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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 617-623, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cost-effectiveness and to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the use of infusion pumps with drug library to reduce errors in intravenous drug administration in pediatric and neonatal patients in Intensive Care Units. METHODS: Mathematical modeling for economic analysis of the decision tree type. The base case was composed of reference and alternative settings. The target population was neonates and pediatric patients hospitalized in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units, comprising a cohort of 15,034 patients. The cost estimate was based on the bottom-up and top-down approaches. RESULTS: The decision tree, after RollBack, showed that the infusion pump with drug library may be the best strategy to avoid errors in intravenous drugs administration. CONCLUSION: The analysis revealed that the conventional pump, although it has the lowest cost, also has lower effectiveness.

2.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(3): 617-623, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013549

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze cost-effectiveness and to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the use of infusion pumps with drug library to reduce errors in intravenous drug administration in pediatric and neonatal patients in Intensive Care Units. Methods: Mathematical modeling for economic analysis of the decision tree type. The base case was composed of reference and alternative settings. The target population was neonates and pediatric patients hospitalized in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units, comprising a cohort of 15,034 patients. The cost estimate was based on the bottom-up and top-down approaches. Results: The decision tree, after RollBack, showed that the infusion pump with drug library may be the best strategy to avoid errors in intravenous drugs administration. Conclusion: The analysis revealed that the conventional pump, although it has the lowest cost, also has lower effectiveness.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar el costo-efectividad y calcular la razón de costo-efectividad incremental del uso de bombas de infusión con una biblioteca de fármacos para reducir errores en la administración de medicamentos por vía intravenosa, en pacientes pediátricos y neonatales en unidades de terapia intensiva. Método: Modelaje matemático para el análisis económico, del tipo árbol de decisión. El caso base se compone de escenarios de referencia y alternativo. La población objetivo fueron pacientes neonatos y pediátricos internados en unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica y neonatal, componiendo una cohorte de 15.034 pacientes. La estimación de costos se basó en los enfoques bottom-up y top-down. Resultados: El árbol de decisión, después de Roll Back, mostró que la bomba de infusión con biblioteca de fármacos puede ser la mejor estrategia para evitar errores en la administración de medicamentos intravenosos. Conclusión: El análisis reveló que la bomba convencional, aunque tiene el menor costo, tiene también menor efectividad.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o custo-efetividade e calcular a razão de custo-efetividade incremental do uso de bombas de infusão com biblioteca de fármacos para reduzir erros na administração de medicamento pela via intravenosa, em pacientes pediátricos e neonatais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. Método: Modelagem matemática para análise econômica, do tipo árvore de decisão. O caso-base foi composto pelos cenários de referência e alternativo. A população alvo foram pacientes neonatos e pediátricos internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva pediátrica e neonatal, compondo uma coorte de 15.034 pacientes. A estimativa de custos foi baseada nas abordagens bottom-up e top-down. Resultados: A árvore de decisão, após RollBack, mostrou que a bomba de infusão com biblioteca de fármacos pode ser a melhor estratégia para evitar erros na administração de medicamentos intravenosos. Conclusão: A análise revelou que a bomba convencional, embora tenha o menor custo, tem também menor efetividade.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211401, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on dengue related to the cost of illness and cost of the program are factors to describe the economic burden of dengue, a neglected disease that has global importance in public health. These studies are often used by health managers in optimizing financial resources. A systematic review of studies estimating the cost of dengue was carried out, comparing the costs between the studies and examining the cost drivers regarding the methodological choices. METHODS: This study was done according to the guidelines of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). Several databases were searched: Medline, Virtual Health Library and CRD. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The quality of the methodology of the individual studies was achieved by a checklist of 29 items based on protocols proposed by the British Medical Journal and Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. A qualitative and quantitative narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: A literature search yielded 665 publications. Of these, 22 studies are in accordance with previously established inclusion criteria. The cost estimates were compared amongst the studies, highlighting the study design, included population and comparators used (study methodology). The component costs included in the economic evaluation were based on direct and indirect costs, wherein twelve studies included both costs, twelve studies adopted the societal perspective and ten studies used the perspective of the public health service provider, or of a private budget holder. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the cost of dengue in 18 countries generated approximately US$ 3.3 billion Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in 2015. This confirms that the burden of dengue has a great economic impact on countries with common socioeconomic characteristics and similarities in health systems, particularly developing countries, indicating a need for further studies in these countries.

