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1.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The locomotive syndrome risk test was developed to quantify the decrease in mobility among adults, which could eventually lead to disability. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the locomotive syndrome risk test for adults and investigate the influence of age and sex. METHODS: We analyzed 8681 independent community dwellers (3607 men, 5074 women). Data pertaining to locomotive syndrome risk test (the two-step test, the stand-up test, and the 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale [GLFS-25]) scores were collected from seven administrative areas of Japan. RESULTS: The reference values of the three test scores were generated and all three test scores gradually decreased among young-to-middle-aged individuals and rapidly decreased in individuals aged over 60 years. The stand-up test score began decreasing significantly from the age of 30 years. The trajectories of decrease in the two-step test score with age was slightly different between men and women especially among the middle-aged individuals. The two physical test scores were more sensitive to aging than the self-reported test score. CONCLUSION: The reference values generated in this study could be employed to determine whether an individual has mobility comparable to independent community dwellers of the same age and sex.

2.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139267

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Exercises and vitamin D interventions have shown to improve muscle function and balance, and prevent falls in postmenopausal healthy women and in patients with osteoporosis. However, the effects of eldecalcitol on these factors remain undetermined. The present open-label, randomized, controlled study aimed to investigate the effects of eldecalcitol treatment in reducing falls in postmenopausal women, and improving muscle function and balance. METHODS: The study population included 226 Japanese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Patients were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of treatment with or without eldecalcitol (0.75 µg/day). Treatment continued for 6 months. Participants in both groups were instructed to perform back extensor muscle exercise. Isometric back extensor and leg extensor strength, grip power, ten-meter walking speed, timed up and go test and time of single leg standing were measured at baseline and 24 weeks. Patients were asked to record the number of falls during the 24-week period. RESULTS: The percentage increase in average bilateral quadriceps muscle strength was significantly higher in the eldecalcitol group compared with the non-eldecalcitol group (right, p = 0.041; left, p = 0.042). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the strength of back muscles and grip power and the parameters of balance and walking abilities between the groups. There was no significant difference in the number of falls between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: A 24-week intervention of eldecalcitol improves the strength of the quadriceps muscles in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. However, eldecalcitol neither improve balance and walking abilities nor reduce the number of falls.

3.
Exp Neurol ; 328: 113251, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087252

RESUMO

Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been used to treat various human diseases. Previous studies have shown that low-energy ESWT promotes the release of various cell growth factors and trophic factors from the cells surrounding the target lesion. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the application of low-energy ESWT upregulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduces neural tissue damage and functional impairment using a rat model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury. We found that low-energy ESWT promoted BDNF expression in the damaged neural tissue. The expression of BDNF was increased in various neural cells at the lesion. Additionally, low-energy ESWT increased the area of spared white matter and the number of oligodendrocytes in the injured spinal cord compared with untreated control animals. There were more axonal fibers around the injured site after the application of low-energy ESWT than control. Importantly, low-energy ESWT improved the locomotor functions evaluated by both the BBB scale and ladder rung walking test in addition to the sensory function measured using a von Frey test. Moreover, the electrophysiological assessment confirmed that the conductivity of the central motor pathway in the injured spinal cord was restored by low-energy ESWT. These findings indicate that low-energy ESWT promotes BDNF expression at the lesion site and reduces the neural tissue damage and functional impairment following spinal cord injury. Our results support the potential application of low-energy ESWT as a novel therapeutic strategy for treating spinal cord injury.

