 41% of those in the placebo group; the corresponding odds ratios as compared with placebo were as follows: in the itepekimab group, 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.88; P = 0.02); in the combination group, 0.52 (95% CI, 0.26 to 1.06; P = 0.07); and in the dupilumab group, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.70). As compared with placebo, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second before bronchodilator use increased with the itepekimab and dupilumab monotherapies but not with the combination therapy. Itepekimab treatment improved asthma control and quality of life, as compared with placebo, and led to a greater reduction in the mean blood eosinophil count. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all four trial groups. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-33 blockade with itepekimab led to a lower incidence of events indicating a loss of asthma control than placebo and improved lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03387852.).


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-33/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores de Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Falha de Tratamento
7.
JAMA ; 326(9): 839-850, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547084

RESUMO

Importance: School and classroom allergens and particles are associated with asthma morbidity, but the benefit of environmental remediation is not known. Objective: To determine whether use of a school-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter purifiers in the classrooms improve asthma symptoms in students with active asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Factorial randomized clinical trial of a school-wide IPM program and HEPA filter purifiers in the classrooms was conducted from 2015 to 2020 (School Inner-City Asthma Intervention Study). There were 236 students with active asthma attending 41 participating urban elementary schools located in the Northeastern US who were randomized to IPM by school and HEPA filter purifiers by classroom. The date of final follow-up was June 20, 2020. Interventions: The school-wide IPM program consisted of application of rodenticide, sealing entry points, trap placement, targeted cleaning, and brief educational handouts for school staff. Infestation was assessed every 3 months, with additional treatments as needed. Control schools received no IPM, cleaning, or education. Classroom portable HEPA filter purifiers were deployed and the filters were changed every 3 months. Control classrooms received sham HEPA filters that looked and sounded like active HEPA filter purifiers. Randomization was done independently (split-plot design), with matching by the number of enrolled students to ensure a nearly exact 1:1 student ratio for each intervention with 118 students randomized to each group. Participants, investigators, and those assessing outcomes were blinded to the interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of symptom-days with asthma during a 2-week period. Symptom-days were assessed every 2 months during the 10 months after randomization. Results: Among the 236 students who were randomized (mean age, 8.1 [SD, 2.0] years; 113 [48%] female), all completed the trial. At baseline, the 2-week mean was 2.2 (SD, 3.9) symptom-days with asthma and 98% of the classrooms had detectable levels of mouse allergen. The results were pooled because there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 interventions (P = .18 for interaction). During a 2-week period, the mean was 1.5 symptom-days with asthma after use of the school-wide IPM program vs 1.9 symptom-days after no IPM across the school year (incidence rate ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.38-1.33]), which was not statistically significantly different. During a 2-week period, the mean was 1.6 symptom-days with asthma after use of HEPA filter purifiers in the classrooms vs 1.8 symptom-days after use of sham HEPA filter purifiers across the school year (incidence rate ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.79-2.75]), which was not statistically significantly different. There were no intervention-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with active asthma, use of a school-wide IPM program or classroom HEPA filter purifiers did not significantly reduce symptom-days with asthma. However, interpretation of the study findings may need to consider allergen levels, particle exposures, and asthma symptoms at baseline. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02291302.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Asma/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Controle de Roedores , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rodenticidas
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493686

