Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 203
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757997

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified about 70 genomic loci associated with breast cancer. Owing to the complexity of linkage disequilibrium and environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to perform regional GWAS for better risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate the genetic architecture and to assess common genetic risk model of breast cancer with 6,669 breast cancer patients and 21,930 female controls in the Japanese population. This GWAS identified 11 genomic loci that surpass genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8 with nine previously reported loci and two novel loci that include rs9862599 on 3q13.11 (ALCAM) and rs75286142 on 21q22.12 (CLIC6-RUNX1). Validation study was carried out with 981 breast cancer cases and 1,394 controls from the Aichi Cancer Center. Pathway analyses of GWAS signals identified association of dopamine receptor medicated signaling and protein amino acid deacetylation with breast cancer. Weighted genetic risk score showed that individuals who were categorized in the highest risk group are approximately 3.7 times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to individuals in the lowest risk group. This well-powered GWAS is a representative study to identify SNPs that are associated with breast cancer in the Japanese population.

2.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
3.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6414-6425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475462

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are two major risk factors for esophageal cancer. Not all, but several of case-control studies have indicated interaction between the two factors; however, no prospective study has validated this phenomenon to date. Therefore, the interaction between smoking and alcohol drinking is still open-ended question. To answer this, we conducted a pooled analysis using large-scale population-based cohort studies in Japan. Male subjects from eight cohort studies were included. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were both categorized categorically (never/ever), and in the three consumption levels of pack years and ethanol consumption/day. Effects of smoking and drinking in each study were estimated by Cox regression models. The study-specific results were combined through meta-analysis to obtain summary effects of hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of interactions at both additive and multiplicative scales. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) from smoking and drinking were obtained using distributions of exposures and fully adjusted HRs. In 162 826 male subjects, 954 esophageal cancer incidences were identified. HRs of ever smoking, ever drinking, and their combination were 2.92 (1.59-5.36), 2.73 (1.78-4.18), and 8.86 (4.82-16.30), respectively. Interaction between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking was significantly positive on the additive scale, but not significant on the multiplicative scale. The joint effect of smoking and drinking in three levels of evaluation showed a similar significant super-additive interaction. PAFs from smoking, drinking, and their combination were 55.4%, 61.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a significant positive additive interaction for esophageal cancer risk.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1861-1867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to elucidate lifestyle-related risk factors for multiple myeloma in Asia. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality through a pooled analysis of more than 800,000 participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: The analysis included 805,309 participants contributing 10,221,623 person-years of accumulated follow-up across Asia Cohort Consortium cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between BMI, smoking, and alcohol at baseline and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with shared frailty. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant dose-dependent association between BMI categories and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality (<18.5 kg/m2: HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52-1.24; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: reference; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2: HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.47; ≥30 kg/m2: HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.64, P trend = 0.014). By sex, this association was more apparent in women than in men (P for heterogeneity between sexes = 0.150). We observed no significant associations between smoking or alcohol consumption and risk of multiple myeloma mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that excess body mass is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma mortality among Asian populations. In contrast, our results do not support an association between smoking or alcohol consumption and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations. IMPACT: This study provides important evidence on the association of BMI, smoking, and alcohol with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Genomics ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306748

RESUMO

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.

7.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1981-1987, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177299

RESUMO

Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with an increased risk of gastric malignant lymphoma. The chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by H. pylori infection induces lymphomagenesis. Although this chronic mucosal inflammation also results in atrophic gastritis, evidence supporting the possible significance of atrophic gastritis in gastric lymphomagenesis is scarce. Here, to evaluate the association between gastric mucosal atrophy and the risk of gastric lymphoma, we conducted a matched case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center focusing on the attribution of H. pylori infection status and pepsinogen (PG) serum levels. In total, 86 patients with gastric lymphoma (including 49 cases of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and 24 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)) and 1720 non-cancer controls were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Results failed to show a statistically significant association between atrophic gastritis and the risk of gastric lymphoma. The adjusted ORs of positive atrophic gastritis relative to negative for overall gastric lymphoma, MALT lymphoma, DLBCL, and other lymphomas were 0.77 (95% CI 0.45-1.33), 0.65 (0.30-1.39), 1.03 (0.38-2.79), and 0.84 (0.22-3.29), respectively. In contrast, a positive association between overall gastric lymphoma and H. pylori infection was observed (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.30-3.54). A consistent association was observed for MALT lymphoma, DLBCL, and other lymphomas with ORs of 1.96 (1.00-3.86), 1.92 (0.74-4.95), and 5.80 (1.12-30.12), respectively. These findings suggest that H. pylori infection triggers gastric lymphoma but that epithelial changes due to atrophic gastritis do not inherently affect the development of gastric lymphoma.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinogênese/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite Atrófica/complicações , Gastrite Atrófica/diagnóstico , Gastrite Atrófica/microbiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/etiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/microbiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052301