4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 250(2): 79-85, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062615

RESUMO

Basketball is a major sport worldwide among different age groups that leads to a high frequency of injuries at multiple body sites. Upper and lower extremities and lower back are common pain sites in basketball players; however, there is little information about the relationship between upper or lower extremity pain and lower back pain. This study elucidated the associations between upper extremity (shoulder and elbow) pain and lower back pain (LBP) among young basketball players. We conducted a cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires mailed to 25,669 young athletes; the final study population comprised 590 basketball players, and their median age was 13 years (range: 6-15 years). The point prevalence rates of lower back, shoulder, elbow, and upper extremity pain among young basketball players were 12.9% (76/590), 4.6% (27/590), 2.7% (16/590), and 7.1% (42/590), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that upper extremity pain was significantly associated with LBP (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.86; 95% confidential interval [CI], 3.93-15.72). Shoulder pain was significantly associated with training per week (> 4 days) (adjusted OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.29-13.40) and LBP (adjusted OR: 13.77; 95% CI: 5.70-33.24). This study indicates that upper extremity and shoulder pain is associated with LBP among young basketball players. Assessing for lower back pain, as well as elbow and/or shoulder pain, may help prevent severe injuries in young basketball players. In conclusion, parents and coaches should be properly re-educated to help improve lower back, upper extremity, and shoulder pain among young basketball players.

5.
Phys Ther Sport ; 43: 65-69, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower back pain (LBP), as well as lower extremity injuries, are major problems among young volleyball players. Nevertheless, only few studies have focused on the relationship between lower extremity injuries and LBP. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between LBP and lower extremity pain, including knee and ankle pain, among young volleyball players. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Amateur sports association. PARTICIPANTS: Elementary and middle school-aged athletes (6-15 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LBP and lower extremity pain. RESULTS: A total of 566 young volleyball players participated in this study. The point prevalence of LBP among young volleyball players was 9.5%. Using absence of lower extremity pain as a reference, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LBP was 11.07 (5.64-21.71) in the presence of lower extremity pain. CONCLUSIONS: LBP is associated with Lower extremity pain among young volleyball players. Careful attention should be paid to lower extremity complaints to prevent and treat LBP among young volleyball players.

6.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(3): 502-507, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several measurement techniques have been reported to quantify glenoid bone defect in patients with anterior shoulder instability. Among them, the method that uses a best-fit circle and another that uses the contralateral glenoid as a control are most commonly used. However, to our knowledge, no study has been reported that compared the reliability of these methods. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine which of these methods has higher reproducibility. METHOD: In this study, 3-dimensional computed tomography data from 94 patients (mean age 29 years) with unilateral anterior shoulder instability were used. Three examiners measured the glenoid bone defect of each patient 3 times using 2 techniques: the best-fit circle method and the contralateral comparison method. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities were measured using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: The intraobserver reliability was found to be 0.91 for the best-fit circle method and 0.98 for the contralateral comparison method. The interobserver reliability was 0.77 for the best-fit circle method and 0.88 for the contralateral method. The percentage of glenoid defect was 11.5% when using the best-fit circle and 10.7% with the contralateral method. CONCLUSION: The contralateral comparison method was more reliable than the best-fit circle method for quantifying the amount of glenoid bone loss.

7.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(1): 33-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated biomechanically that 25% is a critical size defect of the glenoid. However, a recent clinical study reported that a bone loss between 13.5% and 20% (subcritical bone loss) led to impairment of quality of life but not a recurrence of instability. PURPOSE: To clarify whether a subcritical bone loss exists in assessing a Hill-Sachs lesion via a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Fifty patients (mean age, 27 years) with <25% glenoid defect who were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent anterior dislocation were assessed at a mean follow-up of 28 months. All had an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion. The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) and Rowe scores were used for the clinical evaluation. The Hill-Sachs interval was measured on 3-dimensional computed tomography images and divided by the glenoid track width, defined as the Hill-Sachs occupancy (in percentages). The glenoid track was divided into 4 zones based on the percentage of the Hill-Sachs occupancy: zone 1, <25%; zone 2, 25% to <50%; zone 3, 50% to <75%; and zone 4, ≥75%. RESULTS: The recurrence rate was 6% (3 of 50 shoulders). The Rowe score significantly improved from 45.2 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) preoperatively to 92.3 ± 6.5 at the final follow-up (P < .05). The WOSI score also significantly increased from 46.6% ± 19.3% preoperatively to 72.3% ± 21.0% at the final follow-up (P < .001). The WOSI score of patients in zone 4 (peripheral-track lesion) (n = 10) was significantly lower than those in the other zones (central-track lesion) (P = .0379). Of the 10 patients with the peripheral-track lesion, 5 had a <40% WOSI score, similar to the preoperative WOSI score (46.6%). CONCLUSION: Patients with on-track lesions can be divided into 2 subgroups: those with the Hill-Sachs occupancy ≥75% (peripheral-track lesion) showed significantly worse WOSI score without recurrent instability events than those with the Hill-Sacks occupancy <75% (central-track lesion).

