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2.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 35: 23-28, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of thromboembolic events is increased in patients with heart failure (HF); however, few studies have reported thromboembolic findings in HF patients who have undergone autopsy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed 1457 autopsies (January 2000/July 2006) and selected 595 patients with HF. We studied the occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients' autopsy reports. Mean age was 61.8±15.9 years; 376 (63.2%) were men and 219 (36.8%) women; left ventricular ejection fraction was 42.1±18.7%. HF etiologies were coronary artery disease in 235 (39.5%) patients, valvular disease in 121 (20.3%), and Chagas' disease in 81 (13.6%). The main cause of death was progressive HF in 253 (42.5%) patients, infections in 112 (18.8%), myocardial infarction in 86 (14.5%), and pulmonary embolism in 81 (13.6%). Altogether, 233 patients (39.2%) suffered 374 thromboembolic events. A thromboembolic event was considered the direct cause of death in 93 (24.9%) patients and related to death in 158 (42.2%). The most frequent thromboembolism was pulmonary embolism in 135 (36.1%) patients; in 81 events (60%), it was considered the cause of death. When we compared clinical characteristics of patients, sex (OR=1.511, CI 95% 1.066-2.143, P=.021) and Chagas disease (OR=2.362, CI 95% 1.424-3.918, P=.001) were independently associated with the occurrence of thromboembolisms. CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolic events are frequent in patients with heart failure revealed at autopsy, and are frequently associated with the death process. Our findings warrant a high degree of suspicion for these occurrences, especially during the care of more susceptible populations, such as women and Chagas patients.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(20): 2281-2290, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline (ANT) chemotherapy is associated with cardiotoxicity. Prevention with ß-blockers remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to evaluate the role of carvedilol in preventing ANT cardiotoxicity. METHODS: The authors randomized 200 patients with HER2-negative breast cancer tumor status and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for ANT (240 mg/m2) to receive carvedilol or placebo until chemotherapy completion. The primary endpoint was prevention of a ≥10% reduction in LVEF at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were effects of carvedilol on troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS: Primary endpoint occurred in 14 patients (14.5%) in the carvedilol group and 13 patients (13.5%) in the placebo group (p = 1.0). No differences in changes of LVEF or B-type natriuretic peptide were noted between groups. A significant difference existed between groups in troponin I levels over time, with lower levels in the carvedilol group (p = 0.003). Additionally, a lower incidence of diastolic dysfunction was noted in the carvedilol group (p = 0.039). A nonsignificant trend toward a less-pronounced increase in LV end-diastolic diameter during the follow-up was noted in the carvedilol group (44.1 ± 3.64 mm to 45.2 ± 3.2 mm vs. 44.9 ± 3.6 mm to 46.4 ± 4.0 mm; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: In this largest clinical trial of ß-blockers for prevention of cardiotoxicity under contemporary ANT dosage, the authors noted a 13.5% to 14.5% incidence of cardiotoxicity. In this scenario, carvedilol had no impact on the incidence of early onset of LVEF reduction. However, the use of carvedilol resulted in a significant reduction in troponin levels and diastolic dysfunction. (Carvedilol Effect in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Cardiotoxicity [CECCY]; NCT01724450).

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(2): 111-112, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561988
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006207, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432453

RESUMO

AIMS: Explore the association between clinical findings and prognosis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and analyze the influence of etiology on clinical presentation and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort of 500 patients admitted with ADHF from Aug/2013-Feb/2016; patients were predominantly male (61.8%), median age was 58 (IQ25-75% 47-66 years); etiology was dilated cardiomyopathy in 141 (28.2%), ischemic heart disease in 137 (27.4%), and Chagas heart disease in 113 (22.6%). Patients who died (154 [30.8%]) or underwent heart transplantation (53[10.6%]) were younger (56 years [IQ25-75% 45-64 vs 60 years, IQ25-75% 49-67], P = 0.032), more frequently admitted for cardiogenic shock (20.3% vs 6.8%, P<0.001), had longer duration of symptoms (14 days [IQ25-75% 4-32.8 vs 7.5 days, IQ25-75% 2-31], P = 0.004), had signs of congestion (90.8% vs 76.5%, P<0.001) and inadequate perfusion more frequently (45.9% vs 28%, P<0.001), and had lower blood pressure (90 [IQ25-75% 80-100 vs 100, IQ25-75% 90-120], P<0.001). In a logistic regression model analysis, systolic blood pressure (P<0.001, OR 0.97 [95%CI 0.96-0.98] per mmHg) and jugular distention (P = 0.004, OR 1.923 [95%CI 1.232-3.001]) were significant. Chagas patients were more frequently admitted for cardiogenic shock (15%) and syncope/arrhythmia (20.4%). Pulmonary congestion was rare among Chagas patients and blood pressure was lower. The rate of in-hospital death or heart transplant was higher among patients with Chagas (50.5%). CONCLUSIONS: A physical exam may identify patients at higher risk in a contemporaneous population. Our findings support specific therapies targeted at Chagas patients in the setting of ADHF.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(12): 1510-1524, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911515