RESUMO

: The association between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been examined in a Japanese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 30,108 participants (aged 35-69 years) in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 46-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009, using body mass index instead of waist circumference. Factor analysis was applied to energy-adjusted intake of 21 nutrients, and three nutrient patterns were extracted: Factor 1 (fiber, potassium and vitamins pattern); Factor 2 (fats and fat-soluble vitamins pattern); and Factor 3 (saturated fatty acids, calcium and vitamin B2 pattern). In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, and other potential confounders, Factor 1 scores were associated with a significantly reduced odds ratio (OR) of MetS and all five components. Factor 2 scores were associated with significantly increased prevalence of MetS, obesity, and high blood pressure. Factor 3 scores were significantly associated with lower OR of MetS, high blood pressure, high serum triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol levels. Analysis of nutrient patterns may be useful to assess the overall quality of diet and its association with MetS.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e707, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies consistently indicate that alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for female breast cancer (BC). Although the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism (rs671: Glu>Lys) has a strong effect on acetaldehyde metabolism, the association of rs671 with BC risk and its interaction with alcohol intake have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case-control studies, with individual data on Asian ancestry women participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: We included 12,595 invasive BC cases and 12,884 controls for the analysis of rs671 and BC risk, and 2,849 invasive BC cases and 3,680 controls for the analysis of the gene-environment interaction between rs671 and alcohol intake for BC risk. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with rs671 and its interaction with alcohol intake for BC risk were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The Lys/Lys genotype of rs671 was associated with increased BC risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.014). According to tumor characteristics, the Lys/Lys genotype was associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.008), progesterone receptor (PR)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, p = 0.015), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48, p = 0.012). No evidence of a gene-environment interaction was observed between rs671 and alcohol intake (p = 0.537). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Lys/Lys genotype confers susceptibility to BC risk among women of Asian ancestry, particularly for ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative tumor types.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 431, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is globally one of the most common cancers. Although studies have found a significant prognostic impact of cancer location for right-sided colon cancers compared with those of the left-side, evidence is lacking in a Japanese population. Therefore, we investigated 5-year net survival in colon cancer by tumor site in a Japanese population. METHODS: Diagnoses obtained between 2006 and 2008 in 21 population-based cancer registries from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project were used. Colon cancer patients were categorized as having right-sided (C18.0-18.4) or left-sided colon cancer (C18.5-C18.7). We calculated the 5-year net survival for subjects diagnosed from 2006 until 2008 by anatomical subsite according to sex, age groups, tumor stage at diagnosis. We applied the excess mortality model to calculate excess hazard ratios (EHRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) with and without adjustment for age, sex and cancer stages to evaluate the effect of location of colon cancer. RESULTS: This study analyzed a total of 62,350 colon cancer subjects. Five-year net survivals for subjects with left- and right-sided colon cancer were 74.0% (95% CI, 73.4-74.7%) and 70.4% (95% CI, 69.7-71.0%), respectively. Compared with left-sided colon cancers, the EHR for right-sided colon cancers was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.16-1.25) after adjustment for age, sex and stage. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the net survival for right-sided colon cancer was significantly lower than that for left-sided colon cancer. The anatomical site of cancer in the colon might be an important stratification factor in future studies of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192696, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002328

