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2.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 144, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aciduria caused by urinary excretion of acidic metabolic wastes produced in daily life is known to be augmented in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate the reno-protective effect of oral alkalizing agents for the improvement of metabolic acidosis and neutralization of intratubular pH in the patients with mild stages of CKD. Also, to identify reno-protective surrogate markers in the serum and urine that can closely associate the effect of urine alkalization. METHODS: In this single-centered, open-labeled, randomized cohort study, patients with CKD stages G2, G3a and G3b, who visited and were treated at Tohoku University Hospital during the enrollment period were registered. We administered sodium bicarbonate or sodium-potassium citrate as the oral alkalinizing agents. A total of 150 patients with CKD will be randomly allocated into the following three groups: sodium bicarbonate, sodium-potassium citrate and standard therapy group without any alkalinizing agents. The data of performance status, venous blood test, spot urine test, venous blood-gas test, electrocardiogram, renal arterial ultrasonography and chest X-ray will be collected at 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks (short-term study) from starting the interventions. These data will be also collected at 1 and 2 years (long-term study). The samples of plasma and serum and early-morning urine at every visit will be acquired for the analysis of renal function and surrogate uremic biomarkers. The recruitment for this cohort study terminated in March, 2018, and the follow-up period for all the enrolled subjects will be terminated in December, 2020. The primary endpoint will be the development of originally-defined significant renal dysfunction or the occurrence of any cerebrovascular disease in the short-term study. The secondary endpoint will be the same endpoints as in the long-term study, or the patients with significant changes in the suggested the surrogate biomarkers. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will address the importance of taking oral alkalizing agents in the patients with early stages of CKD, furthermore they could address any new surrogate biomarkers that can be useful from early stage CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered Report Identifier: UMIN000010059 and jRCT021180043. The trial registration number; 150. Date of registration; 2013/02/26.

4.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, etc. Only a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for UAE have been conducted in the European population, but not in the Asian population. Here we conducted GWAS and identified several candidate genes harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for UAE in the Japanese population. METHODS: We conducted GWAS for UAE in 7805 individuals of Asian ancestry from health-survey data collected by Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo) and Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (IMM). The SNP genotype data were obtained with a SNP microarray. After imputation using a haplotype panel consisting of 2000 genome sequencing, 4,962,728 SNP markers were used for the GWAS. RESULTS: Eighteen SNPs at 14 loci (GRM7, EXOC1/NMU, LPA, STEAP1B/RAPGEF5, SEMA3D, PRKAG2, TRIQK, SERTM1, TPT1-AS1, OR5AU1, TSHR, FMN1/RYR3, COPRS, and BRD1) were associated with UAE in the Japanese individuals. A locus with particularly strong associations was observed on TSHR, chromosome 14 [rs116622332 (p = 3.99 × 10-10)]. CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully identified UAE-associated variant loci in the Japanese population. Further study is required to confirm this association.

5.
CEN Case Rep ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128695

RESUMO

Unlike complete deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) (i.e., Lesch-Nyhan syndrome), partial HPRT deficiency causes HPRT-related hyperuricemia without neurological symptoms. Herein, we describe a 22-year-old man without neurological symptoms that presented gout, hyperuricemia (serum urate level, 12.2 mg/dL), multiple renal microcalculi, and a family history of juvenile gout that was exhibited by his brother and grandfather. Genetic testing revealed a novel missense mutation, c.103G>A (p.V35M), in the HPRT1 gene, and biochemical testing (conducted using the patient's erythrocytes) showed that the patient retained only 12.4% HPRT enzymatic activity compared to that exhibited by a healthy control subject. We thus diagnosed the patient with HPRT-related hyperuricemia caused by partial HPRT deficiency. After his serum urate level was controlled via treatment with febuxostat, his gout did not recur. Thus, this study emphasizes that HPRT deficiency should be considered as a potential cause of familial juvenile gout, even in the absence of neurological symptoms.

