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2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442137

RESUMO

We conducted a phase Ib/II multi-arm, parallel cohort study to simultaneously evaluate various immunotherapeutic agents and combinations in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Overall, 50 patients were enrolled into one of 6 arms: (A) single agent PF-04518600 (OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody), (B) azacitidine + venetoclax + gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), (C) azacitidine + avelumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody) + GO, (D) azacitidine + venetoclax + avelumab, (E) azacitidine + avelumab + PF-04518600, and (F) glasdegib + GO. Among all regimens evaluated, azacitidine + venetoclax + GO appeared most promising. In this arm, the CR/CRi rates among venetoclax-naïve and prior venetoclax-exposed patients were 50% and 22%, respectively, and the 1-year OS rate was 31%. This study shows the feasibility of a conducting a multi-arm trial to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate novel therapies in AML, a needed strategy in light of the plethora of emerging therapies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03390296.

3.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CP-CML) who are resistant or intolerant to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may benefit from treatment with a third-generation TKI, like ponatinib. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss the role of ponatinib, an oral pan-inhibitor of BCR-ABL1, with potent activity in heavily pretreated patients, including T315I mutation. In the long-term follow-up of the PACE trial, 60% of patients with prior TKIs exposure achieved a major cytogenetic response with ponatinib and 40% a major molecular response; 5-year overall survival was 73%. Cardiovascular adverse events represent the major toxicity associated with ponatinib. Adopting a dose-reduction approach appeared to be safe: starting with 45 or 30 mg and decreasing to 15 mg once BCR-ABL1/ABL1≤1% is achieved. In patients who are not candidates for ponatinib therapy, asciminib or other novel TKIs like HQP1351, represent alternative options. EXPERT OPINION: In patients with CP-CML resistant or intolerant to second-generation TKIs, we favor using a third-generation TKI such as ponatinib. Although we initiate a donor search as soon as a patient fails a second-generation TKI, we still prefer treating patients with ponatinib and will only consider transplantation in the event of no response or disease progression.

5.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357036

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) discontinuation in patients with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph-positive CML) is increasingly considered. We aim to evaluate the outcome of patients with CML who discontinued TKIs, and determine the factors associated with differences in the success rates of treatment-free remission (TFR). Patients with Ph-positive CML treated between October 1999 and February 2017 who discontinued therapy were analyzed. A major molecular response (MMR) was defined as BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio on the International Scale ≤0.1%. TFR failure was defined as the loss of MMR on any single test. We analyzed TFR rates according to duration and depth of response, and conducted a multivariate analysis for factors associated with loss of MMR. Two-hundred and eighty-four patients were analyzed; 199 patients (70%) electively discontinued TKIs. At a median follow-up of 36 months (95% confidence interval, 32-40) after TKI discontinuation, 53 patients (19%) lost MMR. The estimated 5-year TFR rate was 79%. All but one patient regained MMR after resuming therapy. The estimated 5-year TFR rates were higher with MR4 and MR4.5 ≥5 years, compared with MR4 <5 years (87% vs. 92% vs. 64%; p < .0001). By multivariate analysis, only the duration of MR4 or MR4.5 ≥5 years before stopping treatment was associated with a lower risk of loss of MMR. In summary, TFR is safe and feasible in patients with Ph-positive CML on TKI therapy. Achieving MR4 or MR4.5 for at least 5 years is correlated with a better outcome.