RESUMO

Asthma often worsens at night. To determine if the endogenous circadian system contributes to the nocturnal worsening of asthma, independent of sleep and other behavioral and environmental day/night cycles, we studied patients with asthma (without steroid use) over 3 wk in an ambulatory setting (with combined circadian, environmental, and behavioral effects) and across the circadian cycle in two complementary laboratory protocols performed in dim light, which separated circadian from environmental and behavioral effects: 1) a 38-h "constant routine," with continuous wakefulness, constant posture, 2-hourly isocaloric snacks, and 2) a 196-h "forced desynchrony" incorporating seven identical recurring 28-h sleep/wake cycles with all behaviors evenly scheduled across the circadian cycle. Indices of pulmonary function varied across the day in the ambulatory setting, and both laboratory protocols revealed significant circadian rhythms, with lowest function during the biological night, around 4:00 AM, uncovering a nocturnal exacerbation of asthma usually unnoticed or hidden by the presence of sleep. We also discovered a circadian rhythm in symptom-based rescue bronchodilator use (ß2-adrenergic agonist inhaler) whereby inhaler use was four times more likely during the circadian night than day. There were additive influences on asthma from the circadian system plus sleep and other behavioral or environmental effects. Individuals with the lowest average pulmonary function tended to have the largest daily circadian variations and the largest behavioral cycle effects on asthma. When sleep was modeled to occur at night, the summed circadian, behavioral/environmental cycle effects almost perfectly matched the ambulatory data. Thus, the circadian system contributes to the common nocturnal worsening of asthma, implying that internal biological time should be considered for optimal therapy.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 384(19): 1800-1809, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tezepelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks thymic stromal lymphopoietin, an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. The efficacy and safety of tezepelumab in patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma require further assessment. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients (12 to 80 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive tezepelumab (210 mg) or placebo subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 52 weeks. The primary end point was the annualized rate of asthma exacerbations over a period of 52 weeks. This end point was also assessed in patients with baseline blood eosinophil counts of less than 300 cells per microliter. Secondary end points included the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and scores on the Asthma Control Questionnaire-6 (ACQ-6; range, 0 [no impairment] to 6 [maximum impairment]), Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ; range, 1 [maximum impairment] to 7 [no impairment]), and Asthma Symptom Diary (ASD; range, 0 [no symptoms] to 4 [worst possible symptoms]). RESULTS: Overall, 1061 patients underwent randomization (529 were assigned to receive tezepelumab and 532 to receive placebo). The annualized rate of asthma exacerbations was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.07) with tezepelumab and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.84 to 2.39) with placebo (rate ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.53; P<0.001). In patients with a blood eosinophil count of less than 300 cells per microliter, the annualized rate was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.23) with tezepelumab and 1.73 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.05) with placebo (rate ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.75; P<0.001). At week 52, improvements were greater with tezepelumab than with placebo with respect to the prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.23 vs. 0.09 liters; difference, 0.13 liters; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.18; P<0.001) and scores on the ACQ-6 (-1.55 vs. -1.22; difference, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.20; P<0.001), AQLQ (1.49 vs. 1.15; difference, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.47; P<0.001), and ASD (-0.71 vs. -0.59; difference, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04; P = 0.002). The frequencies and types of adverse events did not differ meaningfully between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma who received tezepelumab had fewer exacerbations and better lung function, asthma control, and health-related quality of life than those who received placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Amgen; NAVIGATOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03347279.).


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 66, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The large airway epithelial barrier provides one of the first lines of defense against respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Substantial inter-individual variability in individual disease courses is hypothesized to be partially mediated by the differential regulation of the genes that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are involved in the subsequent host response. Here, we comprehensively investigated non-genetic and genetic factors influencing COVID-19-relevant bronchial epithelial gene expression. METHODS: We analyzed RNA-sequencing data from bronchial epithelial brushings obtained from uninfected individuals. We related ACE2 gene expression to host and environmental factors in the SPIROMICS cohort of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and replicated these associations in two asthma cohorts, SARP and MAST. To identify airway biology beyond ACE2 binding that may contribute to increased susceptibility, we used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if gene expression changes indicative of a suppressed airway immune response observed early in SARS-CoV-2 infection are also observed in association with host factors. To identify host genetic variants affecting COVID-19 susceptibility in SPIROMICS, we performed expression quantitative trait (eQTL) mapping and investigated the phenotypic associations of the eQTL variants. RESULTS: We found that ACE2 expression was higher in relation to active smoking, obesity, and hypertension that are known risk factors of COVID-19 severity, while an association with interferon-related inflammation was driven by the truncated, non-binding ACE2 isoform. We discovered that expression patterns of a suppressed airway immune response to early SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to other viruses, are similar to patterns associated with obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, which may thus contribute to a COVID-19-susceptible airway environment. eQTL mapping identified regulatory variants for genes implicated in COVID-19, some of which had pheWAS evidence for their potential role in respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that clinically relevant variation in the expression of COVID-19-related genes is associated with host factors, environmental exposures, and likely host genetic variation.


