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1.
Brain Dev ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marked decreases in serum creatine kinase levels have been noted in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies as rare complications of autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The influence of systemic inflammation on serum creatine kinase levels was reviewed from the charts of three subjects with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. RESULTS: A total of 30 infectious events were identified. Elevated serum C-reactive protein levels coincided with decreased creatine kinase levels on 19 occasions. In one subject, administration of 2 mg/kg/d prednisolone for bronchial asthma resulted in a decrease in creatine kinase level on six other occasions. CONCLUSION: Apart from an increase in endogenous cortisol secretion, certain inflammation-related molecules could play a role in mitigating muscle cell damage in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy during febrile infectious episodes. Corticosteroids may be a promising agent for the treatment of muscular symptoms in this disorder.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 481, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gout is rare in children, chronic sustained hyperuricemia can lead to monosodium urate deposits progressing to gout, just as in adults. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia, and incidence of gouty arthritis in the pediatric population, using data from Japanese health insurance claims. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric gout and hyperuricemia were analyzed, and specific characteristics of those patients were assessed. Since Japanese guidelines recommend treatment with uric acid lowering drugs for asymptomatic hyperuricemia as well as for gout, these data were also used to investigate the real-world use of uric acid lowering drugs in a pediatric population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on a 2016-2017 Japanese health insurance claims database, one of the largest epidemiology claims databases available in Japan, which included 356,790 males and 339,487 females 0-18 years of age. Outcomes were measured for prevalence, patient characteristics, treatment with uric acid lowering drugs for gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia, and prevalence and incidence of gouty arthritis. Because uric acid can be elevated by some forms of chemotherapy, data from patients under treatment for malignancies were excluded from consideration. RESULTS: Total prevalence of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia in 0-18 year-olds was 0.040% (276/696,277 patients), with gout prevalence at 0.007% (48/696,277) and asymptomatic hyperuricemia at 0.033% (228/696,277). Prevalence of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia was highest in adolescent males, at 0.135% (176/130,823). The most common comorbidities for gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia were metabolic syndrome at 42.8% (118/276) and kidney disease at 34.8% (96/276). Of the patients diagnosed with gout or asymptomatic hyperuricemia, 35.1% (97/276) were treated with uric acid lowering drugs. Gouty arthritis developed in 43.8% (21/48) of gout patients during the study, at an incidence of 0.65 flares/person-year. CONCLUSIONS: Even the pediatric population could be affected by asymptomatic hyperuricemia, gout, and gouty arthritis, and uric acid lowering drugs are being used in this population even though those drugs have not been approved for pediatric indications. Such off-label use may indicate a potential need for therapeutic agents in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000036029 .

5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002085

RESUMO

Patients receiving immunosuppressive agents are at risk of life-threatening infections. However, live vaccines are generally contraindicated in them. We conducted a prospective study regarding live attenuated vaccines for them. Patients elder than one year of age with immunosuppressive agents who showed negative or borderline antibody titers (virus-specific IgG levels < 4.0) against one or more of measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps and fulfilled the criteria (CD4 cell counts ≥ 500/mm3, stimulation index of lymphocyte blast transformation by PHA ≥ 101.6, serum IgG level ≥ 300 mg/dl, no steroid use or prednisolone < 1 mg/kg/day or < 2 mg/kg/2 days, trough levels of tacrolimus or cyclosporine were < 10 ng/ml or < 100 ng/ml and under good control of primary disease) were enrolled. Sixty-four vaccinations were administered to 32 patients. The seroconversion rates for measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps were 80.0%, 100.0%, 59.1%, and 69.2%, respectively. No life-threatening adverse events were observed, although one patient suffered from vaccine-strain varicella who showed cellular and humoral immunodeficiency (CD4 cell counts = 511/mm3, stimulation index of lymphocyte blast transformation by PHA = 91.1, serum IgG level = 208 mg/dl). This girl was immunized before we established the criteria for vaccination. Immunization with live attenuated vaccines for patients receiving immunosuppressive agents might be effective and safe if their cellular and humoral immunological parameters are within normal levels. However, determining the criteria for vaccination by immunological parameters should be established to guarantee the safety of live vaccines in the future. Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000007710. The date of registration: 2012/4/13.

