Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70
Filtrar
1.
Nat Metab ; 3(2): 228-243, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619380

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of individuals with obesity do not suffer cardiometabolic comorbidities. The mechanisms that uncouple adiposity from its cardiometabolic complications are not fully understood. Here, we identify 62 loci of which the same allele is significantly associated with both higher adiposity and lower cardiometabolic risk. Functional analyses show that the 62 loci are enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue, and for regulatory variants that influence nearby genes that affect adipocyte differentiation. Genes prioritized in each locus support a key role of fat distribution (FAM13A, IRS1 and PPARG) and adipocyte function (ALDH2, CCDC92, DNAH10, ESR1, FAM13A, MTOR, PIK3R1 and VEGFB). Several additional mechanisms are involved as well, such as insulin-glucose signalling (ADCY5, ARAP1, CREBBP, FAM13A, MTOR, PEPD, RAC1 and SH2B3), energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation (IGF2BP2), browning of white adipose tissue (CSK, VEGFA, VEGFB and SLC22A3) and inflammation (SH2B3, DAGLB and ADCY9). Some of these genes may represent therapeutic targets to reduce cardiometabolic risk linked to excess adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/fisiologia , Adipócitos Brancos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alelos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1709-1724, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent literature has implicated a key role for mast cells in murine models of colonic inflammation, but their role in human ulcerative colitis (UC) is not well established. A major advance has been the identification of mrgprb2 (human orthologue, MRGPX2) as mediating IgE-independent mast cell activation. We sought to define mechanisms of mast cell activation and MRGPRX2 in human UC. METHODS: Colon tissues were collected from patients with UC for bulk RNA sequencing and lamina propria cells were isolated for MRGPRX2 activation studies and single-cell RNA sequencing. Genetic association of all protein-altering G-protein coupled receptor single-nucleotide polymorphism was performed in an Ashkenazi Jewish UC case-control cohort. Variants of MRGPRX2 were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human mast cell (HMC) 1.1 cells to detect genotype-dependent effects on ß-arrestin recruitment, IP-1 accumulation, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. RESULTS: Mast cell-specific mediators and adrenomedullin (proteolytic precursor of PAMP-12, an MRGPRX2 agonist) are up-regulated in inflamed compared to uninflamed UC. MRGPRX2 stimulation induces carboxypeptidase secretion from inflamed UC. Of all protein-altering GPCR alleles, a unique variant of MRGPRX2, Asn62Ser, was most associated with and was bioinformatically predicted to alter arrestin recruitment. We validated that the UC protective serine allele enhances ß-arrestin recruitment, decreases IP-1, and increases phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase with MRGPRX2 agonists. Single-cell RNA sequencing defines that adrenomedullin is expressed by activated fibroblasts and epithelial cells and that interferon gamma is a key upstream regulator of mast cell gene expression. CONCLUSION: Inflamed UC regions are distinguished by MRGPRX2-mediated activation of mast cells, with decreased activation observed with a UC-protective genetic variant. These results define cell modules of UC activation and a new therapeutic target.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393505