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is endemic in Latin America and is becoming a worldwide health burden. It may lead to heterogeneous phenotypes. Early diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is crucial. Several biomarkers have been reported in Chagas heart disease (ChHD), but most are nonspecific for T. cruzi infection. Prognosis of ChHD patients is worse compared with other etiologies, with sudden cardiac death as an important mode of death. Most ChHD patients display diffuse myocarditis with fibrosis and hypertrophy. The remodeling process seems to be associated with etiopathogenic mechanisms and neurohormonal activation. Pharmacological treatment and antiarrhythmic therapy for ChHD is mostly based on results for other etiologies. Heart transplantation is an established, valuable therapeutic option in refractory ChHD. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are indicated for prevention of secondary sudden cardiac death. Specific etiological treatments should be revisited and reserved for select patients. Understanding and management of ChHD need improvement, including development of randomized trials.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(4): e5978, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121951

RESUMO

Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF).We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000-May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis.Mean age was 63.3 ±â€Š15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008-1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168-0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies.Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Idoso , Autopsia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(4): 261-5, out.-dez.2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-831719

RESUMO

A doença de Chagas é considerada, atualmente, pela Organização Mundial da Saúde uma das doenças tropicais negligenciadas, com estimativa de mais de 8 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo o mundo. Recentemente tem havido crescente interesse na doença de Chagas, importante etiologia de miocardiopatia na América Latina, devido, em grande parte, ao aumento da incidência dessa doença em países desenvolvidos. A despeito do amplo emprego de drogas antiparasitárias na forma aguda da doença de Chagas, o tratamento etiológico da miocardiopatia chagásica crônica permanece incerto, sendo o benefício para o prognóstico dos pacientes ainda indeterminado. No presente artigo realizamos revisão sistemática a respeito do emprego de terapia celular, anticorpos, vacinas e plasmaferese em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Os dados levantados indicam que, a despeito de a terapia baseada em células-tronco mostrar potencial benéfico em modelos experimentais, em seres humanos, a evidência até o momento disponível não nos autoriza a utilizar tal modalidade na rotina assistencial. Vacinas baseadas em antígenos genéticos têm potencial a ser explorado, mas sem aplicabilidade momentânea em seres humanos. Novos estudos são necessários para elucidar o uso real dessas modalidades alternativas no contexto da miocardiopatia chagásica.


ABSTRACT The World Health Organization, with an estimate of over 8 million people infected worldwide, currently considers the Chagas disease as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Recently there has been increasing interest in Chagas disease, an important etiology of cardiomyopathy in Latin America, due in large part to the increased incidence in developed countries. Despite the widespread use of antiparasitic drugs in the acute infected form of Chagas disease, etiological treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy remains uncertain, and the benefit for the prognosis of patients still undetermined. In the present article, we present a systematic review on the use of cell therapy, antibodies, vaccines and plasmapheresis in patients with Chagas disease. The data collected indicate that, despite the stem cell-based therapy showing beneficial potential in experimental models, in humans, the evidence so far available does not allows us to use this modality as a routine treatment. Vaccines based on genetic antigens have potential to be explored, but without immediate applicability in humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate the actual use of these alternative methods in the context of Chagas cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Doença de Chagas/etiologia , Vacinas , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Plasmaferese/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(3): 265-275, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-761503

RESUMO

Background:Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden.Objective:We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients.Methods:We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost.Results:The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively.Conclusion:RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment.


