Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 261
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30580, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123890

RESUMO

Genetic factors play a role in individual differences in pain experience. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel loci regulating pain processing. We conducted a 2-stage GWAS and the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association study on pain experience using an exploratory cohort of patients with cancer pain. The confirmatory cohort comprised of participants from the general population with and without habitual use of analgesic medication. In the exploratory cohort, we evaluated pain intensity using a numerical rating scale, recorded daily opioid dosages, and calculated pain reduction rate. In the confirmatory cohort, pain experience was defined as habitual nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage. Using linear regression models, we identified candidate SNP in the exploratory samples, and tested the association between phenotype and experienced pain in the confirmatory samples. We found 1 novel SNP (rs11764598)-located on the gene encoding for pleiotrophin on chromosome 7-that passed the genome-wide suggestive significance at 20% false discovery rate (FDR) correction in the exploratory samples of patients with cancer pain (P = 1.31 × 10-7, FDR = 0.101). We confirmed its significant association with daily analgesic usage in the confirmatory cohort (P = .028), although the minor allele affected pain experience in an opposite manner. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with pain experience. Further studies are required to validate the role of pleiotrophin in pain processing.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040498

RESUMO

The associations between blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and colorectal cancer risk are controversial. We evaluated potential causal relationships between blood lipids and colorectal cancer risk. Using the baseline data from the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies, we estimated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-exposure associations (n=34,546 for TC, n=50,290 for HDL-C, n=51,307 for triglycerides, and n=30,305 for LDL-C). We also estimated the SNP-outcome associations in another Japanese dataset (n=7,936 colorectal cancer cases and n=38,042 controls). We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses for the association between each blood lipid type and the risk of colorectal cancer using an inverse variance-weighted method. The total variances explained by the selected SNPs in TC (68 SNPs), HDL-C (50 SNPs), log-transformed triglycerides (26 SNPs), and LDL-C (35 SNPs) were 7.0%, 10.0%, 6.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. The odds ratios for colorectal cancer were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.32) per 1 standard deviation (SD) (33.3 mg/dL) increase in TC, 1.11 (0.98-1.26) per 1 SD (15.4 mg/dL) increase in HDL-C, 1.06 (0.90-1.26) per 1 SD (0.5 log-mg/dL) increase in log-transformed triglycerides, and 1.17 (0.91-1.50) per 1 SD (29.6 mg/dL) increase in LDL-C. Sensitivity analyses consistently suggested the positive association between TC and colorectal cancer, whereas results of each lipid component were inconsistent. In conclusion, this large Mendelian randomization study of a Japanese population showed a potentially causal association between high TC and colorectal cancer risk, although the association between each lipid component and colorectal cancer remained inconclusive.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 84(2): 374-387, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967946