RESUMO

Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis can be caused by inborn errors of the TLR3 pathway, resulting in impairment of CNS cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. Deficiencies of the TLR3 pathway impair cell-intrinsic immunity to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and HSV-1 in fibroblasts, and to HSV-1 in cortical but not trigeminal neurons. The underlying molecular mechanism is thought to involve impaired IFN-α/ß induction by the TLR3 recognition of dsRNA viral intermediates or by-products. However, we show here that human TLR3 controls constitutive levels of IFNB mRNA and secreted bioactive IFN-ß protein, and thereby also controls constitutive mRNA levels for IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in fibroblasts. Tlr3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts also have lower basal ISG levels. Moreover, human TLR3 controls basal levels of IFN-ß secretion and ISG mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons. Consistently, TLR3-deficient human fibroblasts and cortical neurons are vulnerable not only to both VSV and HSV-1, but also to several other families of viruses. The mechanism by which TLR3 restricts viral growth in human fibroblasts and cortical neurons in vitro and, by inference, by which the human CNS prevents infection by HSV-1 in vivo, is therefore based on the control of early viral infection by basal IFN-ß immunity.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1546-1557, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) may soon be used to predict inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk in prevention efforts. We leveraged exome-sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data from 29,358 individuals in the multiethnic, randomly ascertained health system-based BioMe biobank to define effects of common and rare IBD variants on disease prediction and pathophysiology. METHODS: PRS were calculated from European, African American, and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) reference case-control studies, and a meta-GWAS run using all three association datasets. PRS were then combined using regression to assess which combination of scores best predicted IBD status in European, AJ, Hispanic, and African American cohorts in BioMe. Additionally, rare variants were assessed in genes associated with very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD), by estimating genetic penetrance in each BioMe population. RESULTS: Combining risk scores based on association data from distinct ancestral populations improved IBD prediction for every population in BioMe and significantly improved prediction among European ancestry UK Biobank individuals. Lower predictive power for non-Europeans was observed, reflecting in part substantially lower African IBD case-control reference sizes. We replicated associations for two VEO-IBD genes, ADAM17 and LRBA, with high dominant model penetrance in BioMe. Autosomal recessive LRBA risk alleles are associated with severe, early-onset autoimmunity; we show that heterozygous carriage of an African-predominant LRBA protein-altering allele is associated with significantly decreased LRBA and CTLA-4 expression with T-cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: Greater genetic diversity in African populations improves prediction across populations, and generalizes some VEO-IBD genes. Increasing African American IBD case-collections should be prioritized to reduce health disparities and enhance pathophysiological insight.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 130(7): 3885-3900, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538895

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and heritable phenotype frequently accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Here, using a reverse phenotyping approach, we report heterozygous coding variations in the core circadian clock gene cryptochrome 1 in 15 unrelated multigenerational families with combined ADHD and insomnia. The variants led to functional alterations in the circadian molecular rhythms, providing a mechanistic link to the behavioral symptoms. One variant, CRY1Δ11 c.1657+3A>C, is present in approximately 1% of Europeans, therefore standing out as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. We showed by exome sequencing in an independent cohort of patients with combined ADHD and insomnia that 8 of 62 patients and 0 of 369 controls carried CRY1Δ11. Also, we identified a variant, CRY1Δ6 c.825+1G>A, that shows reduced affinity for BMAL1/CLOCK and causes an arrhythmic phenotype. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that this variant segregated with ADHD and delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the affected family. Finally, we found in a phenome-wide association study involving 9438 unrelated adult Europeans that CRY1Δ11 was associated with major depressive disorder, insomnia, and anxiety. These results defined a distinctive group of circadian psychiatric phenotypes that we propose to designate as "circiatric" disorders.

6.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 769-776, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405658

RESUMO

Over the last decade next generation sequencing (NGS) has been extensively used to identify new pathogenic mutations and genes causing rare genetic diseases. The efficient analyses of NGS data is not trivial and requires a technically and biologically rigorous pipeline that addresses data quality control, accurate variant filtration to minimize false positives and false negatives, and prioritization of the remaining genes based on disease genomics and physiological knowledge. This review provides a pipeline including all these steps, describes popular software for each step of the analysis, and proposes a general framework for the identification of causal mutations and genes in individual patients of rare genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genes/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/etiologia , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão , Doenças Raras/etiologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Raras/patologia , Software
7.
Front Genet ; 11: 397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411182

RESUMO

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetic disorder characterized by skin, hair, and eye hypopigmentation due to a reduction or absence of melanin. Clinical manifestations include vision problems and a high susceptibility to skin cancer. In its non-syndromic form, OCA is associated with six genes and one chromosomal region. Because OCA subtypes are not always clinically distinguishable, molecular analysis has become an important tool for classifying types of OCA, which facilitates genetic counseling and can guide the development of new therapies. We studied eight Brazilian individuals aged 1.5-18 years old with clinical diagnosis of OCA. Assessment of ophthalmologic characteristics showed results consistent with albinism, including reduced visual acuity, nystagmus, and loss of stereoscopic vision. We also observed the appearance of the strabismus and changes in static refraction over a 2-year period. Dermatologic evaluation showed that no participants had preneoplastic skin lesions, despite half of the participants reporting insufficient knowledge about skin care in albinism. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed eight different mutations: six in the TYR gene and two in the SLC45A2 gene, of which one was novel and two were described in a population study but were not previously associated with the OCA phenotype. We performed two ophthalmological evaluations, 2 years apart; and one dermatological evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to perform clinical follow-up and genetic analysis of a Brazilian cohort with albinism. Here, we report three new OCA causing mutations.