Fundamento:A polifarmácia tem um significativo peso econômico.Objetivo:Testar se o uso de pregão em comparação ao de farmácias comerciais (FC) para a compra de medicamentos reduz o custo do tratamento de pacientes ambulatoriais de insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e transplante cardíaco (TC).Métodos:Comparação dos custos do tratamento através de pregão versus FC em pacientes de IC (808) e TC (147) acompanhados de 2009 a 2011, avaliando-se a influência de variáveis clínicas e demográficas no custo.Resultados:Os custos mensais por paciente para medicamentos de IC adquiridos através de pregão e através de FC foram $10,15 (IQ 3,51-40,22) e $161,76 (IQ 86,05-340,15), respectivamente. Para TC, aqueles custos foram $393,08 (IQ 124,74-774,76) e $1.207,70 (IQ 604,48-2.499,97), respectivamente.Conclusão:O pregão pode reduzir o custo dos medicamentos prescritos para IC e TC, podendo tornar o tratamento de IC mais acessível. As características clínicas podem influenciar o custo e os benefícios do pregão, que pode ser uma nova estratégia de política de saúde para baixar os custos dos medicamentos prescritos para IC e TC, diminuindo o peso econômico do tratamento. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Proposta de Concorrência/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Farmacológico/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Transplante de Coração/economia , Brasil , Controle de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(3): 265-75, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. METHODS: We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. RESULTS: The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05­340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. CONCLUSION: RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment.


Assuntos
Proposta de Concorrência/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Farmacológico/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Transplante de Coração/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Controle de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 34(5): 693-700, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25662857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity after heart transplantation (HT). Exercise training (ET) is widely recommended as a key non-pharmacologic intervention for the prevention and management of hypertension, but its effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and some mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension have not been studied in this population. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ET on ABP and arterial stiffness of HT recipients. METHODS: 40 HT patients, randomized to ET (n = 31) or a control group (n = 9) underwent a maximal graded exercise test, 24-hour ABP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment before the intervention and at a 12-week follow-up assessment. The ET program was performed thrice-weekly and consisted primarily of endurance exercise (40 minutes) at ~70% of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2MAX). RESULTS: The ET group had reduced 24-hour (4.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and daytime (4.8 ± 1.6 mm Hg, p < 0.01) systolic ABP, and 24-hour (7.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p < 0.001) daytime (7.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg, p < 0.001) and nighttime (5.9 ± 1.5 mm Hg, p < 0.001) diastolic ABP after the intervention. The ET group also had improved Vo2MAX (9.7% ± 2.6%, p < 0.001) after the intervention. However, PWV did not change after ET. No variable was changed in the control group after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The 12-week ET program was effective for reducing ABP but not PWV in heart transplant recipients. This result suggests that endurance ET may be a tool to counteract hypertension in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transplante de Coração/reabilitação , Hipertensão/reabilitação , Transplantados , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Cardiol ; 178: 55-62, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental conflicting data have questioned the relationship between infectious agents, inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious agents and inflammation in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens from patients with idiopathic DCM, explanted hearts from different etiologies, including Chagas' disease, compared to donated hearts. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, myocardial samples from 29 heart donors and 55 patients with DCMs from different etiologies were studied (32 idiopathic, 9 chagasic, 6 ischemic and 8 other specific etiologies). Inflammation was investigated by immunohistochemistry and infectious agents by immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences regarding the presence of macrophages, expression of HLA class II and ICAM-I in donors and DCM. Inflammation in Chagas' disease was predominant. By immunohistochemistry, in donors, there was a higher expression of antigens of enterovirus and Borrelia, hepatitis B and C in DCMs. By molecular biology, in all groups, the positivity was elevated to microorganisms, including co-infections, with a higher positivity to adenovirus and HHV6 in donors towards DCMs. This study was the first to demonstrate the presence of virus in the heart tissue of chagasic DCM. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of inflammation and infectious agents is frequent in donated hearts, in the myocardium of patients with idiopathic DCM, myocardial dysfunction related to cardiovascular diseases, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathies, including Chagas' disease. The role of co-infection in Chagas' heart disease physiopathology deserves to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/microbiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/microbiologia , Coração/microbiologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/normas , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 31: 56-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are Gram-positive cocci characterized by their dependence on pyridoxal or cysteine supplementation for growth in standard blood culture media. They are responsible for severe infections in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts, including infective endocarditis (IE). NVS have been divided into two different genera, Granulicatella and Abiotrophia. METHODS: We report four cases of IE caused by Granulicatella species, including clinical presentation, echocardiographic characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes. We also performed a literature search for previously reported cases of IE caused by Granulicatella species to better characterize this condition. RESULTS: A total of 29 cases of Granulicatella endocarditis were analyzed, including the four newly reported cases. The aortic (44%) and mitral (38%) valves were those most commonly affected. Multivalvular involvement was observed in 13% of cases. The mean vegetation length was 16mm. Complications were frequent, including heart failure (30%), embolism (30%), and perivalvular abscess (11%). The most frequent antibiotic regimen (85%) was penicillin or one of its derivatives plus gentamicin. The mortality rate was 17%. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis due to Granulicatella species is a rare and severe condition. Complications are frequent despite the use of appropriate antibiotic regimens.