6.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies among pregnant Asian women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been widely performed; therefore, clinical criteria for these patients have not been well established. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among pregnant women with CKD who received prenatal care at our institution for 8 consecutive years. Primary outcome was the development of severe adverse events (SAEs). We analyzed correlations between primary outcome and CKD parameters [age, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and not normal blood pressure (non-NBP)] at the time of referral. Secondary outcomes were low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery (PreD), and small for gestational age (SGA). We divided into two categories, CKD stage G1, and G2 or higher according to eGFR, and proteinuria negative and proteinuria positive according to UP, respectively. RESULTS: We observed 89 pregnancies. SAE was observed in 28 pregnancies. In live birth cases, there were 28 PreD, 28 LBW and 13 SGA. Major SAEs included preeclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, unscheduled cesarean section, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and fetal death. Stepwise logistic regression analysis selected eGFR (OR = 0.847, p = 0.026), SBP (OR = 1.897, p = 0.006) and proteinuria positive (OR = 2.96, p = 0.046) as the significant predictors of SAEs. There were no significant differences among the baseline characteristics stratified by SGA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report pregnancy outcomes among Japanese non-disease-oriented patients with CKD. In Asians, especially in the Japanese population, kidney function, blood pressure and proteinuria might affect pregnancy outcomes.

7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1067-F1073, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200667

RESUMO

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are coagulation protease targets, and they increase expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in various diseases. Of all PARs, previous reports have shown that PAR1 or PAR2 inhibition is protective against diabetic glomerular injury. However, how PAR1 and PAR2 cooperatively contribute to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) pathogenesis and whether dual blockade of PARs is more effective in DKD remain elusive. To address this issue, male type I diabetic Akita mice heterozygous for endothelial nitric oxide synthase were used as a model of DKD. Mice (4 mo old) were divided into four treatment groups and administered vehicle, PAR1 antagonist (E5555, 60 mg·kg-1·day-1), PAR2 antagonist (FSLLRY, 3 mg·kg-1·day-1), or E5555 + FSLLRY for 4 wk. The results showed that the urinary albumin creatinine ratio was significantly reduced when both PAR1 and PAR2 were blocked with E5555 + FSLLRY compared with the vehicle-treated group. Dual blockade of PAR1 and PAR2 by E5555 + FSLLRY additively ameliorated histological injury, including mesangial expansion, glomerular macrophage infiltration, and collagen type IV deposition. Marked reduction of inflammation- and fibrosis-related gene expression in the kidney was also observed. In vitro, PAR1 and PAR2 agonists additively increased mRNA expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human endothelial cells. Changes induced by the PAR1 agonist were blocked by a NF-κB inhibitor, whereas those of the PAR2 agonist were blocked by MAPK and/or NF-κB inhibitors. These findings suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 additively contribute to DKD pathogenesis and that dual blockade of both could be a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients with DKD.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 525(3): 773-779, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147096

RESUMO

In chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of circulating uremic toxins are associated with a variety of symptoms and organ dysfunction. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) are microbiota-derived metabolites and representative uremic toxins. We have previously shown that the oral adsorbent AST-120 profoundly reduced pCS compared to IS in adenine-induced renal failure in mice. However, the mechanisms of the different attenuation effects of AST-120 between IS and pCS are unclear. To clarify the difference of AST-120 on IS and pCS, we investigated the levels of fecal indole and p-cresol, the respective precursors of IS and pCS, and examined the influence on the gut microbiota. Although fecal indole was detected in all groups analyzed, fecal p-cresol was not detected in AST-120 treatment groups. In genus level, a total of 23 organisms were significantly changed by renal failure or AST-120 treatment. Especially, AST-120 reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae uncultured and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, which have a gene involved in p-cresol production. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the adsorption of the uremic toxin precursors, AST-120 affects the abundance of some gut microbiota in normal and renal failure conditions, thereby explaining the different attenuation effects on IS and pCS.

9.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(5): 391-401, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996895

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) can cause secondary hypertension, progressive decline in renal function, and cardiac complications. Recent randomized controlled trials including the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions study have not reported the benefit of renal artery stenting compared with medical therapy alone to improve renal function or reduce cardiovascular and renal events in the enrolled patients with ARAS. However, observational evidence indicating the benefits of angioplasty in the selected high-risk patients with ARAS has been increasing. Thus, the timely correction of stenosis through angioplasty may have a beneficial effect in selected patients. However, optimal patient selection for angioplasty has been debated and can be challenging at times. Clinicians must identify the responsive patients who would benefit from angioplasty through risk stratification and the prediction of outcomes. Efforts have been made for the determination of predictors that can identify the subgroups of patients who would benefit from angioplasty. Lower age, more severe stenosis, preserved renal perfusion, and absence of diabetes or generalized atherosclerosis have been reported as the predictors for the improvement of hypertension after angioplasty. Global renal ischemia, rapidly declining renal function over 6-12 months, progressive shrinkage of the affected kidney, lower resistive index, and lower levels of albuminuria have been reported as predictors of improved or preserved renal function after angioplasty. This review discusses the identification of ARAS patients who will potentially respond well to angioplasty.