7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 12, 2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treated secondary acute myeloid leukemia (ts-AML)-i.e., AML arising from a previously treated antecedent hematologic disorder-is associated with very poor outcomes. The optimal frontline treatment regimen for these patients is uncertain. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 562 patients who developed AML from preceding myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia for which they had received a hypomethylating agent (HMA). Patients with ts-AML were stratified by frontline AML treatment with intensive chemotherapy (IC, n = 271), low-intensity therapy (LIT) without venetoclax (n = 237), or HMA plus venetoclax (n = 54). RESULTS: Compared with IC or LIT without venetoclax, HMA plus venetoclax resulted in higher CR/CRi rates (39% and 25%, respectively; P = 0.02) and superior OS (1-year OS 34% and 17%, respectively; P = 0.05). The benefit of HMA plus venetoclax was restricted to patients with non-adverse risk karyotype, where HMA plus venetoclax resulted in a median OS of 13.7 months and 1-year OS rate of 54%; in contrast, for patients with adverse risk karyotype, OS was similarly dismal regardless of treatment approach (median OS 3-5 months). A propensity score analysis accounting for relevant clinical variables confirmed the significant OS benefit of HMA plus venetoclax, as compared with other frontline treatment approaches. In a landmark analysis, patients with ts-AML who underwent subsequent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) had superior 3-year OS compared to non-transplanted patients (33% vs. 8%, respectively; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of ts-AML are poor but may be improved with use of an HMA plus venetoclax-based regimen, followed by HSCT, particularly in those with a non-adverse risk karyotype.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/complicações , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 102(2): 123-133, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement is known for monocytic or myelomonocytic differentiation, but the full immunophenotypic spectrum and dynamic changes of the immunophenotype in this genetically defined disease have not been systematically studied. METHODS: We reviewed the immunophenotype, karyotype, and mutations at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse of adults with AML with KMT2A rearrangement in our institution between 2007 and 2020. RESULTS: We identified 102 patients: 44 men and 58 women with a median age of 52 years (range, 18-87). Forty-three patients were considered to be therapy-related. Twenty-four out of 64 patients relapsed from complete remission after induction therapy, 34 had persistent/progressive disease, and 58 patients died with a median overall survival of 17 months. We detected five immunophenotypes: immature monocytic (38%); myelomonocytic (22%); myeloblastic (22%); mature monocytic (10%); and acute promyelocytic (APL)-like (8%). By chromosomal breakpoints, we presumed 11 different partners; t(9;11) (p22;q23)/MLLT3-KMT2A was the most common rearrangement (n = 56, 55%), followed by t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A (n = 13,13%). Patients with t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A preferentially showed a myeloblastic phenotype (p = 0.026). Mutations were detected in 39/64 (61%) cases, and RAS pathway (NRAS/KRAS/PTPN11) was involved in 26/64 (41%) cases. None of the APL-like cases had mutations detected. At the time of disease relapse, 10/24 (42%) showed major immunophenotypic change, and 7/10 cases gained additional cytogenetic and/or molecular alterations. CONCLUSION: The immunophenotype of AML with KMT2A rearrangement is more diverse than previously recognized, with a substantial subset showing no evidence of monocytic differentiation. Major immunophenotype change is common at the time of relapse.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Recidiva , Translocação Genética
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771519

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a confirmatory test to establish a diagnosis of inv(16)/t(16;16) AML. However, incidental findings and their clinical diagnostic implication have not been systemically studied. We studied 1629 CBFB FISH cases performed in our institution, 262 (16.1%), 1234 (75.7%), and 133 (8.2%) were reported as positive, normal, and abnormal, respectively. The last included CBFB copy number changes (n = 120) and atypical findings such as 3'CBFB deletion (n = 11), 5'CBFB deletion (n = 1), and 5'CBFB gain (n = 1). Correlating with CBFB-MYH11 RT-PCR results, totally 271 CBFB rearrangement cases were identified, including five with discrepancies between FISH and RT-PCR due to new partner genes (n = 3), insertion (n = 1), or rare CBFB-MYH11 variant (n = 1) and eight with 3'CBFB deletion. All cases with atypical findings and/or discrepancies presented clinical diagnostic challenges. Correlating FISH signal patterns and karyotypes, additional chromosome 16 aberrations (AC16As) show impacts on the re-definition of a complex karyotype and prognostic prediction. The CBFB rearrangement but not all AC16As will be detected by NGS-based methods. Therefore, FISH testing is currently still needed to provide a quick and straightforward confirmatory inv(16)/t(16;16) AML diagnosis and additional information related to clinical management.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6123, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675197