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer. The infection is acquired mainly in early childhood and is influenced by environmental factors, including socioeconomic status and sibling number. However, the impact of socioeconomic status and sibling number on Helicobacter pylori infection has not been well studied in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status, represented by education level, and sibling number on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among 3,423 non-cancer subjects who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding variables. Of the 3,423 subjects, 1,459 (42.6%) were Helicobacter pylori-positive. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection linearly decreased with increasing socioeconomic status [ORs (95% CIs) of moderate and high socioeconomic status relative to low socioeconomic status of 0.67 (0.53-0.84) and 0.43 (0.34-0.54), respectively; P trend=9.7×10-17]. In contrast, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection linearly increased with increasing sibling number [ORs (95% CIs) of SN 3-4 and ≥5 relative to sibling number ≤2 of 1.74 (1.47-2.06) and 2.54 (2.12-3.04), respectively; P trend=1.2×10-24]. This study showed that socioeconomic status and sibling number were significantly associated with the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Irmãos , Classe Social
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1727-1734, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and gastric cancer in East and Southeast Asia where most of gastric cancer is non-cardia gastric cancer. METHODS: On the basis of 8,997 gastric cancer cases among the Asia Cohort Consortium participants from China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore (N = 538,835), we assessed gastric cancer risk according to BMI by calculating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: A U-shaped associations between BMI and gastric cancer risk were observed. Gastric cancer risks in underweight group (<18.5 kg/m2) and in obesity group (≥27.5 kg/m2) were higher than reference BMI group (23-24.9 kg/m2; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25 for underweight; HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22 for obesity, respectively). The associations of underweight and obesity with gastric cancer risk were consistent in the analyses for non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. No significant association of underweight and obesity with the risk of cardia gastric cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and early-onset gastric cancer was observed. In addition, we found that the U-shaped association between BMI and gastric cancer risk remained in nonsmokers, while only underweight was related to increased gastric cancer risk in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: BMI has a U-shaped association with gastric cancer risk in East and Southeast Asian population, especially for the non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. IMPACT: Future studies with consideration of anatomic location and histology of gastric cancer are needed to establish the association of underweight as well as obesity with gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Magreza
5.
Breast Cancer ; 29(5): 869-879, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play critical roles in immune surveillance, an important defence against tumors. Imputing HLA genotypes from existing single-nucleotide polymorphism datasets is low-cost and efficient. We investigate the relevance of the major histocompatibility complex region in breast cancer susceptibility, using imputed class I and II HLA alleles, in 25,484 women of Asian ancestry. METHODS: A total of 12,901 breast cancer cases and 12,583 controls from 12 case-control studies were included in our pooled analysis. HLA imputation was performed using SNP2HLA on 10,886 quality-controlled variants within the 15-55 Mb region on chromosome 6. HLA alleles (n = 175) with info scores greater than 0.8 and frequencies greater than 0.01 were included (resolution at two-digit level: 71; four-digit level: 104). We studied the associations between HLA alleles and breast cancer risk using logistic regression, adjusting for population structure and age. Associations between HLA alleles and the risk of subtypes of breast cancer (ER-positive, ER-negative, HER2-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage, and late-stage) were examined. RESULTS: We did not observe associations between any HLA allele and breast cancer risk at P < 5e-8; the smallest p value was observed for HLA-C*12:03 (OR = 1.29, P = 1.08e-3). Ninety-five percent of the effect sizes (OR) observed were between 0.90 and 1.23. Similar results were observed when different subtypes of breast cancer were studied (95% of ORs were between 0.85 and 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: No imputed HLA allele was associated with breast cancer risk in our large Asian study. Direct measurement of HLA gene expressions may be required to further explore the associations between HLA genes and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Antígenos HLA , Alelos , Asiáticos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Int J Cancer ; 151(7): 1068-1080, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616624

RESUMO

Sleep duration is emerging as an important modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We assessed the association between sleep duration and cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese adults using data from six population-based cohorts with 271 694 participants. During a total follow-up period of about 5.9 million person-years, we identified 40 751 incident cancer cases and 18 323 cancer deaths. We computed study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression models and pooled the estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. Sleep duration of ≥10 hours (vs 7 hours) was associated with increased risk of cancer incidence among women (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38), but not men, and increased risk of cancer mortality among men (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39) and women (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.20-1.73). Sleep duration of ≤5 hours (vs 7 hours) was not associated with cancer incidence and mortality. However, among postmenopausal women, sleep durations of both ≤5 and ≥10 hours (vs 7 hours) were associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality. Among Japanese adults, sleep duration of ≥10 hours is associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality among women and cancer mortality among men.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 871-878, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420638