Assuntos
Carnobacteriaceae , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(5): 505-509, 10/06/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-711087

RESUMO

Fundamento: Discordâncias entre diagnóstico pre e post-mortem são relatadas na literatura, podendo variar de 4,1 a 49,8% dentre os casos encaminhados para exame necroscópico, com importante repercussão no tratamento dos pacientes. Objetivo: Analisar pacientes com óbito após o transplante cardíaco e confrontar os diagnósticos pre e post-mortem. Métodos: Por meio da revisão de prontuários, foram analisados dados clínicos, presença de comorbidades, esquema de imunossupressão, exames laboratoriais, causa clínica do óbito e causa do óbito à necrópsia. Foram confrontadas, então, a causa clínica e a causa necroscópica do óbito de cada paciente. Resultados: Foram analisados 48 óbitos submetidos à necrópsia no período de 2000 a 2010; 29 (60,4%) tiveram diagnósticos clínico e necroscópico concordantes, 16 (33,3%) tiveram diagnósticos discordantes e três (6,3%) tiveram diagnóstico não esclarecido. Entre os discordantes, 15 (31,3%) apresentaram possível impacto na sobrevida e um (2,1%) não apresentou impacto na sobrevida. O principal diagnóstico clínico feito equivocadamente foi o de infecção, com cinco casos (26,7% dos discordantes), seguido por rejeição hiperaguda, com quatro casos (20% dos discordantes), e tromboembolismo pulmonar, com três casos (13,3% dos discordantes). Conclusão: Discordâncias entre o diagnóstico clínico e achados da necrópsia são comumente encontradas no transplante cardíaco. Novas estratégias no aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico clínico devem ser introduzidas, considerando-se os resultados da necrópsia para melhoria do tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca por meio do transplante cardíaco. .


Background: Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. Objective: To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. Methods: Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. Results: 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). Conclusion: Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(5): 505-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24759949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. METHODS: Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. RESULTS: 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 68(3): 401-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23644863

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 31(2): 100-7, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21884030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of dyspnea in chronic heart failure (HF) is multifactorial, and excessive ventilation is thought to play a role in inducing this symptom. Chemosensivity is augmented in HF, correlates with increased pulmonary ventilation (VE), and is an adverse prognostic marker. Despite increased blood levels of natriuretic peptides in clinical conditions associated with dyspnea, their effect on pulmonary VE and chemoreceptor activity remains unexplored. METHODS: We tested in a prospective, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over, double-blind randomized study the effects of the recombinant form of the natural human B-type natriuretic peptide (R-BNP) in comparison with placebo and levosimendan on chemoreflex sensitivity at rest, as well as their effects on pulmonary VE, systemic blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic serum activity both at rest and during exercise. RESULTS: Eleven stable chronic HF patients were randomized to sessions of 6-min treadmill-walking tests during placebo, or levosimendan or R-BNP intravenous infusion in the following conditions: room air, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. R-BNP administration determined higher pulmonary ventilatory response at rest and during exercise (P < 0.001) consequent to a boost of respiratory rate (P < 0.001) under room air and hypoxia conditions. Norepinephrine blood levels increased from rest to exercise in all conditions without differences among placebo, levosimendan, and R-BNP effects. BNP blood levels remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The novelty of the present findings is that R-BNP infusion in HF patients can boost pulmonary ventilatory response at rest and during exercise.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Células Quimiorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Hiperventilação/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Brasil , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hipercapnia/sangue , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Hiperventilação/sangue , Hiperventilação/diagnóstico , Hiperventilação/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Simendana , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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