RESUMO

Quantitation of rare somatic mutations is essential for basic research and translational clinical applications including minimal residual disease (MRD) detection. Though unique molecular identifier (UMI) has suppressed errors for rare mutation detection, the sequencing depth requirement is high. Here, we present Quantitative Blocker Displacement Amplification (QBDA) which integrates sequence-selective variant enrichment into UMI quantitation for accurate quantitation of mutations below 0.01% VAF at only 23,000X depth. Using a panel of 20 genes recurrently altered in acute myeloid leukemia, we demonstrate quantitation of various mutations including single base substitutions and indels down to 0.001% VAF at a single locus with less than 4 million sequencing reads, allowing sensitive MRD detection in patients during complete remission. In a pan-cancer panel and a melanoma hotspot panel, we detect mutations down to 0.1% VAF using only 1 million reads. QBDA provides a convenient and versatile method for sensitive mutation quantitation using low-depth sequencing.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Melanoma/genética , Mutação , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Calibragem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
11.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(9): 162, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588432

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with rearrangement of the lysine methyltransferase 2a gene (KMT2Ar) has adverse outcomes. However, reports on the prognostic impact of various translocations causing KMT2Ar are conflicting. Less is known about associated mutations and their prognostic impact. In a retrospective analysis, we identified 172 adult patients with KMT2Ar AML and compared them to 522 age-matched patients with diploid AML. KMT2Ar AML had fewer mutations, most commonly affecting RAS and FLT3 without significant impact on prognosis, except for patients with ≥2 mutations with lower overall survival (OS). KMT2Ar AML had worse outcomes compared with diploid AML when newly diagnosed and at relapse, especially following second salvage (median OS of 2.4 vs 4.8 months, P < 0.0001). Therapy-related KMT2Ar AML (t-AML) had worse outcomes compared with de novo KMT2Ar AML (median OS of 0.7 years vs 1.4 years, P < 0.0001). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) in first remission was associated with improved OS (5-year, 52 vs 14% for no allo-HSCT, P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, translocation subtypes causing KMT2Ar did not predict survival, unlike age and allo-HSCT. In conclusion, KMT2Ar was associated with adverse outcomes regardless of translocation subtype. Therefore, AML risk stratification guidelines should include all KMT2Ar as adverse.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(22): 4569-4574, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555853

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a difficult disease to treat disease. In a phase 2 clinical trial in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, combining the hypomethylating agent, azacitidine, with the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, demonstrated encouraging response rates (33%), median event-free, and overall survival, compared with a historical cohort of contemporary patients treated with azacitidine-based therapies, with an acceptable safety profile. Biomarkers of response are yet to be determined. In this study, we leveraged a multiplexed immune assay to assess the functional states of CD4+ and CD8+ cells at a single-cell level in pretherapy bone marrows in 16 patients with relapsed/refractory AML treated with azacitidine/nivolumab. Effector CD4+ but not CD8+ cells had distinct polyfunctional groups and were associated with responses and better outcomes. Further evaluation of the polyfunctional strength index composition across cell types revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were the major drivers of enhanced polyfunctionality index of pretherapy CD4+ subset, whereas Granzyme B, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, and TNF-α drove the nonsignificantly enhanced pretreatment Polyfunctional Strength Index of CD8+ subset in the responders. Single-cell polyfunctional assays were predictive of response in AML and may have a potential role as a biomarker in the wider sphere of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteômica , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Blood Adv ; 5(23): 5415-5419, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525185