8.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): 139-145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is scarce concerning the relationship of physical dysfunction of the trunk and lower extremities with elbow and shoulder pain in young baseball players. This study aimed to examine the association of joint flexibility of the trunk and lower extremities and dynamic postural control with elbow and shoulder pain among elite young baseball players. METHODS: We analyzed baseball players (aged 9-12 years) who participated in the National Junior Sports Clubs Baseball Festival. Range of motion in external rotation and internal rotation (IR) of the hip, as well as the finger-to-floor distance and heel-to-buttock distance, was measured. The straight-leg-raise test was also conducted. Dynamic postural control was evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of physical function with the elbow or shoulder pain incidence. RESULTS: Of 210 players surveyed, 177 without elbow or shoulder pain were included in the analysis. Of the participants, 16 (9.0%) reported having elbow or shoulder pain during the tournament. Participants with the incidence of elbow or shoulder pain had a significant restriction in hip IR of the stride leg compared with those without pain (35.8° vs. 43.7°, P = .022). There were no significant associations of other joint flexibilities and the Star Excursion Balance Test with elbow or shoulder pain. CONCLUSION: Decreased hip IR range of motion of the stride leg was significantly associated with the elbow or shoulder pain incidence. Players, coaches, and clinicians should consider the physical function of the trunk and lower extremities for the prevention of elbow and shoulder pain.


Assuntos
Beisebol/lesões , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Rotação , Dor de Ombro/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cotovelo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
9.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): 44-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to determine the risk and outcomes of primary shoulder arthroplasties in patients with immunosuppression who had undergone solid organ transplantation. METHODS: Using a single institution's total joint registry, we reviewed 30 primary shoulder arthroplasties in 25 post-transplantation patients, including 12 total shoulder arthroplasties, 10 hemiarthroplasties, and 8 reverse shoulder arthroplasties, between 1985 and 2012. Therapy and patient variables were recorded, including immunosuppressive therapy protocols, the date of preceding solid organ transplantation, and specific medications taken in the perioperative period. We matched a cohort of control patients for age, sex, type of implant, and year of surgery at a ratio of 4:1. Two groups were compared regarding mortality risk, complications, and clinical outcomes (pain score, range of motion, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score). RESULTS: No periprosthetic infections occurred in the post-transplantation group at a mean follow-up of 39 months. However, the post-transplantation group showed an increased risk of periprosthetic fractures compared with the control group (hazard ratio, 8.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-70.98; P = .03). Despite the increase in fractures, the overall number of complications did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, postoperative shoulder function and outcome scores were not significantly different between patients who had a prior transplant and those who did not. CONCLUSION: Primary shoulder arthroplasty in patients with immunosuppression who underwent solid organ transplantation is a successful procedure to treat glenohumeral arthritis. In contrast, there may be an increased risk of periprosthetic fractures in patients with a history of a solid organ transplant.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro/efeitos adversos , Hemiartroplastia/efeitos adversos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Órgãos , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817643