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical importance of genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers is widely recognized. However, there is insufficient evidence to include other cancer types that are potentially associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in clinical management guidelines. Objective: To evaluate the association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants with additional cancer types and their clinical characteristics in 100 914 individuals across 14 cancer types. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control analysis to identify cancer types and clinical characteristics associated with pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 included DNA samples and clinical information from 63 828 patients with 14 common cancer types and 37 086 controls that were sourced from a multi-institutional hospital-based registry, BioBank Japan, between April 2003 and March 2018. The data were analyzed between August 2019 and October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Germline pathogenic variants in coding regions and 2 bp flanking intronic sequences in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based target sequence method. Associations of (likely) pathogenic variants with each cancer type were assessed by comparing pathogenic variant carrier frequency between patients in each cancer type and controls. Results: A total of 65 108 patients (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 64.1 [11.6] years; 27 531 [42.3%] female) and 38 153 controls (mean [SD] age at registration, 61.8 [14.6] years; 17 911 [46.9%] female) were included in this study. A total of 315 unique pathogenic variants were identified. Pathogenic variants were associated with P < 1 × 10-4 with an odds ratio (OR) of greater than 4.0 in biliary tract cancer (OR, 17.4; 95% CI, 5.8-51.9) in BRCA1, esophageal cancer (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.9-11.0) in BRCA2, and gastric cancer (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.6-10.5) in BRCA1, and (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.1-7.1) in BRCA2 in addition to the 4 established cancer types. We also observed an association with 2 and 4 other cancer types in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Biliary tract, female breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers showed enrichment of carrier patients according to the increased number of reported cancer types in relatives. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this large-scale registry-based case-control study suggest that pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with the risk of 7 cancer types. These results indicate broader clinical relevance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Neoplasias , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1190-1203, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between body mass index (BMI) and oesophageal cancer (OC) has been consistently negative among Asians, whereas different associations based on histological OC subtypes have been observed in Europeans and North Americans. We examined the association between BMI and OC mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis to evaluate the association between BMI and OC mortality among 842 630 Asians from 18 cohort studies. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: A wide J-shaped association between BMI and overall OC mortality was observed. The OC mortality risk was increased for underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2: HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.80-2.70) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2: HR = 4.38, 95% CI 2.25-8.52) relative to the reference BMI (23-25 kg/m2). This association pattern was confirmed by several alternative analyses based on OC incidence and meta-analysis. A similar wide J-shaped association was observed in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and alcohol synergistically increased the OC mortality risk in underweight participants (HR = 6.96, 95% CI 4.54-10.67) relative to that in reference BMI participants not exposed to smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSION: Extreme obesity and being underweight were associated with an OC mortality risk among Asians. OC mortality and BMI formed a wide J-shaped association mirrored by OSCC mortality. Although the effect of BMI on OSCC and oesophageal adenocarcinoma mortality can be different in Asians, further research based on a large case-control study is recommended.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Magreza , Ásia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações
9.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1441-1450, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102643

RESUMO

A functional variant on ALDH2 rs671 (G>A) confers a protective effect against alcohol-induced carcinogenesis through an indirect pathway mediated by decreased alcohol consumption. Conversely, this variant also contributes to the accumulation of carcinogenic agents, resulting in a direct carcinogenic effect. This study aimed to separately quantify these two opposing effects of the rs671 A allele on pancreatic cancer risk and explore the impact of the rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption on pancreatic carcinogenesis. We included 426 cases and 1456 age- and sex-matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for alcohol consumption were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model. By defining rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption as exposure and mediator, respectively, we used mediation analysis to decompose the total-effect OR of the rs671 A allele into direct- and indirect-effect ORs. Alcohol consumption (10 g/d) was associated with pancreatic cancer risk (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), but tests for interaction between the rs671 A allele and alcohol consumption were nonsignificant, indicating that the effect of alcohol consumption did not vary by genotype. Mediation analysis showed that the nonsignificant total effect (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.92-1.44) can be decomposed into the carcinogenic direct (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.72) and protective indirect effect (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.95). This study supports the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk and indicates the potential contribution of the rs671 A allele to pancreatic carcinogenesis through impaired metabolism of known or unknown ALDH2 substrates.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(8): 1103-1110, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) are useful for weight reduction, and 50-55% carbohydrate consumption is associated with minimal risk. Genetic differences were related to nutritional consumption, food preferences, and dietary patterns, but whether particular genetic differences in individuals influence LCD adherence is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a GWAS on adherence to LCD utilizing 14,076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a previously validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food consumption. Association of the imputed variants with the LCD score by Halton et al. we used linear regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, total dietary energy consumption, and components 1 to 10 by principal component analysis. We repeated the analysis with adjustment for alcohol consumption (g/day) in addition to the above-described variables. RESULTS: Men and women combined analysis without adjustment for alcohol consumption; we found 395 variants on chromosome 12 associated with the LCD score having P values <5 × 10-8. A conditional analysis with the addition of the dosage data of rs671 on chromosome 12 as a covariate, P values for all 395 SNPs on chromosome 12 turned out to be insignificant. In the analysis with additional adjustment for alcohol consumption, we did not identify any SNPs associated with the LCD score. CONCLUSION: We found rs671 was inversely associated with adherence to LCD, but that was strongly confounded by alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Risco
12.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1451-1462, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218119