Assuntos
Brônquios , COVID-19/genética , Mucosa Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Asma/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
13.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805900

RESUMO

There is an acute need for advances in pharmacologic therapies and a better understanding of novel drug targets for severe asthma. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in a clinical trial of patients with severe asthma. In a pilot study, we applied systems biology approaches to epithelium gene expression from these clinical trial patients treated with imatinib to better understand lung function response with imatinib treatment. Bronchial brushings from ten imatinib-treated patient samples and 14 placebo-treated patient samples were analyzed. We used personalized perturbation profiles (PEEPs) to characterize gene expression patterns at the individual patient level. We found that strong responders-patients with greater than 20% increase in FEV1-uniquely shared multiple downregulated mitochondrial-related pathways. In comparison, weak responders (5-10% FEV1 increase), and non-responders to imatinib shared none of these pathways. The use of PEEP highlights its potential for application as a systems biology tool to develop individual-level approaches to predicting disease phenotypes and response to treatment in populations needing innovative therapies. These results support a role for mitochondrial pathways in airflow limitation in severe asthma and as potential therapeutic targets in larger clinical trials.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(3): 790-798, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IL-33/ST2 pathway is linked with asthma susceptibility. Inhaled allergens, pollutants, and respiratory viruses, which trigger asthma exacerbations, induce release of IL-33, an epithelial-derived "alarmin." Astegolimab, a human IgG2 mAb, selectively inhibits the IL-33 receptor, ST2. Approved biologic therapies for severe asthma mainly benefit patients with elevated blood eosinophils (type 2-high), but limited options are available for patients with low blood eosinophils (type 2-low). Inhibiting IL-33 signaling may target pathogenic pathways in a wider spectrum of asthmatics. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated astegolimab efficacy and safety in patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study (ZENYATTA [A Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of MSTT1041A in Participants With Uncontrolled Severe Asthma]) randomized 502 adults with severe asthma to subcutaneous placebo or 70-mg, 210-mg, or 490-mg doses of astegolimab every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the annualized asthma exacerbation rate (AER) at week 54. Enrollment caps ensured ∼30 patients who were eosinophil-high (≥300 cells/µL) and ∼95 patients who were eosinophil-low (<300 cells/µL) per arm. RESULTS: Overall, adjusted AER reductions relative to placebo were 43% (P = .005), 22% (P = .18), and 37% (P = .01) for 490-mg, 210-mg, and 70-mg doses of astegolimab, respectively. Adjusted AER reductions for patients who were eosinophil-low were comparable to reductions in the overall population: 54% (P = .002), 14% (P = .48), and 35% (P = .05) for 490-mg, 210-mg, and 70-mg doses of astegolimab. Adverse events were similar in astegolimab- and placebo-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Astegolimab reduced AER in a broad population of patients, including those who were eosinophil-low, with inadequately controlled, severe asthma. Astegolimab was safe and well tolerated.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Asma/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-33/antagonistas & inibidores , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(5): 1594-1601, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667479

RESUMO

Severe asthma accounts for almost half the cost associated with asthma. Severe asthma is driven by heterogeneous molecular mechanisms. Conventional clinical trial design often lacks the power and efficiency to target subgroups with specific pathobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, the validation and approval of new asthma therapies is a lengthy process. A large proportion of that time is taken by clinical trials to validate asthma interventions. The National Institutes of Health Precision Medicine in Severe and/or Exacerbation Prone Asthma (PrecISE) program was established with the goal of designing and executing a trial that uses adaptive design techniques to rapidly evaluate novel interventions in biomarker-defined subgroups of severe asthma, while seeking to refine these biomarker subgroups, and to identify early markers of response to therapy. The novel trial design is an adaptive platform trial conducted under a single master protocol that incorporates precision medicine components. Furthermore, it includes innovative applications of futility analysis, cross-over design with use of shared placebo groups, and early futility analysis to permit more rapid identification of effective interventions. The development and rationale behind the study design are described. The interventions chosen for the initial investigation and the criteria used to identify these interventions are enumerated. The biomarker-based adaptive design and analytic scheme are detailed as well as special considerations involved in the final trial design.