10.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932529

RESUMO

BackgroundWe established a community-based cohort study to assess the long-term impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on disaster victims and gene-environmental interactions on the incidence of major diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.MethodsWe asked participants to join our cohort in the health check-up settings and assessment center based settings. Inclusion criteria was aged 20 years or over and living in Miyagi or Iwate Prefecture. We obtained information on lifestyle, effect of disaster, blood, and urine information (Type 1 survey), and some detailed measurements (Type 2 survey), for example, carotid echography, calcaneal ultrasound bone mineral density, and so on. All participants agreed to measure genome information and to distribute their information widely.ResultsAs a result, 87,865 gave their informed consent to join our study. Participation rate at health check-up site was about 70%. The participants with Type 1 survey were more likely to have psychological distress than those of Type 2 survey, and women were more likely to have psychological distress than men. Additionally, coastal residents were more likely to have higher degrees of psychological distress than inland residents regardless of sex.ConclusionThis cohort comprised large sample size and it contains information on disaster, genome information, and metabolome information. This cohort also had several detailed measurements. Using this cohort enabled us to clarify the long-term effect of disaster and also to establish personalized prevention based on genome, metabolome, and other omics information.

12.
Intern Med ; 59(9): 1173-1177, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956203

RESUMO

We report a case in which diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) demonstrated renal artery stenosis-related renal ischemia and the therapeutic efficacy of revascularization. The patient was a 73-year-old man, who underwent descending thoracic aortic replacement due to DeBakey IIIb chronic aortic dissection, and who showed progressive renal dysfunction due to right renal artery stenosis caused by false lumen thrombosis. DWI demonstrated a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the right kidney, indicating renal ischemia. Angioplasty with stenting restored renal perfusion and improved the renal function, resulting in the normalization of the decreased ADC in the treated kidney. Thus, DWI can be used to monitor renal ischemia in cases involving advanced renal artery stenosis.

13.
Hypertens Res ; 43(6): 525-533, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996813

RESUMO

Sodium reduction is an important public health goal. Individual and population approaches are necessary for reducing the sodium content of processed foods and meals. The aim of the present study is to affirm the effect of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), an umami substance, on the saltiness or palatability of low-salt solutions and to explore the preferred salt concentration in soup. Five hundred and eighty-four healthy participants from nineteen regions in Japan tasted 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl solutions with or without 0.3% MSG. Evaluations of saltiness and palatability for each solution were conducted using a visual analog scale in a double-blinded randomized manner. Saltiness gradually increased depending on the concentration of NaCl. The saltiness of the 0.3% NaCl solution with MSG was rated significantly higher than that without MSG. The palatability ratings were higher for the solutions with MSG than for those without MSG for all NaCl concentrations. In particular, the palatability rating of the 0.3% NaCl solution with MSG was twice as high as that without MSG and was significantly higher than that of the other five test solutions. Furthermore, these results were observed to be approximately the same, irrespective of sex, age, region, etc. Salt reduction is believed to result in a loss of palatability. However, our results suggest that umami can compensate for the loss of palatability caused by salt reduction and that the addition of an appropriate amount of an umami substance can facilitate salt reduction from 0.9 to 0.3% without sacrificing palatability.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(2): 250-264, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome is a major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the involvement of detrimental humoral mediators in the pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome is still controversial. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a hepatic metabolic product of trimethylamine generated from dietary phosphatidylcholine or carnitine derived by the gut microbiota, has been linked directly with progression of cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. Thus, targeting TMAO may be a novel strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist, was administered to adenine-induced renal failure (RF) mice and changes in renal function and levels of gut-derived uremic toxins, as well as the gut microbiota community, were analyzed using metabolomic and metagenomic methods to reveal its cardiorenal effect. RESULTS: Linaclotide decreased the plasma levels of TMAO at a clinically used low dose of 10 µg/kg in the adenine-induced RF mouse model. At a high concentration of 100 µg/kg, linaclotide clearly improved renal function and reduced the levels of various uremic toxins. A reduction in TMAO levels following linaclotide treatment was also observed in a choline-fed pro-atherosclerotic model. Linaclotide ameliorated renal inflammation and fibrosis and cardiac fibrosis, as well as decreased the expression of collagen I, transforming growth factor-ß, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and ST2 genes. Plasma levels of Gal-3 and ST2 were also reduced. Because exposure of cardiomyocytes to TMAO increased fibronectin expression, these data suggest that linaclotide reduced the levels of TMAO and various uremic toxins and may result in not only renal, but also cardiac, fibrosis. F4/80-positive macrophages were abundant in small intestinal crypts in RF mice, and this increased expression was decreased by linaclotide. Reduced colonic claudin-1 levels were also restored by linaclotide, suggesting that linaclotide ameliorated the 'leaky gut' in RF mice. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the microbial order Clostridiales could be responsible for the change in TMAO levels. CONCLUSION: Linaclotide reduced TMAO and uremic toxin levels and could be a powerful tool for the prevention and control of the cardiorenal syndrome by modification of the gut-cardio-renal axis.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789380