RESUMO

Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are hereditary, caused by germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) in breast cancer predisposition genes. To date, most studies of the prevalence of GPVs and risk of breast cancer for each gene based on cases and noncancer controls have been conducted in Europe and the United States, and little information from Japanese populations is available. Furthermore, no studies considered confounding by established environmental factors and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) together in GPV evaluation. To evaluate the association between GPVs in nine established breast cancer predisposition genes including BRCA1/2 and breast cancer risk in Japanese women comprehensively, we conducted a case-control study within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (629 cases and 1153 controls). The associations between GPVs and the risk of breast cancer were assessed by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 25 GPVs were detected among all cases (4.0%: 95% CI: 2.6-5.9), whereas four individuals carried GPVs in all controls (0.4%). The OR for breast cancer by all GPVs and by GPVs in BRCA1/2 was 12.2 (4.4-34.0, p = 1.74E-06) and 16.0 (4.2-60.9, p = 5.03E-0.5), respectively. A potential confounding with GPVs was observed for the GWAS-identified SNPs, whereas not for established environmental risk factors. In conclusion, GPVs increase the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women regardless of environmental factors and GWAS-identified SNPs. Future studies investigating interactions with environment and SNPs are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 291, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997128

RESUMO

Elucidating the risk factors for chronic kidney disease is important for preventing end-stage renal disease and reducing mortality. However, little is known about the roles of psychosocial stress and stress coping behaviors in deterioration of the renal function, as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This cross-sectional study of middle-aged and older Japanese men (n = 31,703) and women (n = 38,939) investigated whether perceived stress and coping strategies (emotional expression, emotional support seeking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, and disengagement) were related to the eGFR, with mutual interactions. In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, area, lifestyle factors, and psychosocial variables, we found a significant inverse association between perceived stress and the eGFR in men (Ptrend = 0.02), but not women. This male-specific inverse association was slightly attenuated after adjustment for the history of hypertension and diabetes and was more evident in lower levels of emotional expression (Pinteraction = 0.003). Unexpectedly, problem solving in men (Ptrend < 0.001) and positive reappraisal in women (Ptrend = 0.002) also showed an inverse association with the eGFR. Perceived stress may affect the eGFR, partly through the development of hypertension and diabetes. The unexpected findings regarding coping strategies require the clarification of the underlying mechanisms, including the hormonal and immunological aspects.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiopatologia , Angústia Psicológica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between breastfeeding and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling parous women and to clarify whether the associations depend on age. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 11,118 women, aged 35-69 years. Participants' longest breastfeeding duration for one child and their number of breastfed children were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, and their total breastfeeding duration was approximated as a product of the number of breastfed children and the longest breastfeeding duration. The longest and the total breastfeeding durations were categorized into none and tertiles above 0 months. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia) were defined as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Associations between breastfeeding history and metabolic syndrome or each cardiovascular risk factor were assessed using multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,118 women, 10,432 (93.8%) had ever breastfed, and 1,236 (11.1%) had metabolic syndrome. In participants aged <55 years, an inverse dose-response relationship was found between the number of breastfed children and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 breastfed children were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 1.17), 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.87), 0.44 (95% CI: 0.24 to 0.84), and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.89), respectively. The longest and total breastfeeding durations of longer than 0 months were also associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome relative to no breastfeeding history in participants aged <55 years. In contrast, all measures of breastfeeding history were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in participants aged ≥55 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding history may be related to lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged parous women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthy diet and physical activity (PA) are essential for preventing type 2 diabetes, particularly, a combination of diet and PA. However, reports on interaction between PA and diet, especially from large epidemiological studies, are limited. We investigated the effect of interaction between PA and macronutrient intake on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 55 469 men and women without diabetes who participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. A self-administered questionnaire ascertained PA and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, fat, and protein). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to adjust for confounding variables and examine the interactions. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study during a 5-year period within a subcohort (n=6881) with accelerometer-assessed PA data. RESULTS: Overall, PA had a weak inverse association (ß=-0.00033, p=0.049) and carbohydrate intake had a strong positive association (ß=0.00393, p<0.001) with HbA1c. We observed a tendency of interactions between PA and carbohydrate or fat intake, but not protein intake, on HbA1c levels after adjusting for age, sex, study area, total energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, and medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia (Pinteraction=0.054, 0.006, and 0.156, respectively). The inverse associations between PA and HbA1c level were more evident in participants with high-carbohydrate (or low-fat) intake than in participants with low-carbohydrate (or high-fat) intake. Although further adjustment for body mass index slightly attenuated the above interactions (Pinteraction=0.098 for carbohydrate and 0.068 for fat), the associations between PA and HbA1c level in stratified analyses remained unchanged. Similar associations and interactions were reproduced in the longitudinal study. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that the effect of PA on HbA1c levels is modified by intake of macronutrient composition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Cancer Med ; 11(6): 1553-1560, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are still important risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC) in developing countries, even though decreasing in tobacco prevalence. Recently, an increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancer due to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has attracted attention in advanced countries, including the United States and Europe. However, few studies have evaluated trends in the incidence of HNC by subsite in Japan. METHODS: Accordingly, we evaluated these trends in Japan using data from population-based cancer registries. We compiled population-based incidence data from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan Project, based on data from 19 population-based cancer registries. Number of incident cases and age-standardized incidence rates of HNC were estimated by subsite, namely lip, oral cavity, salivary glands, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasal and paranasal cavity, middle ear and NOS. Trends in agestandardized incidence rates were characterized using the Joinpoint analysis. RESULTS: Among both sexes, oral cavity cancer, salivary gland cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer showed an upward trend (oral cavity: annual percent change (APC) 1.2% for men and APC 1.9% for women; salivary gland: APC 2.2% for men and APC 3.1% for women; oropharynx: APC 5.0% for men and APC 7.6% for women). Additionally, hypopharyngeal cancer showed an upward trend for men (APC 4.1%), and nasopharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer showed a downward trend for men (nasopharynx: APC -2.7%; larynx: -1.1%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings will assist in focusing on the individual prevention of HNC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 31(3): 270-273, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Helicobacter pylori-driven gastric cancer, mucosal colonization induces chronic inflammation that may variably progress to cancer. Prospective studies of circulating inflammation-related proteins have suggested weak associations with gastric cancer risk. To assess potential utility as a screening tool in clinical settings, we examined circulating levels of a wide range of key inflammation molecules for associations with early-stage gastric cancer. METHODS: We used pretreatment EDTA plasma from 239 individuals with early-stage noncardia gastric cancer (203 stage I and 36 stage II) and 256 age-frequency-matched H. pylori-seropositive cancer-free controls within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Levels of 92 biomarkers were measured by proximity extension assays using Olink's Proseek Immuno-oncology Panel. Odds ratios (ORs) for association with gastric cancer risk were calculated for quantiles (two to four categories) of each biomarker from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered as significant. The false discovery rate (FDR) was used to correct for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Of 83 evaluable biomarkers, lower levels of TNFRSF12A (per quartile OR, 0.82; nominal P-trend = 0.02) and ADGRG1 (per quartile OR, 0.84; nominal P-trend = 0.03) were associated with early-stage gastric cancer but were not statistically significant after FDR correction. CONCLUSION: Our study did not identify any inflammation-related biomarkers that may be useful for early disease detection. To date, this is the first assessment of circulating inflammation-related proteins in early-stage gastric cancer. Given the complex inflammation processes preceding malignant transformation, further investigation of other biomarkers is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(2): 626-640, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations. METHODS: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Ásia/epidemiologia , Café/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Chá
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1276-1290, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing proportions of smokers in Japan smoke <10 cigarettes per day (CPD). Yet, the health risks of low-intensity smoking in Asia are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 410 294 adults from nine population-based prospective cohort studies participating in the Japan Cohort Consortium. Cigarette-use data were collected at each study baseline in 1983-1994. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression by CPD among current smokers and by age at cessation among former smokers, with never smokers as the referent group. Pooled HRs and CIs were computed using a random-effect model. RESULTS: The smoking prevalence was 54.5% in men and 7.4% in women. About 15.5% of male and 50.4% of female current smokers smoked 1-10 CPD (low-intensity). Both male and female low-intensity smokers had higher all-cause mortality risks than never smokers. Risks were further higher with increasing CPD in a dose-response manner. HRs (95% CIs) were 1.27 (0.97-1.66), 1.45 (1.33-1.59) and 1.49 (1.38-1.62) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in men; 1.28 (1.01-1.62), 1.49 (1.34-1.66) and 1.68 (1.55-1.81) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in women. Similar associations were observed for smoking-related causes of death. Among former low-intensity smokers, younger age at cessation was associated with lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking very low amounts was associated with increased mortality risks in Japan. All smokers should quit, even if they smoke very few CPD.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumantes
20.
Cancer Sci ; 113(1): 261-276, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689390