RESUMO

The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is a key regulator of necroptosis and is involved in various pathologies of human diseases. We previously reported that RIPK3 expression is upregulated in various neural cells at the lesions and necroptosis contributed to secondary neural tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the B-RAFV600E inhibitor dabrafenib has a function to selectively inhibit RIPK3 and prevents necroptosis in various disease models. In the present study, using a mouse model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury, we demonstrate that dabrafenib administration in the acute phase significantly inhibites RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in the injured spinal cord. The administration of dabrafenib attenuated secondary neural tissue damage, such as demyelination, neuronal loss, and axonal damage, following SCI. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of dabrafenib dramatically improved the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions after SCI. Furthermore, the electrophysiological assessment of the injured spinal cord objectively confirmed that the functional recovery was enhanced by dabrafenib. These findings suggest that the B-RAFV600E inhibitor dabrafenib attenuates RIPK3-mediated necroptosis to provide a neuroprotective effect and promotes functional recovery after SCI. The administration of dabrafenib may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating patients with SCI in the future.

11.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(4): 249-254, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839627

RESUMO

Verbal or physical abuse from coaches has negative effects on young athletes, and the parents of athletes also have an influence on the sports environment. It is therefore important to understand parents' attitudes towards abuse against their children from the coaches. This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics of parents who accept the infliction of verbal or physical abuse on their children from coaches of youth sports teams. A cross-sectional study using self-report questionnaires was conducted with parents of young athletes (n = 6,493). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with parents' acceptability of verbal or physical abuse against their children. The proportion of parents who were accepting of verbal or physical abuse was 21.5%. Acceptability of verbal or physical abuse was significantly associated with male (odds ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.43-1.95), younger age (1.24, 1.09-1.41), lower educational attainment (1.32, 1.17-1.50), smoking habits (1.42, 1.23-1.63), experience of playing on a team with high levels of competition during their junior or high school days (1.31, 1.15-1.50), and experience of verbal and physical abuse by their own former coaches (3.59, 3.03-4.26 and 1.17, 1.02-1.35). About 58% and 28% of parents had experienced verbal and physical abuse from their own former coaches, and parents who had experienced verbal abuse themselves were most likely to be accepting of verbal or physical abuse towards their children. Educating parents is considered to be important for preventing and eradicating abuse against young athletes.

13.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 3(4): 304-311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768449

RESUMO

Introduction: Laminoplasty is a common surgery for cervical myelopathy. Previous studies have analyzed the reoperation rates in posterior decompression surgeries of the cervical spine. However, few studies have solely focused on midline-splitting laminoplasty (MSL) using a large number of patients. This aims to analyze the reoperation rates after MSL using the survival function method. Methods: Between 1988 and 2013, 4,208 MSLs were performed as a primary operation for cervical myelopathy and enrolled in our spinal surgery registration system. The Kaplan-Meier survival function method was used to analyze the rates of reoperation. Results: Of 4,208 patients with primary MSL, 40 underwent reoperation for neurological complications. The overall reoperation rate was 0.26%, 0.64%, 0.83%, 0.93%, and 0.95% at 1, 5, 10, 20, and >20 years, respectively. The causes of reoperation were postoperative cervical radiculopathy in 10 patients, stenosis at an adjacent level in 8, stenosis due to failed "open-door" lamina in 6, instability of the cervical spine in 4, cervical disc herniation in 3, elongation of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in 3, spinal cord injury in 1, fracture of the cervical spine in 1, postoperative scar formation in 1, ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament in 1, and unknown in 2. The number of patients with surgical site infection (SSI) who needed surgical debridement was 34 (0.81%). Conclusions: Excluding reoperations for SSI, the reoperation rate of MSL was approximately 1.0% at the maximum of 26 years after surgery. MSL was determined to be a reliable surgical procedure regarding postoperative complications requiring additional surgeries.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e030761, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prolonged periods of living in prefabricated houses (PHs) may increase the risk of musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms; however, the association is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the association between continued residence in PHs and MSK pain in a population affected by a natural disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) survivors. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A panel study was conducted including 1059 and 792 survivors at 2 and 4 years, respectively, after the GEJE, using a self-reported questionnaire. Those with no response on living status and those who did not live in a PH were excluded. Participants were classified into two groups by living status: continued residence in a PH (lived in a PH during both periods) or moving out of a PH (lived in a PH in the first period and did not live in a PH in the second). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: MSK pain included lower back, shoulder, knee, hand or foot, and neck pain. Changes in the occurrence of MSK pain during the two periods were assessed and defined as 'new-onset' and 'continuing' MSK pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the influence of continued residence in a PH on new-onset and continuing MSK pain. RESULTS: Continued residence in a PH was significantly associated with new-onset MSK pain, even after adjustment for covariates (adjusted OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.79, p=0.006). Participants who continued living in a PH had higher rates of continuing MSK pain than those who moved out; however, the difference was not significant (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.05, p=0.079). CONCLUSION: Continued residence in a PH was associated with new-onset MSK pain among survivors. Public support should be provided to such people to ensure a more comfortable life.