8.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 9, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects ~ 1% of live births and is the most common birth defect. Although the genetic contribution to the CHD has been long suspected, it has only been well established recently. De novo variants are estimated to contribute to approximately 8% of sporadic CHD. METHODS: CHD is genetically heterogeneous, making pathway enrichment analysis an effective approach to explore and statistically validate CHD-associated genes. In this study, we performed novel gene and pathway enrichment analyses of high-impact de novo variants in the recently published whole-exome sequencing (WES) data generated from a cohort of CHD 2645 parent-offspring trios to identify new CHD-causing candidate genes and mutations. We performed rigorous variant- and gene-level filtrations to identify potentially damaging variants, followed by enrichment analyses and gene prioritization. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed 23 novel genes that are likely to cause CHD, including HSP90AA1, ROCK2, IQGAP1, and CHD4, and sharing biological functions, pathways, molecular interactions, and properties with known CHD-causing genes. CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, these findings suggest novel genes that are likely to be contributing to CHD pathogenesis.

9.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1873-1884, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806906

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is typically sporadic. Inborn errors of TLR3- and DBR1-mediated central nervous system cell-intrinsic immunity can account for forebrain and brainstem HSE, respectively. We report five unrelated patients with forebrain HSE, each heterozygous for one of four rare variants of SNORA31, encoding a small nucleolar RNA of the H/ACA class that are predicted to direct the isomerization of uridine residues to pseudouridine in small nuclear RNA and ribosomal RNA. We show that CRISPR/Cas9-introduced bi- and monoallelic SNORA31 deletions render human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cortical neurons susceptible to HSV-1. Accordingly, SNORA31-mutated patient hPSC-derived cortical neurons are susceptible to HSV-1, like those from TLR3- or STAT1-deficient patients. Exogenous interferon (IFN)-ß renders SNORA31- and TLR3- but not STAT1-mutated neurons resistant to HSV-1. Finally, transcriptome analysis of SNORA31-mutated neurons revealed normal responses to TLR3 and IFN-α/ß stimulation but abnormal responses to HSV-1. Human SNORA31 thus controls central nervous system neuron-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 by a distinctive mechanism.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Neurônios/imunologia , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/imunologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/patologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/virologia , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/imunologia
10.
Sci Immunol ; 4(41)2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784499

RESUMO

Genetic etiologies of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) disrupt human IL-17A/F-dependent immunity at mucosal surfaces, whereas those of connective tissue disorders (CTDs) often impair the TGF-ß-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues. The signaling pathways involved are incompletely understood. We report a three-generation family with an autosomal dominant (AD) combination of CMC and a previously undescribed form of CTD that clinically overlaps with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patients are heterozygous for a private splice-site variant of MAPK8, the gene encoding c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), a component of the MAPK signaling pathway. This variant is loss-of-expression and loss-of-function in the patients' fibroblasts, which display AD JNK1 deficiency by haploinsufficiency. These cells have impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17A and IL-17F. Moreover, the development of the patients' TH17 cells was impaired ex vivo and in vitro, probably due to the involvement of JNK1 in the TGF-ß-responsive pathway and further accounting for the patients' CMC. Consistently, the patients' fibroblasts displayed impaired JNK1- and c-Jun/ATF-2-dependent induction of key extracellular matrix (ECM) components and regulators, but not of EDS-causing gene products, in response to TGF-ß. Furthermore, they displayed a transcriptional pattern in response to TGF-ß different from that of fibroblasts from patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome caused by mutations of TGFBR2 or SMAD3, further accounting for the patients' complex and unusual CTD phenotype. This experiment of nature indicates that the integrity of the human JNK1-dependent MAPK signaling pathway is essential for IL-17A- and IL-17F-dependent mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and for the TGF-ß-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Alelos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614842