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenomas (APAs) are mainly composed of clear (lipid rich) and compact (eosinophilic) tumor cells. The detailed association between these histological features and somatic mutations (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D) in APAs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between histological features and individual genotypes in APAs. METHODS: Examination of 39 APAs subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (11 KCNJ5, 10 ATP1A1, 10 ATP2B3, and 8 CACNA1D) and quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical (CYP11B2 and CYP17A1) analyses using digital imaging software. RESULTS: KCNJ5- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs had clear cell dominant features (KCNJ5: clear 59.8% [54.4-64.6%] vs compact 40.2% (35.4-45.6%), P = .0022; ATP2B3: clear 54.3% [48.2-62.4 %] vs compact 45.7% (37.6-51.8 %), P = .0696). ATP1A1- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs presented with marked intratumoral heterogeneity. A significantly positive correlation of immunoreactivity was detected between CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 in tumor cells of KCNJ5-mutated APAs (P = .0112; ρ = 0.7237), in contrast, significantly inverse correlation was detected in ATP1A1-mutated APAs (P = .0025; ρ = -0.8667). CONCLUSION: KCNJ5-mutated APAs, coexpressing CYP11B2 and CYP17A1, were more deviated in terms of zonation-specific differentiation of adrenocortical cells than ATP1A1- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(2): 280-296, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis, nonapoptotic cell death mediated by free radical reactions and driven by the oxidative degradation of lipids, is a therapeutic target because of its role in organ damage, including AKI. Ferroptosis-causing radicals that are targeted by ferroptosis suppressors have not been unequivocally identified. Because certain cytochrome P450 substrate drugs can prevent lipid peroxidation via obscure mechanisms, we evaluated their antiferroptotic potential and used them to identify ferroptosis-causing radicals. METHODS: Using a cell-based assay, we screened cytochrome P450 substrate compounds to identify drugs with antiferroptotic activity and investigated the underlying mechanism. To evaluate radical-scavenging activity, we used electron paramagnetic resonance-spin trapping methods and a fluorescence probe for lipid radicals, NBD-Pen, that we had developed. We then assessed the therapeutic potency of these drugs in mouse models of cisplatin-induced AKI and LPS/galactosamine-induced liver injury. RESULTS: We identified various US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs and hormones that have antiferroptotic properties, including rifampicin, promethazine, omeprazole, indole-3-carbinol, carvedilol, propranolol, estradiol, and thyroid hormones. The antiferroptotic drug effects were closely associated with the scavenging of lipid peroxyl radicals but not significantly related to interactions with other radicals. The elevated lipid peroxyl radical levels were associated with ferroptosis onset, and known ferroptosis suppressors, such as ferrostatin-1, also functioned as lipid peroxyl radical scavengers. The drugs exerted antiferroptotic activities in various cell types, including tubules, podocytes, and renal fibroblasts. Moreover, in mice, the drugs ameliorated AKI and liver injury, with suppression of tissue lipid peroxidation and decreased cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Although elevated lipid peroxyl radical levels can trigger ferroptosis onset, some drugs that scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals can help control ferroptosis-related disorders, including AKI.

17.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 51-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786983

RESUMO

Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are implicated in the pathology of hypertension. MR blockers are recommended for the treatment of salt-sensitive or resistant hypertension. However, use of currently available MR blockers is limited by adverse events. This phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of esaxerenone, a new selective nonsteroidal MR blocker, at 2.5 and 5 mg/day and eplerenone 50 mg/day in Japanese patients with essential hypertension. After a 4-week washout period, 1001 eligible adults with hypertension were randomized evenly to esaxerenone 2.5 or 5 mg/day or eplerenone 50 mg/day treatments, taken orally once daily for 12 weeks. Primary end points were changes in sitting systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP) from baseline at the end of treatment. Esaxerenone 2.5 mg/day was noninferior to eplerenone for reductions in sitting and 24-hour BP. Reductions in BP with esaxerenone 5 mg/day were significantly greater than those with esaxerenone 2.5 mg/day. Changes in diurnal BP showed persistent 24-hour antihypertensive effects in all treatment groups. The proportions of patients achieving target sitting BP (<140/90 mm Hg) were 31.5%, 41.2%, and 27.5% with esaxerenone 2.5 and 5 mg/day and eplerenone 50 mg/day, respectively. Incidences of adverse events (all mild or moderate) were similar across treatment groups. These results indicate that esaxerenone is an effective and well-tolerated MR blocker in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, with BP-lowering activity at least equivalent to eplerenone. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02890173.

18.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810526

RESUMO

Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association between HTN and CVD cannot be explained by average blood pressure (BP) alone. BP variability (BPV) is another important factor, along with the effects of HTN on the vasculature. The concept of systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (SHATS) has been proposed, describing an age-related and synergistic vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease. The importance of SHATS is based on the assumption that the assessment of BPV and arterial disease is likely to provide an effective opportunity to intervene early to reduce progression to HTN in younger patients or to CVD events and organ damage in older patients. In addition to providing an overview of current evidence for the mechanisms and clinical data related to SHATS, this article proposes a new SHATS score for use to diagnose and assess the severity of SHATS. The score includes two components - a BP score and a vascular score - which are multiplied to generate the SHATS score. This reflects the synergistic, rather than additive, effects of BP and vascular disease on target organ damage and CVD events. Although it requires refinement and validation in future studies, early detection of SHATS using tools such as the proposed score, combined with population-based stratification and technology-based anticipation medicine incorporating real-time individual data, has the potential to contribute to meaningful reductions in rates of CVD events and target organ damage.

19.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(3): 223-229, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776301

RESUMO

Hypothalamic obesity is a clinical syndrome characterized by severe and refractory obesity that is caused by hypothalamic function impairment. Recently, bariatric surgery has been attempted for patients with hypothalamic obesity after craniopharyngioma, but experiences have not yet been accumulated in other hypothalamic disorders. Here, we report the case of a 39-year-old male patient with panhypopituitarism who received laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) after intracranial germinoma treatment. The patient was diagnosed with intracranial germinoma at age 15 and achieved complete remission after radiotherapy (total 50 Gy). He was obese during diagnosis [body mass index (BMI), 29.2 kg/m2], and his obesity gradually worsened after the intracranial germinoma treatment, and LSG was considered when his BMI was 48.6 kg/m2. After 1 month of hospitalized diet-exercise program, LSG was performed. After LSG, his BMI gradually decreased and reached 38.8 kg/m2 on the day of discharge (6 weeks after the surgery). Five months after LSG, his insulin resistance improved, but insulin hypersecretion remained. Fifteen months after the surgery, his BMI was 31.2 kg/m2, with marked decrease in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas (from 393.8 cm2 and 168.2 cm2 before the surgery to 111.5 cm2 and 56.3 cm2, respectively.). To our knowledge, this is the first case of LSG for hypothalamic obesity after intracranial germinoma treatment. Although the pathophysiology of hypothalamic obesity is different from that of primary obesity, LSG could be a successful therapeutic choice for patients with hypothalamic obesity after the intracranial germinoma treatment.

20.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(2): 127-133, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666446

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which causes multi-organ injury such as lupus nephritis. SLE is associated with hypercoagulability. Activated coagulation factors such as tissue factor and VIIa complex and factor Xa activate protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 promotes cytokine production through mitogen-activated protein kinase or nuclear factor kappa B signaling, and previous reports demonstrated that inhibition of PAR2 alleviated kidney injuries such as diabetic kidney disease and renal fibrosis in animal models. However, the involvement of PAR2 in the pathogenesis of SLE remains unclear. We therefore administered a selective PAR2 peptide antagonist, FSLLRY-NH2, to SLE-prone 4-month-old MRL-Faslpr mice for 4 weeks. Treatment with FSLLRY-NH2 caused the significant increases in the glomerular mesangial proliferation, glomerular deposition of both immunoglobulin G and complement factor C3d, and glomerular infiltration of Mac2-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T cells, compared with MRL-Faslpr mice treated with saline. In addition, the treatment with the PAR2 antagonist increased renal expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp1) mRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of PAR2 may increase the severity of inflammation in lupus nephritis; namely, opposite to previous observations, PAR2 has anti-inflammatory properties. We propose that activation of PAR2 could serve as a potential therapeutic option for patients with SLE.

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