Assuntos
Asma , Biomarcadores , Medicina de Precisão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(3): 285-293, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779531

RESUMO

Rationale: Androgens are potentially beneficial in asthma, but AR (androgen receptor) has not been studied in human airways.Objectives: To measure whether AR and its ligands are associated with human asthma outcomes.Methods: We compared the effects of AR expression on lung function, symptom scores, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in adults enrolled in SARP (Severe Asthma Research Program). The impact of sex and of androgens on asthma outcomes was also evaluated in the SARP with validation studies in the Cleveland Clinic Health System and the NHANES (U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).Measurements and Main Results: In SARP (n = 128), AR gene expression from bronchoscopic epithelial brushings was positively associated with both FEV1/FVC ratio (R2 = 0.135, P = 0.0002) and the total Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.016) and was negatively associated with FeNO (R2 = 0.178, P = 9.8 × 10-6) and NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase gene) expression (R2 = 0.281, P = 1.2 × 10-10). In SARP (n = 1,659), the Cleveland Clinic Health System (n = 32,527), and the NHANES (n = 2,629), women had more asthma exacerbations and emergency department visits than men. The levels of the AR ligand precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate correlated positively with the FEV1 in both women and men.Conclusions: Higher bronchial AR expression and higher androgen levels are associated with better lung function, fewer symptoms, and a lower FeNO in human asthma. The role of androgens should be considered in asthma management.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/sangue , Asma/fisiopatologia , Testes Respiratórios , Broncoscopia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(3): 752-762, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding which imaging assessments of asthma are associated with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics are associated with longitudinal decline in lung function and morbidity in asthma. METHODS: We analyzed 205 qCT scans of adult patients with asthma and calculated baseline markers of airway remodeling, lung density, and pointwise regional change in lung volume (Jacobian measures) for each participant. Using multivariable regression models, we then assessed the association of qCT measurements with the outcomes of future change in lung function, future exacerbation rate, and changes in validated measurements of morbidity. RESULTS: Greater baseline wall area percent (ß = -0.15 [95% CI = -0.26 to -0.05]; P < .01), hyperinflation percent (ß = -0.25 [95% CI = -0.41 to -0.09]; P < .01), and Jacobian gradient measurements (cranial-caudal ß = 10.64 [95% CI = 3.79-17.49]; P < .01; posterior-anterior ß = -9.14, [95% CI = -15.49 to -2.78]; P < .01) were associated with more severe future lung function decline. Additionally, greater wall area percent (rate ratio = 1.06 [95% CI = 1.01-1.10]; P = .02) and air trapping percent (rate ratio =1.01 [95% CI = 1.00-1.02]; P = .03), as well as lower decline in the Jacobian determinant mean (rate ratio = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.41-0.82]; P < .01) and Jacobian determinant standard deviation (rate ratio = 0.52 [95% CI = 0.32-0.85]; P = .01), were associated with a greater rate of future exacerbations. However, imaging metrics were not associated with clinically meaningful changes in scores on validated asthma morbidity questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline qCT measures of more severe airway remodeling, more small airway disease and hyperinflation, and less pointwise regional change in lung volumes were associated with future lung function decline and asthma exacerbations.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Asma/patologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(7): 882-892, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545021

RESUMO

Rationale: Some reports indicate longitudinal variability in sputum differential cell counts, whereas others describe stability. Highly variable sputum eosinophil percentages are associated with greater lung function loss than persistently elevated eosinophil percentages, but elevated neutrophils are linked to more severe asthma.Objectives: To examine sputum granulocyte stability or variability longitudinally and associations with important clinical characteristics.Methods: The SARP III (Severe Asthma Research Program III) cohort underwent comprehensive phenotype characterization at baseline and annually over 3 years. Adult subjects with acceptable sputum levels were assigned to one of three longitudinal sputum groups: eosinophils predominantly <2%, eosinophils predominantly ≥2%, or highly variable eosinophil percentages (>2 SDs determined from independent, repeated baseline eosinophil percentages). Subjects were similarly assigned to one of three longitudinal neutrophil groups with a 50% cut point.Measurements and Main Results: The group with predominantly <2% sputum eosinophils had the highest lung function (prebronchodilator FEV1% predicted, P < 0.01; FEV1/FVC ratio, P < 0.001) at baseline and throughout 3 years compared with other eosinophil groups. Healthcare use did not differ, although the highly variable eosinophil group reported more asthma exacerbations at Year 3. Longitudinal neutrophil groups showed few differences. However, a combination of predominantly ≥2% eosinophil and ≥50% neutrophil groups resulted in the lowest prebronchodilator FEV1% predicted (P = 0.049) compared with the combination with predominantly <2% eosinophils and<50% neutrophils.Conclusions: Subjects with predominantly ≥2% sputum eosinophils in combination with predominantly ≥50% neutrophils showed greater loss of lung function, whereas those with highly variable sputum eosinophils had greater healthcare use.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , Eosinófilos/química , Granulócitos/química , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Escarro/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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