RESUMO

Importance: Asia is home to the largest diabetic populations in the world. However, limited studies have quantified the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asian populations. Objectives: To evaluate the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia and to investigate potential effect modifications of the diabetes-mortality associations by participants' age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis incorporated individual participant data from 22 prospective cohort studies of the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2006. A total of 1 002 551 Asian individuals (from mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh) were followed up for more than 3 years. Cohort-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox regression models and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted between January 10, 2018, and August 31, 2018. Exposures: Doctor-diagnosed diabetes, age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 1 002 551 participants (518 537 [51.7%] female; median [range] age, 54.0 [30.0-98.0] years), 148 868 deaths were ascertained during a median (range) follow-up of 12.6 (3.0-38.9) years. The overall prevalence of diabetes reported at baseline was 4.8% for men and 3.6% for women. Patients with diabetes had a 1.89-fold risk of all-cause death compared with patients without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.74-2.04), with the highest relative risk of death due to diabetes itself (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 18.5-28.1), followed by renal disease (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.50-3.78), coronary heart disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-3.02), and ischemic stroke (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.85-2.51). The adverse diabetes-mortality associations were more evident among women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.89-2.32) than among men (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.88) (P for interaction < .001) and more evident among adults aged 30 to 49 years (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.84) than among adults aged 70 years and older (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.62) (P for interaction < .001). A similar pattern of association was found between diabetes and cause-specific mortality, with significant variations noted by sex and age. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of death from several diseases among Asian populations. Development and implementation of diabetes management programs are urgently needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Asia.

14.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 552-563, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate independent relationships of daily non-exercise life activity and leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits in Japanese adults. METHODS: Data of 24,625 eligible subjects (12,709 men, 11,916 women) who participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were analyzed. Information about lifestyle characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent associations of daily life activity as well as leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits by sex. RESULTS: Male subjects with higher daily life activity as well as with higher leisure-time exercise volume had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, independently with each other. Female subjects with higher daily life activity also had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Particularly, male and female subjects with the highest daily life activity quartile showed considerably low odds ratios of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81) and 0.64 (0.52-0.79), respectively, for low HDL-cholesterol even after the adjustment for BMI compared with the first quartile. Meanwhile, male subjects with the higher leisure-time exercise showed a quite lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides. Higher moderate-intensity exercise was more intensely associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its traits in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher daily life activity and higher moderate-intensity exercise may be independently associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults.

15.
Prev Med ; 123: 270-277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951734

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is increasing globally. We aimed to assess the effect of coffee consumption on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium). Data came from eight Japanese cohort studies (144,750 men and 168,631 women). During a mean follow-up time of 17 years, 52,943 deaths occurred. More specifically, 19,495 cancer deaths, 7321 deaths due to heart disease, 6387 cerebrovascular, 3490 respiratory disease and 3382 injuries and accidents. A random effects model was applied to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). In both sexes, coffee consumption up to 5 cups/day was overall protective in relation to all-cause mortality, with the association attenuating in the highest category of coffee consumption (≥5 cups/day). In men, a similar inverse association was observed for major causes of mortality except cancer. In women, coffee consumption decreased the risk for mortality due to heart disease in the 1-2 cups/day category, but increased the risk in the ≥5 cups/day category. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer in both sexes. Results were similar among male current smokers and female never-smokers. Based on available data, this pooled analysis suggests that coffee consumption under five cups per day may be beneficial for reducing the risk of mortality due to major causes.

16.
Circ J ; 83(4): 757-766, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee, which contains various bioactive compounds, is one of the most popular beverages. Further accumulation of evidence is needed, however, to confirm whether coffee consumption would be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population. Methods and Results: We evaluated the association between coffee consumption frequency (never, sometimes, 1-2 cups/day, 3-4 cups/day and ≥5 cups/day) and mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, in 39,685 men and 43,124 women aged 40-79 years at baseline, in a 3-prefecture cohort study. The coffee consumption frequency was assessed on questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the association between coffee consumption frequency and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. During 411,341 and 472,433 person-years in men and women, respectively, a total of 7,955 men and 5,725 women died. Coffee consumption frequency was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both genders (P for trend<0.001). In addition, the risks of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in men (P for trend<0.001), and heart disease in women (P for trend=0.031) were inversely associated with coffee consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese population, coffee drinking has a preventive effect on all-cause and on cardiovascular mortality in men and/or women.