6.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(1): 45-51, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863338

RESUMO

Denys-Drash syndrome is characterized by progressive nephropathy, gonadal dysgenesis, and Wilms tumor caused by a WT1 gene mutation. Infants with Denys-Drash syndrome frequently experience severe hypertension, but detailed clinical manifestations have yet to be clarified. Cases of infantile-onset Denys-Drash syndrome with severe hypertension at our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and the pathogenesis of hypertension was investigated. Six infants who received the diagnosis of Denys-Drash syndrome at the median age of 10 days (range: 2-182 days) were enrolled. Five infants had the complication of severe hypertension within a few days of diagnosis. All the patients showed rapid progression to end-stage renal disease and urgently required dialysis due to anuria/oliguria and hypervolemia with a median duration of 7.5 days (range: 0-17 days) on the day after diagnosis. Even under dialysis, all the patients continued to need antihypertensive treatment. Five patients underwent a preventive nephrectomy for Wilms tumor, and one patient underwent a nephrectomy due to progression to Wilms tumor. Two patients developed hypotension after a nephrectomy. The main causes of hypertension were hypervolemia in the predialysis stage, renin-associated hypertension in the dialysis stage, and multiple factors, including increased plasma catecholamine-associated hypertension in the postnephrectomy dialysis stage. At last the follow-up after bilateral nephrectomy, four of the five patients required antihypertensive treatment. Not all the patients showed target organ complications caused by hypertension. Severe hypertension is a common complication of infantile-onset Denys-Drash syndrome. The possibility of hypotension after nephrectomy should be considered in patients with Denys-Drash syndrome.

7.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab is effective for maintaining remission in patients with complicated nephrotic syndrome, although a history of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a risk factor for early relapse. We investigated the efficacy of prophylactic rituximab treatment for maintaining remission after B cell recovery. METHODS: Patients with complicated steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome with history of SRNS who received a single dose of rituximab (375 mg/m2) and continued immunosuppressive agents were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups: a prophylaxis group, which received additional rituximab treatment at B cell recovery and a non-prophylaxis group. The relapse-free period from the last rituximab infusion (the second treatment in prophylaxis group and the first treatment in non-prophylaxis group) was compared between two groups using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors for early relapse were calculated using multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Sixteen patients in the prophylaxis group and 45 in the non-prophylaxis group were enrolled. Fifty-percent relapse-free survival after the last rituximab treatment was 667 days in the former and 335 days in the latter (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that additional rituximab treatment was the only significant negative factor for early relapse, with a hazard ratio of 0.40 (p = 0.02). Fifty-percent relapse-free survival after B cell recovery was much longer in the prophylaxis group (954 vs. 205.5 days, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Additional rituximab treatment at B cell recovery can maintain prolonged remission even after B cell recovery in patients with complicated nephrotic syndrome with history of SRNS.

8.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770553

RESUMO

Monosomy 7 (-7) occurs in various types of paediatric myeloid disorders and has a poor prognosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with germline gain-of-function SAMD9/9L variants and loss-of-function GATA2 variants are prone to developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with -7. However, the prevalence of the genetic variants among paediatric haematologic disorders with -7 is unknown. The present study screened germline variants of GATA2 and SAMD9/9L in 25 patients with various types of paediatric haematological disorders associated with -7. The diagnoses of the 25 patients included MDS (n = 10), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myeloid sarcomas (n = 9), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (n = 3) and other disorders (n = 3). Seven patients with a germline pathogenic GATA2 variant were found. For SAMD9/9L screening, next-generation sequencing was used to detect low-abundance variants and found four novel germline variants. Functional analysis revealed that three out of the four variants showed growth-restricting capacity in vitro and thus, were judged to be pathogenic. Cases with GATA2 mutation tended to be older, compared to those with SAMD9/9L mutations. In conclusion, GATA2 and SAMD9/9L were sequenced in 25 patients with paediatric haematologic disorders associated with -7, and 40% of them were found to have some pathogenic germline variants in the three genes.

9.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(11): 1069-1076, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunization with various vaccines is considered desirable for children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) because of their high risk of severe infections. Vaccinations may precipitate relapses of NS, but there is no available data regarding inactivated influenza (flu) virus vaccines. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with NS who had received flu vaccines between 2002 and 2015. The day of flu vaccination was defined as day 0, and the period between the pre-vaccination and the post-vaccination days was defined as - X to + Y. The risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for NS relapse rate were estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 104 pediatric patients received 208 flu vaccines. The mean age at onset of NS was at 4.85 ± 3.87 years old. There were 261 NS relapses between days - 180 and + 180. Compared with the relapse rate in the - 180 to 0 interval (1.19 times/person-year), those in 0 to + 30 (1.23), + 31 to + 60 (1.58), + 61 to + 90 (1.41), + 91 to + 120 (1.41), and + 121 to + 180 (1.32) days groups were slightly increased, but without significance. Multivariate analysis using GEE Poisson regression also showed no significant increase in relapse rate in each day group compared with days - 180 to 0. Risk ratios for NS relapse were significantly higher in children who were treated with steroids at the first vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that flu vaccines should not be avoided in children with NS based on the potential for NS relapses.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(11): 1492-1499, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To collect clinical information and NOD2 mutation data on patients with Blau syndrome and to evaluate their prognosis. METHODS: Fifty patients with NOD2 mutations were analysed. The activity of each NOD2 mutant was evaluated in HEK293 cells by reporter assay. Clinical information was collected from medical records through the attending physicians. RESULTS: The study population comprised 26 males and 24 females aged 0-61 years. Thirty-two cases were sporadic, and 18 were familial from 9 unrelated families. Fifteen different mutations in NOD2 were identified, including 2 novel mutations (p.W490S and D512V); all showed spontaneous nuclear factor kappa B activation, and the most common mutation was p.R334W. Twenty-six patients had fever at relatively early timepoints in the disease course. Forty-three of 47 patients had a skin rash. The onset of disease in 9 patients was recognised after BCG vaccination. Forty-five of 49 patients had joint lesions. Thirty-eight of 50 patients had ocular symptoms, 7 of which resulted in blindness. After the diagnosis of Blau syndrome, 26 patients were treated with biologics; all were antitumour necrosis factor agents. Only 3 patients were treated with biologics alone; the others received a biologic in combination with methotrexate and/or prednisolone. None of the patients who became blind received biologic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with Blau syndrome, severe joint contractures and blindness may occur if diagnosis and appropriate treatment are delayed. Early treatment with a biologic agent may improve the prognosis.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108495, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540394

RESUMO

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency results in monogenic inflammatory bowel disease. To date, no vasculitis associated with XIAP deficiency has been reported. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with Crohn's disease and he responded poorly to conventional treatment for Crohn's disease. He was dependent on corticosteroids and parenteral nutrition. To manage severe colitis, he underwent ileostomy followed by ileocolectomy for an ileo-sigmoid fistula. At the age of 15 years, he developed IgA vasculitis and at the age of 17 years, he developed refractory Takayasu arteritis (TAK), which was resistant to corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation of the splice acceptor site in XIAP (c.1057-1G > A) at the age of 19 years. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was successful with subsequent withdrawal of intensive immunosuppressive therapy and clinical remission of both enterocolitis and TAK. This case suggests that patients with XIAP deficiency could develop intractable inflammatory disease involving the intestinal tract and blood vessels.

12.
Clin Immunol ; 216: 108441, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335289

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20) causes inflammatory disease resembling Behçet's disease; many cases have been reported, including some that are complicated with autoimmune diseases. This study aims to clarify the immunophenotype of patients with HA20 by analyzing lymphocyte subsets using multicolor flow cytometry. The patients with HA20 previously diagnosed in a nationwide survey were compared by their cell subpopulations. In total, 27 parameters including regulatory T cells (Tregs), double-negative T cells (DNTs), and follicular helper T cells (TFHs) were analyzed and compared with the reference values in four age groups: 0-1, 2-6, 7-19, and ≥20 years. The Tregs of patients with HA20 tended to increase in tandem with age-matched controls at all ages. In addition, patients ≥20 years had increased DNTs compared with controls, whereas TFHs significantly increased in younger patients. In HA20 patients, the increase in DNTs and TFHs may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e035817, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a lack of strong evidence regarding their association with maternal nutrition. We aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between maternal nutrient or multivitamin intake and orofacial clefts. DESIGN: This is a prospective, population-based nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted in 15 regional centres, consisting of local administrative units and study areas. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 98 787 eligible mother-child pairs of the Japan Environment and Children's Study were included. INTERVENTION: Exposures were maternal nutrition and the use of supplemental multivitamins in mothers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were the occurrence of any orofacial cleft at birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between maternal multivitamin intake and the incidence of orofacial clefts. RESULTS: Of the 98 787 children, 69 (0.07%) were diagnosed with cleft lip alone, 113 (0.11%) were diagnosed with cleft lip and palate, and 52 (0.05%) were diagnosed with cleft palate within 1 month after birth. Regarding the total orofacial cleft outcome, statistically significant point estimates of relative risk ratios (RR) were determined for multivitamin intake before pregnancy (RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.77) and during the first trimester (RR=2.00; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.37), but the association was not significant for multivitamin intake after the first trimester (RR=1.34; 95% CI 0.59 to 3.01). Maternal micronutrient intake via food was not associated with the incidence of orofacial clefts in offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of multivitamin supplements shortly before conception or during the first trimester of pregnancy was found to be associated with an increased incidence of orofacial clefts at birth. Pregnant women and those intending to become pregnant should be advised of the potential risks of multivitamin supplementation.

14.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285552

RESUMO

Coat color is one of the important factors characterizing breeds for domestic animals. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a representative responsible gene for this phenotype. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine MC1R gene, c.296T > C and c.310G>-, have been well characterized, but these SNPs are not enough to explain cattle coat color. As far as we know, MC1R genotypes of Kumamoto sub-breed of Japanese Brown cattle have not been analyzed. In the current study, genotyping for c.296T > C and c.310G>- was performed to elucidate the role of MC1R in determining the coat color of this sub-breed. As a result, most animals were e/e genotype, suggesting the coat color of this sub-breed is derived from the e allele of MC1R gene. However, we found six animals with E/e genotype, which coat color would be black theoretically. Subsequently, sequence comparison was performed with these animals to identify other polymorphisms affecting coat color, elucidating that these animals possessed the A allele of c.871G > A commonly. c.871G > A was a non-synonymous mutation in the seventh transmembrane domain, suggesting alteration of the function and/or the structure of MC1R protein. Our data indicated that the A allele of c.871G > A might be a loss-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Fenótipo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/química
15.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266186

RESUMO

Background: Thromboembolic events are rare but critical complications in childhood nephrotic syndrome. The veins are more commonly affected, while arterial thrombosis is extremely rare but often life-threatening. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a 10-years-old girl with catastrophic multiple arterial thrombosis at the primary onset of nephrotic syndrome who underwent bilateral above-knee amputation. Case diagnosis/treatment: A previous healthy 10-years-old girl contracted the influenza B virus. Five days later, she suddenly developed severe ischemia in both legs. Physical examination showed eyelid and leg edema, and laboratory tests revealed hypoalbuminemia and acute kidney injury. After undergoing contrast-enhanced computed tomography, the patient was diagnosed with multiple arterial thrombosis (including the bilateral iliac arteries) due to nephrotic syndrome. Despite the performance of surgical thrombectomies, fasciotomy, and systematic heparinization, she required bilateral above-knee amputation. The patient achieved spontaneous remission of nephrotic syndrome, and her renal function fully recovered. There were no findings suggestive of secondary nephrotic syndrome and antiphospholipid syndrome. Her protein C and protein S concentrations were slightly decreased at admission. However, whole-exome sequencing revealed a thrombotic risk variant (T630I) in the PROS1 gene encoding protein S. This missense variant is often reported in patients with thrombosis or protein S deficiency, and may result in a thrombotic predisposition in some situations, such as nephrotic syndrome. Conclusions: Arterial thrombosis is a rare complication; however, it must be considered, especially in patients with new-onset nephrotic syndrome. Early recognition is important for early intervention and prevention of serious sequelae.

16.
J Hum Genet ; 65(6): 541-549, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203253

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants of paired box gene 2 (PAX2) cause autosomal-dominant PAX2-related disorder, which includes renal coloboma syndrome (RCS). Patients with PAX2-related disorder present with renal and ophthalmological pathologies, as well as with other abnormalities, including developmental problems and hearing loss. We sequenced PAX2 in 457 patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract or with renal dysfunction of unknown cause and identified 19 different pathogenic variants in 38 patients from 30 families (6.5%). Thirty-four patients had renal hypodysplasia or chronic kidney disease of unknown cause, and three had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Although no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, six of the seven patients who developed end-stage renal disease in childhood had truncating variants. Twenty-three patients had ocular disabilities, mostly optic disc coloboma. Non-renal and non-ophthalmological manifestations included developmental disorder, electrolyte abnormality, and gonadal abnormalities. Two unrelated patients had congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations in their lungs. Six of ten probands with PAX2 mutation identified by next-generation sequencing did not show typical RCS manifestations. We conclude that PAX2-related disorder has a variable clinical presentation and can be diagnosed by next-generation sequencing even in the absence of typical RCS manifestations.

17.
Pediatr Int ; 62(8): 937-943, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in non-invasive vascular imaging, detection of renal artery stenosis via catheter angiography is the criterion standard for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension (RVH). However, because of lack of evidence, the utility of various blood tests and imaging modalities remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the utility of blood tests (plasma renin activity [PRA], aldosterone, and renal vein renin [RVR] values) and imaging studies (computed tomography angiography [CTA], kidney ultrasonography [US]) by comparing them with catheter angiography. Ten pediatric patients with RVH at two institutions from January 2008 to December 2017 were recruited. The sensitivities for diagnosing RVH via imaging and blood tests (kidney [US], PRA, and aldosterone) were derived by examining patient records. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of CT angiography were calculated by considering both the affected and non-affected renal arteries of the patients. RESULTS: A high sensitivity for diagnosing RVH via kidney US (89%) and PRA (80%) was observed. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA were 100%, each. RVR sampling did not aid in the diagnosis of RVH; only two of six patients with unilateral RVH showed significant laterality of RVR boundary ratios. Renal scintigraphy facilitated detection of a non-functional kidney (split renal function <5%). CONCLUSIONS: RVH in children could be diagnosed utilizing non-invasive blood and imaging tests, without catheter angiography. We recommend kidney length measurement along with measurement of PRA level, as a simple and highly useful screening test, followed by CTA as a diagnostic test.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(8): 1124-1128, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218533

RESUMO

Intensive analysis of the SMARCB1 gene in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) revealed eight of 16 patients with constitutional genetic variants. Three patients had mosaicism of deletion/variant of the SMARCB1 gene, which conventional methods might overlook. The prevalence of cancer predisposition in MRT may thus be higher than previously reported.

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210964

RESUMO

Vaccine adjuvants are traditionally used to augment and modulate the immunogenicity of vaccines, although in many cases it is unclear which specific molecules contribute to their stimulatory activity. We previously reported that both subcutaneous and intranasal administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD), a pharmaceutical excipient widely used to improve solubility, can act as an effective adjuvant for an influenza vaccine. However, the mechanisms by which mucosal immune pathway is critical for the intranasal adjuvant activity of HP-ß-CD have not been fully delineated. Here, we show that intranasally administered HP-ß-CD elicits a temporary release of IL-33 from alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in the lung; notably, IL-33 expression in these cells is not stimulated following the use of other vaccine adjuvants. The experiments using gene deficient mice suggested that IL-33/ST2 signaling is solely responsible for the adjuvant effect of HP-ß-CD when it is administered intranasally. In contrast, the subcutaneous injection of HP-ß-CD and the intranasal administration of alum, as a damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-inducing adjuvant, or cholera toxin, as a mucosal adjuvant, enhanced humoral immunity in an IL-33-independent manner, suggesting that the IL-33/ST2 pathway is unique to the adjuvanticity of intranasally administered HP-ß-CD. Furthermore, the release of IL-33 was involved in the protective immunity against influenza virus infection which is induced by the intranasal administration of HP-ß-CD-adjuvanted influenza split vaccine. In conclusion, our results suggest that an understanding of administration route- and tissue-specific immune responses is crucial for the design of unique vaccine adjuvants.

20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(3): 254-255, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032311

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with repeated vaginal Enterobius vermicularis infection, never detected as a digestive tract infection. Two-dose pyrantel pamoate or 2-dose albendazole could not suppress recurrence. Finally, 3-dose albendazole after 2-week intervals was successful in preventing relapse.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Enterobius/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxiuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Oxiuríase/parasitologia , Vaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginite/parasitologia , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Oxiuríase/transmissão , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
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