RESUMO

Network biology has the capability to integrate, represent, interpret, and model complex biological systems by collectively accommodating biological omics data, biological interactions and associations, graph theory, statistical measures, and visualizations. Biological networks have recently been shown to be very useful for studies that decipher biological mechanisms and disease etiologies and for studies that predict therapeutic responses, at both the molecular and system levels. In this review, we briefly summarize the general framework of biological network studies, including data resources, network construction methods, statistical measures, network topological properties, and visualization tools. We also introduce several recent biological network applications and methods for the studies of rare diseases.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Doenças Raras/genética , Software , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Doenças Raras/etiologia , Doenças Raras/imunologia , Doenças Raras/metabolismo
12.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/deficiência , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Transporte Proteico
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(W1): W623-W631, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045209

RESUMO

Human whole-genome-sequencing reveals about 4 000 000 genomic variants per individual. These data are mostly stored as VCF-format files. Although many variant analysis methods accept VCF as input, many other tools require DNA or protein sequences, particularly for splicing prediction, sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and structure prediction. However, there is no existing webserver capable of extracting DNA/protein sequences for genomic variants from VCF files in a user-friendly and efficient manner. We developed the SeqTailor webserver to bridge this gap, by enabling rapid extraction of (i) DNA sequences around genomic variants, with customizable window sizes and options to annotate the splice sites closest to the variants and to consider the neighboring variants within the window; and (ii) protein sequences encoded by the DNA sequences around genomic variants, with built-in SnpEff annotator and customizable window sizes. SeqTailor supports 11 species, including: human (GRCh37/GRCh38), chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, chicken, lizard, zebrafish, fruitfly, Arabidopsis and rice. Standalone programs are provided for command-line-based needs. SeqTailor streamlines the sequence extraction process, and accelerates the analysis of genomic variants with software requiring DNA/protein sequences. It will facilitate the study of genomic variation, by increasing the feasibility of sequence-based analysis and prediction. The SeqTailor webserver is freely available at http://shiva.rockefeller.edu/SeqTailor/.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos , Software , Animais , Bovinos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Internet , Camundongos , Ratos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 950-959, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591557

RESUMO

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Clin Invest ; 129(2): 583-597, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422821

RESUMO

X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-κB activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Quinase I-kappa B , Incontinência Pigmentar , Íntrons , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/metabolismo , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/deficiência , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Incontinência Pigmentar/genética , Incontinência Pigmentar/metabolismo , Incontinência Pigmentar/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino
16.
Bioinformatics ; 34(24): 4307-4309, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535305

RESUMO

Summary: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) generates large amounts of genomic data and reveals about 20 000 genetic coding variants per individual studied. Several mutation damage prediction scores are available to prioritize variants, but there is currently no application to help investigators to determine the relevance of the candidate genes and variants quickly and visually from population genetics data and deleteriousness scores. Here, we present PopViz, a user-friendly, rapid, interactive, mobile-compatible webserver providing a gene-centric visualization of the variants of any human gene, with (i) population-specific minor allele frequencies from the gnomAD population genetic database; (ii) mutation damage prediction scores from CADD, EIGEN and LINSIGHT and (iii) amino-acid positions and protein domains. This application will be particularly useful in investigations of NGS data for new disease-causing genes and variants, by reinforcing or rejecting the plausibility of the candidate genes, and by selecting and prioritizing, the candidate variants for experimental testing. Availability and implementation: PopViz webserver is freely accessible from http://shiva.rockefeller.edu/PopViz/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Software , Biologia Computacional , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
17.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
18.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
19.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Vacinação
20.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1340, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997612

RESUMO

High-throughput genomic technologies yield about 20,000 variants in the protein-coding exome of each individual. A commonly used approach to select candidate disease-causing variants is to test whether the associated gene has been previously reported to be disease-causing. In the absence of known disease-causing genes, it can be challenging to associate candidate genes with specific genetic diseases. To facilitate the discovery of novel gene-disease associations, we determined the putative biologically closest known genes and their associated diseases for 13,005 human genes not currently reported to be disease-associated. We used these data to construct the closest disease-causing genes (CDG) server, which can be used to infer the closest genes with an associated disease for a user-defined list of genes or diseases. We demonstrate the utility of the CDG server in five immunodeficiency patient exomes across different diseases and modes of inheritance, where CDG dramatically reduced the number of candidate genes to be evaluated. This resource will be a considerable asset for ascertaining the potential relevance of genetic variants found in patient exomes to specific diseases of interest. The CDG database and online server are freely available to non-commercial users at: http://lab.rockefeller.edu/casanova/CDG.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...