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23)-KMT2A-AFF1 is associated with a poor prognosis. The impact of KMT2A rearrangements other than t(4;11) is uncertain, and the benefit of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is unclear. We reviewed adult patients with ALL treated at our institution from 1984 to 2019 and identified 50 out of 1102 (5%) with KMT2A rearrangement, including 42 (84%) with t(4;11)/KMT2A-AFF1 and 8 (16%) with other gene partners. The median age was 45 years (range, 18-78 years); median white blood cell count was 109.0 3 109/L (range, 0.5-1573.0). The complete remission (CR) rate was 88%, and the rate of measurable residual disease negativity by flow cytometry at CR was 41% (76% overall during follow-up). At the last follow-up, 14 patients were alive. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 35%), with no difference between t(4;11) and other KMT2A rearrangements (P 5 .87). In a 4-month landmark analysis, the 5-year OS rate was 32% (95% CI, 14% to 70%) in patients who underwent HSCT vs 11% (95% CI, 3-39) in others (P 5 .10). Our study confirms the poor prognosis of ALL with any KMT2A rearrangement and the role of HSCT in these patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hematol ; 96(11): 1420-1428, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351647

RESUMO

TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Frequência do Gene , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(6): 107, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083508

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia is a genetically heterogeneous hematologic malignancy; approximately 20% of AML harbors a mutation in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes, IDH1 or IDH2. These recurrent mutations in key metabolic enzymes lead to the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, which promotes leukemogenesis through a block in normal myeloid differentiation. Since this discovery, selective oral inhibitors of mutant IDH1 and IDH2 have subsequently been developed and are now approved as single agent therapy, based on clinical efficacy observed within the original first-in-human trials. The investigation of IDH inhibitors in combination with standard therapies such as azacytidine, with intensive chemotherapy, and with other small molecule targeted therapies in rational combinations are currently under evaluation to further improve upon clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Algoritmos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia
17.
Leukemia ; 35(9): 2482-2495, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131281

RESUMO

Menin inhibitors are novel targeted agents currently in clinical development for the treatment of genetically defined subsets of acute leukemia. Menin has a tumor suppressor function in endocrine glands. Germline mutations in the gene encoding menin cause the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, a hereditary condition associated with tumors of the endocrine glands. However, menin is also critical for leukemogenesis in subsets driven by rearrangement of the Lysine Methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A) gene, previously known as mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), which encodes an epigenetic modifier. These seemingly opposing functions of menin can be explained by its various roles in gene regulation. Therefore, leukemias with rearrangement of KMT2A are predicted to respond to menin inhibition with early clinical data validating this proof-of-concept. These leukemias affect infants, children and adults, and lead to adverse outcomes with current standard therapies. Recent studies have identified novel targets in acute leukemia that are susceptible to menin inhibition, such as mutated Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1), the most common genetic alteration in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In addition to these alterations, other leukemia subsets with similar transcriptional dependency could be targeted through menin inhibition. This led to rationally designed clinical studies, investigating small-molecule oral menin inhibitors in relapsed acute leukemias with promising early results. Herein, we discuss the physiologic and malignant biology of menin, the mechanisms of leukemia in these susceptible subsets, and future therapeutic strategies using these inhibitors in acute leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
18.
Cancer ; 127(15): 2641-2647, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dasatinib monotherapy has demonstrated modest clinical activity in chronic myeloid leukemia in lymphoid blastic phase (CML-LBP). The outcome of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has dramatically improved with hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). METHODS: The authors reviewed 85 patients (23 with CML-LBP and 62 with newly diagnosed Ph-positive ALL) who received hyper-CVAD plus dasatinib. RESULTS: In the CML-LBP cohort, 19 had prior chronic myeloid leukemia as chronic phase (n = 17; 74%), accelerated phase (n = 1; 4%), or myeloid blastic phase (n = 1; 4%); 4 (17%) presented with de novo CML-LBP. The BCR-ABL1 transcript was p210 in 22 patients (96%) and p190 in 1 patient (4%). In the Ph-positive ALL cohort, p210 and p190 transcripts were detected in 13 patients (21%) and 48 patients (77%), respectively. Patients with CML-LBP were less likely to achieve deep molecular remission than patients with Ph-positive ALL: the major molecular response (MMR) rates were 70% and 95%, respectively (P = .007), and the complete molecular response (CMR) rates were 55% and 74%, respectively (P = .16). Survival outcomes were similar for CML-LBP and Ph-positive ALL: the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 59% and 48%, respectively (P = .97). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was associated with a better outcome in CML-LBP (5-year OS rate, 88% vs 57%; P = .04). In Ph-positive ALL, the outcome was driven by deeper molecular remission: the 5-year OS rates were 63% and 25% with CMR and MMR, respectively (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of CML-LBP has improved with hyper-CVAD plus dasatinib therapy with survival comparable to that of Ph-positive ALL. Further improvement may be achieved with the use of novel TKIs and targeted agents.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética
19.
Blood Adv ; 5(7): 1876-1883, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792630