17.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(4): 537-543, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883634

RESUMO

The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily consists of membrane proteins which translocate various substrates across membranes. Because ABCC11, a member ABC transporter, is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue, it may be involved in the efflux of conjugated estrogen metabolites. rs17822931, a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ABCC11, may play a role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer via estrogen. Here, we aimed to evaluate the association between ABCC11 rs17822931 and breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. We conducted a case-control study in 697 patients with breast cancer and 1394 age- and menopausal status-matched controls within the framework of the Hospital-based Epidemiological Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center II (HERPACC II). The association was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated using a conditional logistic model adjusted for potential confounders. In the per allele model, compared with the A allele, the G allele was inversely associated with breast cancer: OR, 0.77, 95% CI, 0.62-0.95 and P = 0.013. The stratified analyses showed that this polymorphism had a high impact on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer risk and conditions assumed to correlate with high exposure to estrogen, namely no lactation and low soy intake. Our data showed that a significant association between rs17822931 and the risk of breast cancer, especially ER-positive breast cancer, in Japanese women. Compared to women with low estrogen efflux activity with the A allele, those with high efflux activity with the G allele may have a lower risk of breast cancer, particularly women with high estrogen exposure.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191474, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924901

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding birth cohort-specific tobacco smoking patterns and their association with total and cause-specific mortality is important for projecting future deaths due to tobacco smoking across Asian populations. Objectives: To assess secular trends of tobacco smoking by countries or regions and birth cohorts and evaluate the consequent mortality in Asian populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled meta-analysis was based on individual participant data from 20 prospective cohort studies participating in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Between September 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, a total of 1 002 258 Asian individuals 35 years or older were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. The pooled results were presented for mainland China; Japan; Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; and India. Exposures: Tobacco use status, age at starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Country or region and birth cohort-specific mortality and the population attributable risk for deaths from all causes and from lung cancer. Results: Of 1 002 258 participants (51.1% women and 48.9% men; mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.6 [10.4] years), 144 366 deaths (9158 deaths from lung cancer) were ascertained during a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.7 (5.3) years. Smoking prevalence for men steadily increased in China and India, whereas it plateaued in Japan and Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. Among Asian male smokers, the mean age at starting smoking decreased in successive birth cohorts, while the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. These changes were associated with an increasing relative risk of death in association with current smoking in successive birth cohorts of pre-1920, 1920s, and 1930 or later, with hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.17-1.37) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.57-1.84) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 3.38 (95% CI, 2.25-5.07) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 4.74 (95% CI, 3.56-6.32) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 4.80 (95% CI, 3.71-6.19) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking accounted for 12.5% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.3%) of all-cause mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 21.1% (95% CI, 17.3%-24.9%) of all-cause mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.3%) of all-cause mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking among men accounted for 56.6% (95% CI, 44.7%-66.3%) of lung cancer mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 66.6% (95% CI, 58.3%-73.5%) of lung cancer mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 68.4% (95% CI, 61.3%-74.4%) of lung cancer mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. For women, tobacco smoking patterns and lung cancer mortality varied substantially by countries and regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mortality associated with tobacco smoking continued to increase among Asian men in recent birth cohorts, indicating that tobacco smoking will remain a major public health problem in most Asian countries in the coming decades. Implementing comprehensive tobacco-control programs is warranted to end the tobacco epidemic.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/mortalidade
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(2): 437-442, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803205

RESUMO

Background: The number of elderly patients with gynecological cancer in Japan is increasing in line with the aging of society. However, little has been reported on the survival of elderly patients aged 75 or older with gynecological cancer in Japan. Methods: To clarify survival in women aged 75 years or older with gynecological cancer, we analyzed data of 4,089 gynecological cancer cases (cervical cancer, 1,309 cases; endometrial cancer, 1,319 cases; and ovarian cancer, 1,461 cases) in patients aged 75 or older from 21 population-based cancer registries in Japan, diagnosed in 2006-2008. We calculated the net survival (NS) of younger (75-79 years old), older (80-84 years old) and the oldest age group (85-99 years old). We also calculated NS stratified by extent of disease and histological type. Results: Five-year NS of cervical cancer patients was 54.5% in the younger age group, 40.8% in the older age group and 28.2% in the oldest age group. Five-year NS of endometrial cancer patients was 64.5%, 51.6% and 39.0% in the younger, older and oldest age groups, respectively. Five-year NS of ovarian cancer was 34.7%, 18.8% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We estimated NS in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with gynecological cancers in Japan using data from population-based cancer registries.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
20.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA