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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660902

RESUMO

Drug-target-drug complexes (DTDCs) are phenomena newly observed in patients who switch from the C5 inhibitor eculizumab to crovalimab, a novel, anti-C5 antibody in development for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), because these agents bind different C5 epitopes. In part 3 of the four-part, phase I/II COMPOSER study, 19 patients with PNH switching from eculizumab received 1,000 mg crovalimab intravenously, then subcutaneous maintenance doses from day (D)8 (680 mg q4w, 340 mg q2w, or 170 mg qw). Crovalimab exposure was transiently reduced, and size-exclusion chromatography and crovalimab-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed DTDCs in all 19 patients' sera. Additionally, self-limiting mild to moderate symptoms suggestive of type III hypersensitivity reactions occurred in two patients. Mathematical modeling simulations of DTDC kinetics and effects of dosing on DTDC size distribution using part 3 data predicted that increased crovalimab concentrations could reduce the proportion of large, slow-clearing DTDCs in the blood. A simulation-guided, optimized crovalimab regimen (1,000 mg intravenously; four weekly, subcutaneous 340-mg doses; then 680 mg q4w from D29) was evaluated in part 4. Confirming the model's predictions, mean proportions of large DTDCs in patients who switched from eculizumab to this optimized regimen decreased by > 50% by D22, and target crovalimab concentrations were maintained. No type III hypersensitivity reactions occurred in part 4. Optimizing crovalimab dosing thus reduced the proportion of large DTDCs, ensured adequate complement inhibition, and may improve safety. Model-based dosing optimization to mitigate DTDC formation offers a useful strategy for patients switching to novel antibody treatments targeting soluble epitopes.

2.
Nano Lett ; 23(1): 170-176, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562744

RESUMO

Electron doping of graphene has been extensively studied on graphene-supported surfaces, where the metallicity is influenced by the substrate. Herewith we propose potassium adsorption on free-standing nanoporous graphene, thus eluding any effect due to the substrate. We monitor the electron migration in the π* downward-shifted conduction band. In this rigid band shift, we correlate the spectral density of the π* state in the upper Dirac cone with the associated plasmon, blue-shifted with increasing K dose, as deduced by electron energy loss spectroscopy. These results are confirmed by the Dirac plasmon activated by the C 1s emitted electrons, thanks to spatially resolved photoemission. This crosscheck constitutes a reference on the correlation between the electronic π* states in the conduction band and the Dirac plasmon evolution upon in situ electron doping of fully free-standing graphene.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458840

RESUMO

The application scope of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be extended by rationally designing the architecture and components of MOFs, which can be achieved via a metal-containing solid templated strategy. However, this strategy suffers from low efficiency and provides only one specific MOF from one template. Herein, we present a versatile templated strategy in which organic ligands are weaved into hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) for the controllable and scalable synthesis of MOF nanotubes. HOF nanowires assembled from benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid and melamine via a simple sonochemical approach serve as both the template and precursor to produce MOF nanotubes with varied metal compositions. Hybrid nanotubes containing nanometal crystals and N-doped graphene prepared through a carbonization process show that the optimized NiRuIr alloy@NG nanotube exhibits excellent electrocatalytic HER activity and durability in alkaline media, outperforming most reported catalysts. The strategy proposed here demonstrates a pioneering study of combination of HOF and MOF, which shows great potential in the design of other nanosized MOFs with various architectures and compositions for potential applications.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2207466, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271728

RESUMO

To realize a sustainable hydrogen economy, corrosion-resistant non-noble-metal catalysts are needed to replace noble-metal-based catalysts. The combination of passivation elements and catalytically active elements is crucial for simultaneously achieving high corrosion resistance and high catalytic activity. Herein, the self-selection/reconstruction characteristics of multi-element (nonary) alloys that can automatically redistribute suitable elements and rearrange surface structures under the target reaction conditions during the oxygen evolution reaction are investigated. The following synergetic effect (i.e., cocktail effect), among the elements Ti, Zr, Nb, and Mo, significantly contributes to passivation, whereas Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, and Fe enhance the catalytic activity. According to the practical water electrolysis experiments, the self-selected/reconstructed multi-element alloy demonstrates high performance under a similar condition with proton exchange membrane (PEM)-type water electrolysis without obvious degradation during stability tests. This verifies the resistance of the alloy to corrosion when used as an electrode under a practical PEM electrolysis condition.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2205986, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208073

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) doping is one of the most effective approaches to tailor the chemical and physical properties of graphene. By the interplay between N dopants and 3D curvature of graphene lattices, N-doped 3D graphene displays superior performance in electrocatalysis and solar-energy harvesting for energy and environmental applications. However, the electrical transport properties and the electronic states, which are the key factors to understand the origins of the N-doping effect in 3D graphene, are still missing. The electronic properties of N-doped 3D graphene are systematically investigated by an electric-double-layer transistor method. It is demonstrated that Urbach-tail-like localized states are located around the neutral point of N-doped 3D graphene with the background metallic transport channels. The dual nature of electronic states, generated by the synergistic effect of N dopants and 3D curvature of graphene, can be the electronic origin of the high electrocatalysis, enhanced molecular adsorption, and light absorption of N-doped 3D graphene.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146482

RESUMO

We performed a prospective observational study of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients after anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccination (VC). In total, 32 CML patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, 10 CML patients with treatment-free remission, and 16 healthy subjects participated in the study. From April 2021 to September 2021, all cases (median age = 58 years) were vaccinated twice. Immunoglobulin G for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-IgG) was measured at three timepoints (before the first VC, 1-5 weeks after the second VC (T1), and approximately 6 months after the second VC (T2)). S-IgG was not observed before the first VC in any participant. At T1, all cases had acquired S-IgG. There were no significant differences in S-IgG levels among groups. A paired sample comparison of median S-IgG titers between T1 and T2 in all groups showed a significant reduction in T2 S-IgG titers. There were no significant differences in S-IgG levels among groups. When all patients were analyzed, those aged ≥58 years had significantly lower S-IgG levels than those aged <58 years at T1. The BNT162b2 vaccine was highly effective in CML patients with or without TKIs, and S-IgG levels were as persistent as those in healthy individuals.

7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957041

RESUMO

Atomic deuterium (D) adsorption on free-standing nanoporous graphene obtained by ultra-high vacuum D2 molecular cracking reveals a homogeneous distribution all over the nanoporous graphene sample, as deduced by ultra-high vacuum Raman spectroscopy combined with core-level photoemission spectroscopy. Raman microscopy unveils the presence of bonding distortion, from the signal associated to the planar sp2 configuration of graphene toward the sp3 tetrahedral structure of graphane. The establishment of D-C sp3 hybrid bonds is also clearly determined by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spatially correlated to the Auger spectroscopy signal. This work shows that the low-energy molecular cracking of D2 in an ultra-high vacuum is an efficient strategy for obtaining high-quality semiconducting graphane with homogeneous uptake of deuterium atoms, as confirmed by this combined optical and electronic spectro-microscopy study wholly carried out in ultra-high vacuum conditions.

8.
Int J Hematol ; 116(2): 228-238, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508695

RESUMO

The hypomethylating agent azacitidine (AZA) significantly extends overall survival (OS) in patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), when compared with other conventional care regimens, including supportive care and low-dose and intensive chemotherapy. However, the effects of 5- and 7-day treatment schedules of AZA (AZA-5 and AZA-7, respectively) on the OS of MDS patients had not been compared prospectively. We started a phase 3 trial comparing the effects of AZA-7 and AZA-5 on MDS patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T). However, this trial was prematurely terminated because of poor recruitment. Using all data, there was no significant difference in the OS of patients between AZA-7 (92 patients) and AZA-5 (95 patients), with the 2-year OS rates of AZA-7 and AZA-5 at 36.4% and 25.8%, respectively (P = 0.293). Adverse event profiles were similar between the two groups. Interestingly, data of the centrally diagnosed RAEB and RAEB-T cases showed that AZA-7 significantly prolonged the time to leukemia transformation compared with AZA-5 (P = 0.022), confirmed by multivariate analysis. Although this trial could not provide definite evidence, the results support the use of AZA-7 for RAEB and RAEB-T. (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000009633).


Assuntos
Anemia Refratária com Excesso de Blastos , Azacitidina , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Anemia Refratária com Excesso de Blastos/tratamento farmacológico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Nano Lett ; 22(7): 2971-2977, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294200

RESUMO

Conversion of free-standing graphene into pure graphane─where each C atom is sp3 bound to a hydrogen atom─has not been achieved so far, in spite of numerous experimental attempts. Here, we obtain an unprecedented level of hydrogenation (≈90% of sp3 bonds) by exposing fully free-standing nanoporous samples─constituted by a single to a few veils of smoothly rippled graphene─to atomic hydrogen in ultrahigh vacuum. Such a controlled hydrogenation of high-quality and high-specific-area samples converts the original conductive graphene into a wide gap semiconductor, with the valence band maximum (VBM) ∼ 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, as monitored by photoemission spectromicroscopy and confirmed by theoretical predictions. In fact, the calculated band structure unequivocally identifies the achievement of a stable, double-sided fully hydrogenated configuration, with gap opening and no trace of π states, in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3730, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260616

RESUMO

Deep learning has rapidly been filtrating many aspects of human lives. In particular, image recognition by convolutional neural networks has inspired numerous studies in this area. Hardware and software technologies as well as large quantities of data have contributed to the drastic development of the field. However, the application of deep learning is often hindered by the need for big data and the laborious manual annotation thereof. To experience deep learning using the data compiled by us, we collected 2429 constrained headshot images of 277 volunteers. The collection of face photographs is challenging in terms of protecting personal information; we therefore established an online procedure in which both the informed consent and image data could be obtained. We did not collect personal information, but issued agreement numbers to deal with withdrawal requests. Gender and smile labels were manually and subjectively annotated only from the appearances, and final labels were determined by majority among our team members. Rotated, trimmed, resolution-reduced, decolorized, and matrix-formed data were allowed to be publicly released. Moreover, simplified feature vectors for data sciences were released. We performed gender and smile recognition by building convolutional neural networks based on the Inception V3 model with pre-trained ImageNet data to demonstrate the usefulness of our dataset.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Voluntários
12.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 25: 101389, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35198813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The case of ocular infestation by a leech is rare. We reported that Myxobdella sinanensis infests conjunctiva. OBSERVATIONS: A 5-year-old girl presented with blood clots in the inner corner of the left eye, and a history bloody eye discharge and bloody tears for 5 days. She was prescribed 0.5% levofloxacin ophthalmic drops for conjunctival damage. However, her parent watched a worm moving in her conjunctiva while taking a bath. She presented again the same day, and a worm was found in the left eye of the lower conjunctival fornix and was adsorbed to the inner corner. We removed a worm under eye drop anesthesia, the next day the patient had no symptoms. We captured the worm, and it was identified morphologically and genetically as Myxobdella sinanensis. This was the first case reported of Myxobdella sinanensis be infestation in a human. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: The ecological trait of Myxobdella sinanensis still did not remain clear, so this case report was helpful to find out a life cycle of Myxobdella sinanensis. As the outdoor population continues to increase, the cases of human parasites such as leech are expected to increase. When a patient with bloody eye discharge and bloody tears presents, we should carefully examine the conjunctiva and ocular surfaces, and interview recent history of exposure to stream water.

13.
Int J Hematol ; 115(5): 694-703, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211840

RESUMO

A multicenter phase II study was conducted in 44 elderly (≥ 65 years) Japanese patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to evaluate whether azacitidine is also effective and feasible in Japanese AML patients. The 28 patients with AML with poor-risk cytogenetics and/or myelodysplasia-related changes (unfavorable AML) were randomly assigned to receive either azacitidine or conventional care regimens (CCR), and the other 16 patients without unfavorable AML received azacitidine alone. The primary endpoint was overall survival. At the median follow-up of 29 months, among the 26 evaluable patients with unfavorable AML, the median survival time (MST) of patients who received azacitidine (N = 14) was 9.6 months and that of patients who received CCR (N = 12) was 5.3 months (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.31-1.69; log-rank P = 0.459). The MST of all 29 patients who received azacytidine, including the 15 evaluable patients without unfavorable AML, was 12.4 months. Adverse events of azacitidine were manageable and consistent with its established safety profile. Azacitidine tended to prolong survival in newly diagnosed elderly Japanese patients with AML, and was feasible as a front-line therapy for elderly AML patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ophthalmology ; 129(5): 552-561, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate ethnic variations, ocular and systemic determinants of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and neuroretinal rim area among Asians using a large consortium of population-based eye studies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pooled analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two thousand four hundred thirty-six participants (22 436 eyes) from 10 population-based studies (in China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Russia, and Singapore) of the Asian Eye Epidemiology Consortium. METHODS: Participants 40 years of age or older without glaucoma were included. All participants underwent spectral-domain OCT imaging and systemic and ocular examinations. Data were pooled from each study. Multivariable regression was performed to evaluate interethnic differences, intermachine variations, and ocular and systemic factors associated with RNFL thickness and rim area, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, intraocular pressure (IOP), spherical equivalent (SE), ethnicity, OCT model, and study group. When evaluating body mass index, smoking, and hypertension as exposures, these factors were additionally adjusted for in the model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Average RNFL thickness (in micrometers) and rim area (in square millimeters). RESULTS: Indian and Japanese eyes have thinner RNFLs than those of other Asian ethnicities (ß values range, 7.31-12.76 µm; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). Compared with measurements by Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc), RNFL on average was 7.29 µm thicker when measured by Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering), 12.85 µm thicker when measured by RS-3000 (NIDEK Co, Ltd), and 17.48 µm thicker when measured by iVue/RTVue (Optovue, Inc) devices (all P < 0.001). Additionally, older age (per decade, ß = -2.70), diabetes (ß = -0.72), higher IOP (per 1 mmHg, ß = -0.07), more myopic SE (per diopter, ß = -1.13), cardiovascular disease (ß = -0.94), and hypertension (ß = -0.68) were associated with thinner RNFL (all P ≤ 0.003). Similarly, older age (ß = -0.019), higher IOP (ß = -0.010), and more myopic SE (ß = -0.025) were associated with smaller rim area (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this large pooled analysis of Asian population studies, Indian and Japanese eyes were observed to have thinner RNFL profiles. These findings suggest the need for an ethnic-specific normative database to improve glaucoma detection.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Hipertensão , Miopia , Estudos Transversais , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
15.
Chem Sci ; 12(34): 11306-11315, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667541

RESUMO

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are near-equimolar alloys comprising five or more elements. In recent years, catalysis using HEAs has attracted considerable attention across various fields. Herein, we demonstrate the facile synthesis of nanoporous ultra-high-entropy alloys (np-UHEAs) with hierarchical porosity via dealloying. These np-UHEAs contain up to 14 elements, namely, Al, Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, and Ti. Furthermore, they exhibit high catalytic activities and electrochemical stabilities in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acidic media, superior to that of commercial Pt/graphene and IrO2 catalysts. Our results offer valuable insights for the selection of elements as catalysts for various applications.

16.
Nanoscale ; 13(24): 10916-10924, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128521

RESUMO

Developing highly active electrocatalysts with low costs and long durability for oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) is crucial towards the practical implementations of electrocatalytic water-splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Anodized nanostructured 3d transition metals and alloys with the formation of OER-active oxides/hydroxides are known to have high catalytic activity towards OERs but suffer from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in harsh oxidation environments. Here we report that high OER activity can be achieved from the metallic state of Ni which is passivated by atomically thick graphene in a three-dimensional nanoporous architecture. As a free-standing catalytic anode, the non-oxide transition metal catalyst shows a low OER overpotential, high OER current density and long cycling lifetime in alkaline solutions, benefiting from the high electrical conductivity and low impedance resistance for charge transfer and transport. This study may pave a new way to develop high efficiency transition metal OER catalysts for a wide range of applications in renewable energy.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 203, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420063

RESUMO

Graphene-covering is a promising approach for achieving an acid-stable, non-noble-metal-catalysed hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Optimization of the number of graphene-covering layers and the density of defects generated by chemical doping is crucial for achieving a balance between corrosion resistance and catalytic activity. Here, we investigate the influence of charge transfer and proton penetration through the graphene layers on the HER mechanisms of the non-noble metals Ni and Cu in an acidic electrolyte. We find that increasing the number of graphene-covering layers significantly alters the HER performances of Ni and Cu. The proton penetration explored through electrochemical experiments and simulations reveals that the HER activity of the graphene-covered catalysts is governed by the degree of proton penetration, as determined by the number of graphene-covering layers.

19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429994

RESUMO

A suitable way to modify the electronic properties of graphene-while maintaining the exceptional properties associated with its two-dimensional (2D) nature-is its functionalisation. In particular, the incorporation of hydrogen isotopes in graphene is expected to modify its electronic properties leading to an energy gap opening, thereby rendering graphene promising for a widespread of applications. Hence, deuterium (D) adsorption on free-standing graphene was obtained by high-energy electron ionisation of D2 and ion irradiation of a nanoporous graphene (NPG) sample. This method allows one to reach nearly 50 at.% D upload in graphene, higher than that obtained by other deposition methods so far, towards low-defect and free-standing D-graphane. That evidence was deduced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the C 1s core level, showing clear evidence of the D-C sp3 bond, and Raman spectroscopy, pointing to remarkably clean and low-defect production of graphane. Moreover, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy showed the opening of an energy gap in the valence band. Therefore, high-energy electron ionisation and ion irradiation is an outstanding method for obtaining low defect D-NPG with a high D upload, which is very promising for the fabrication of semiconducting graphane on large scale.

20.
Nanotechnology ; 32(3): 035707, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017812

RESUMO

Graphane is formed by bonding hydrogen (and deuterium) atoms to carbon atoms in the graphene mesh, with modification from the pure planar sp2 bonding towards an sp3 configuration. Atomic hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) bonding with C atoms in fully free-standing nano porous graphene (NPG) is achieved, by exploiting low-energy proton (or deuteron) non-destructive irradiation, with unprecedented minimal introduction of defects, as determined by Raman spectroscopy and by the C 1s core level lineshape analysis. Evidence of the H- (or D-) NPG bond formation is obtained by bringing to light the emergence of a H- (or D-) related sp3-distorted component in the C 1s core level, clear fingerprint of H-C (or D-C) covalent bonding. The H (or D) bonding with the C atoms of free-standing graphene reaches more than 1/4 (or 1/3) at% coverage. This non-destructive H-NPG (or D-NPG) chemisorption is very stable at high temperatures up to about 800 K, as monitored by Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with complete healing and restoring of clean graphene above 920 K. The excellent chemical and temperature stability of H- (and D-) NPG opens the way not only towards the formation of semiconducting graphane on large-scale samples, but also to stable graphene functionalisation enabling futuristic applications in advanced detectors for the ß-spectrum analysis.

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