RESUMO

Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) provides prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the utility of MRD with venetoclax-based lower intensity regimens is unknown. We analyzed the prognostic value of achieving a negative MRD in older/"unfit" patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. MRD was evaluated in bone marrow specimens using multicolor flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.1%). Ninety-seven patients achieving either a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) or morphologic leukemia-free state were included. Median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 68-78 years), and 64% had adverse-risk AML. Eighty-three patients achieved CR/CRi, and 52 (54%) became MRD negative. Median time to becoming MRD negative was 2.0 months (interquartile range, 0.9-3.1 months). Patients becoming MRD negative by 2 months had longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with those remaining MRD positive (median RFS, not reached vs 5.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.78; P = .004), longer event-free survival (EFS) (median EFS, not reached vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55; P < .001), as well as longer overall survival (OS) (median OS, 25.1 vs 7.1 months; HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.51; P < .001). Patients achieving an MRD-negative CR had longer OS compared with those with an inferior response (median OS, 25.1 vs 11.6 months; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58; P < .0005). Patients becoming MRD negative within 1 month had an improved OS compared with MRD-positive patients (median OS, 25.1 vs 3.4 months; HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.64; P < .0001). Differential impact of MRD status on survival outcomes persisted at a later 4-month time point of evaluation. In conclusion, MRD-negative status at 1, 2, and 4 months after starting therapy confers significantly better survival in older/unfit patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03404193.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Sulfonamidas
20.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2489-2499, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax (VEN) combined with the hypomethylating agent (HMA) azacitidine improves survival in patients aged ≥75 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). VEN and HMA treatment can result in prolonged and often profound neutropenia, and this warrants antifungal prophylaxis. Azole antifungals inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, the primary enzyme responsible for VEN metabolism; this results in VEN dose reductions for each concomitant antifungal. Limited clinical data exist on outcomes for patients treated with VEN, an HMA, and various azoles. METHODS: The time to neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] > 1000 cells/mm3 ) and platelet (PLT) recovery (PLT count > 100,000 cells/mm3 ) in 64 patients with newly diagnosed AML who achieved a response after course 1 of VEN plus an HMA were evaluated. HMA therapy included azacitidine (75 mg/m2 intravenously/subcutaneously for 7 days) or decitabine (20 mg/m2 intravenously for 5 or 10 days). RESULTS: Forty-seven patients (73%) received an azole: posaconazole (n = 17; 27%), voriconazole (n = 9; 14%), isavuconazole (n = 20; 31%), or fluconazole (n = 1; 2%). The median time to ANC recovery were similar for patients who did receive an azole (37 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 34-38 days) and patients who did not receive an azole (39 days; 95% CI, 30 days to not estimable; P = .8). The median time to PLT recovery was significantly longer for patients receiving azoles (28 vs 22 days; P = .01). The median times to ANC recovery (35 vs 38 days) and PLT recovery (26 vs 32 days) were similar with posaconazole and voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: VEN plus an HMA resulted in neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with the latter prolonged in patients receiving concomitant azoles. Concomitant posaconazole or voriconazole and VEN (100 mg) resulted in similar ANC and PLT recovery times, suggesting the safety of these dosage combinations during course 1.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Trombocitopenia , Idoso , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Humanos , Sulfonamidas , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
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