RESUMO

The association between alcohol intake and stomach cancer risk remains controversial. We undertook a pooled analysis of data from six large-scale Japanese cohort studies with 256 478 participants on this topic. Alcohol intake as ethanol was estimated using a validated questionnaire. The participants were followed for incidence of stomach cancer. We calculated study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stomach cancer according to alcohol intake using a Cox regression model. Summary HRs were estimated by pooling the study-specific HRs using a random-effects model. During 4 265 551 person-years of follow-up, 8586 stomach cancer cases were identified. In men, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of stomach cancer were 1.00 (0.87-1.15) for occasional drinkers, and 1.00 (0.91-1.11) for <23 g/d, 1.09 (1.01-1.18) for 23 to <46 g/d, 1.18 (1.09-1.29) for 46 to <69 g/d, 1.21 (1.05-1.39) for 69 to <92 g/d, and 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for ≥92 g/d ethanol in regular drinkers compared with nondrinkers. In women, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were 0.93 (0.80-1.08) for occasional drinkers, and 0.85 (0.74-0.99) for <23 g/d, and 1.22 (0.98-1.53) for ≥23 g/d in regular drinkers compared with nondrinkers. The HRs for proximal and distal cancer in drinkers vs nondrinkers were 1.69 (1.15-2.47) and 1.24 (0.99-1.55) for ≥92 g/d in men, and 1.60 (0.76-3.37) and 1.18 (0.88-1.57) for ≥23 g/d in women, respectively. Alcohol intake increased stomach cancer risk in men, and heavy drinkers showed a greater point estimate of risk for proximal cancer than for distal cancer.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Caracteres Sexuais , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...