15.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 274, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional disability is a significant problem after natural disasters. Musculoskeletal pain is reported to increase after disasters, which can cause functional disability among survivors. However, the effects of musculoskeletal pain on functional decline after natural disasters are unclear. The present study aimed to examine the association between musculoskeletal pain and new-onset poor physical function among elderly survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on survivors aged ≥65 years at three and 4 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. A total of 747 persons were included in this study. Physical function was assessed using the Kihon Checklist. New-onset poor physical function was defined as low physical function not present at 3 years but present at 4 years after the disaster. Knee, hand or foot, low back, shoulder, and neck pain was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was defined as musculoskeletal pain. Musculoskeletal pain at 3 years after the disaster was categorized according to the number of pain regions (0, 1, ≥ 2). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for new-onset poor physical function due to musculoskeletal pain. RESULTS: The incidence of new-onset poor physical function was 14.9%. New-onset poor physical function was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain. Compared with "0" musculoskeletal pain region, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.39 (0.75-2.58) and 2.69 (1.52-4.77) in "1" and "≥ 2" musculoskeletal pain regions, respectively (p for trend = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal pain is associated with new-onset poor physical function among elderly survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Monitoring musculoskeletal pain is important to prevent physical function decline after natural disasters.

16.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(8): 1467-1470, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been biomechanically demonstrated that 20% to 25% is a critical glenoid bone loss. Recently, there are several reports describing that a bone loss less than 20% to 25% needed to be treated because patients may have decreased quality of life without recurrent instability events. The purpose of this study was to clarify the presence of subcritical bone loss that would affect postoperative instability or quality of life. METHODS: Subjects were 43 patients aged≤40years with less than 25% glenoid bone loss who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair. These patients were assessed at a mean follow-up of 32months. The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) and Rowe scores were used for the clinical evaluation. Patients were divided in 3 groups based on the percentage of bone loss: group 1: <8%; group 2: 8% to 17%; and group 3: >17%. RESULTS: The recurrence rate was 7% (3/43 shoulders). A weak negative correlation was seen between bone loss and sports/recreation/work domain of the WOSI score (r=-0.304, p=0.0191). The WOSI for group 3 was significantly lower than that for group 1 and 2 (p=0.0009). The male WOSI scores were significantly lower than the female ones (p=0.0471). The WOSI scores of the contact athletes were significantly lower than those of non-contact athletes (p=0.0275). All the patients in Group 3 were males and participated in contact sports. CONCLUSION: Glenoid bone loss between 17% and 25% is considered to be a "subcritical bone loss" in our series, especially in male patients who are involved in sports or high-level activities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective study.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13985, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562376

RESUMO

Ti6Al4V alloy orthopedic implants are widely used as Ti6Al4V alloy is a biocompatible material and resistant to corrosion. However, Ti6Al4V alloy has higher Young's modulus compared with human bone. The difference of elastic modulus between bone and titanium alloy may evoke clinical problems because of stress shielding. To resolve this, we previously developed a TiNbSn alloy offering low Young's modulus and improved biocompatibility. In the present study, the effects of sulfuric acid anodic oxidation on the osseointegration of TiNbSn alloy were assessed. The apatite formation was evaluated with Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The biocompatibility of TiNbSN alloy was evaluated in experimental animal models using pull-out tests and quantitative histological analyses. The results of the surface analyses indicated that sulfuric anodic oxidation induced abundant superficial apatite formation of the TiNbSn alloy disks and rods, with a 5.1-µm-thick oxide layer and submicron-sized pores. In vivo, treated rods showed increased mature lamellar bone formation and higher failure loads compared with untreated rods. Overall, our findings indicate that anodic oxidation with sulfuric acid may help to improve the biocompatibility of TiNbSn alloys for osseointegration.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) can provide internal fixation of the thoracolumbar spine through a minimally invasive surgical procedure. PPS fixation has been widely used to treat various spinal diseases. Rigid fixation of PPS is essential for managing osteoporotic spine in order to prevent the risks of screw loosening and implant failure. We recently developed a novel augmentation method using hydroxyapatite (HA) granules for PPS fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength and stiffness of PPS fixation augmented with HA granules using an osteoporotic bone model. METHODS: Screws were inserted into uniform synthetic bone (sawbones) with and without augmentation. The uniaxial pullout strength and insertion torque of the screws were evaluated. In addition, each screw underwent cyclic toggling under incrementally increasing physiological loads until 2 mm of screwhead displacement occurred. The maximal pullout strength (N), maximal insertion torque (N·cm), number of toggle cycles and maximal load (N) required to achieve 2-mm screwhead displacement were compared between the screws with and without augmentation. RESULTS: The maximal pullout strength was significantly stronger for screws with augmentation than for those without augmentation (302 ± 19 N vs. 254 ± 17 N, p < 0.05). In addition, the maximal insertion torque was significantly increased in screws with augmentation compared to those without augmentation (48 ± 4 N·cm vs. 26 ± 5 N·cm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the number of toggle cycles and the maximal load required to reach 2 mm of displacement were significantly greater in screws with augmentation than in those without augmentation (106 ± 9 vs. 52 ± 10 cycles; 152 ± 4 N vs. 124 ± 5 N, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Augmentation using HA granules significantly enhanced the rigidity of PPS fixation in the osteoporotic bone model. The present study suggested that novel augmentation with HA granules may be a useful technique for PPS fixation in patients with osteoporotic spine.

20.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 27(3): 2309499019864817, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the torn rotator cuff muscles, decreased expression of wnt10b prior to elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) has previously been reported. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the expression profiles of these adipogenesis-related genes after rotator cuff detachment and reattachment in a rabbit model. METHODS: We investigated gene expression profiles of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and wnt10b in different parts of rabbit supraspinatus (SSP) muscle after tendon detachment (n = 6 for each time point). In addition, we assessed expression of the same genes after SSP reattachment with different intervals from initial detachment (n = 6). Fatty degeneration of the SSP muscle was examined by Oil red-O staining. Gene expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: After SSP detachment, Oil red-O-positive oil deposits increased after 3 weeks. In the SSP reattachment model, numerous Oil red-O-positive cells were present at 5-week reattachment, following 2- and 3-week detachment. PPARγ and C/EBPα messenger ribonucleic acid expression exhibited a significant increase at 2 and 3 weeks after SSP detachment and remained increased at 5-week reattachment after 2- and 3-week detachment. A decreased expression of wnt10b was observed from 1 week after SSP detachment. Expression of wnt10b was recovered not in the central area of the SSP muscle but in the periphery after reattachment. Adipogenic change was not observed when SSP tendon was reattached after 1-week detachment. CONCLUSIONS: These results may suggest that once the adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, were elevated, repair surgery after rotator cuff tear could not prevent the emergence of fat in the SSP muscle.

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