4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS: We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS: The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/economia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-976240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/reabilitação , Esquistossomose mansoni/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e385, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995100

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to critically evaluate the quality of the models used in economic evaluations of screening strategies for cervical cancer prevention. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting model-based full economic evaluations (cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-benefit analyses) of cervical cancer screening strategies. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and performed data extraction. Methodological assessment of the quality of the models utilized formal checklists, and a qualitative narrative synthesis was performed. Thirty-eight articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were conducted in high-income countries (82%, n=31). The Pap test was the most used screening strategy investigated, which was present in 86% (n=33) of the studies. Half of the studies (n=19) used a previously published Markov model. The deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed in 92% (n=35) of the studies. The mean number of properly reported checklist items was 9 out of the maximum possible 18. Items that were better reported included the statement of decision problem, the description of the strategies/comparators, the statement of time horizon, and information regarding the disease states. Compliance with some items of the checklist was poor. The Markov models for economic evaluation of screening strategies for cervical cancer varied in quality. The following points require improvement: 1) assessment of methodological, structural, heterogeneity, and parameter uncertainties; 2) model type and cycle length justification; 3) methods to account for heterogeneity; and 4) report of consistency evaluation (through calibration and validation methods).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Cadeias de Markov , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(5): 238-244, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945168

RESUMO

Background: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been used to express the impact of neglected diseases and to generate indicators for health economic assessments. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a neglected disease with various clinical manifestations, including severe repercussions, caused by parasitic worms. Here we describe the quality of life of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients and estimate the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015. Methods: A HRQoL study was carried out using the three-level European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in 147 chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients at an outpatient monitoring facility of an endemic state for schistosomiasis. Results: Losses in HRQoL were observed in all five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L. Patients >60 y and 40-49 y of age reported the highest frequencies of problems. The average utility index was 0.71, and the median index was significantly lower among female patients and patients with comorbidities (0.68; p<0.05) compared with the entire sample. Approximately 26.7 QALYs were estimated for the study population and 31.2 QALYs for the chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazil. Conclusions: The advanced forms of schistosomiasis mansoni, even during treatment, contribute to important health losses in the population dealing with the disease.

8.
J Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2018 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are common health problems associated with serious impairment and economic impact. AIMS: To estimate the costs of clinical and subthreshold mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian children. METHOD: The High Risk Cohort Study is a community study conducted in two major Brazilian cities. Subjects were 6-14 years old children being registered at school. From an initial pool of 9937 children, two subgroups were further investigated using a random-selection (n = 958) and high-risk group selection procedure (n = 1554), resulting in a sample of 2512 subjects. Mental disorder assessment was made using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Costs for each child were estimated from the following components: mental health and social services use, school problems and parental loss of productivity. RESULTS: Child subthreshold and clinical mental disorders showed lifetime mean total cost of $1750.9 and $3141.2, respectively. National lifetime cost estimate was $9.9 billion for subthreshold mental disorders and $11.6 billion for clinical mental disorders (values in US$ purchasing power parity). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that child mental disorders have a great economic impact on society. There is an urgent need to plan an effective system of care with cost-effective programs of treatment and prevention to reduce economic burden.

9.
Vaccine ; 36(19): 2510-2522, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the economic evaluations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults aged ≥60 years to inform the development of local studies through the discussion of parameters and assumptions that influence the results of the analyses. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Brazilian Regional Library of Medicine, National Health Service Economic Evaluation, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination-as well as the Scopus citation index and the Web of Science for full economic evaluations of PPV23 published up to March 2016. Two independent reviewers screened the articles for relevance and extracted the data. Main study characteristics and methods (clinical and epidemiological data, cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were extracted and compared. Costs were updated to 2016 international dollars. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies published from 1980 to 2016 were reviewed. Most studies were conducted in Europe and the USA; three studies were conducted in Latin America (Brazil, 2; Colombia, 1). In addition to the scenario comparing the vaccination with the PPV23 to non-vaccination, three studies also compared PPV23 to pneumococcal conjugate 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). All studies used static models. Most used a lifetime (44.4%) or 5-6 year's time horizon (33.3%). Only three studies considered herd protection from children immunization with PCV13 in the model. Most studies considered PPV23 cost-effective (less than US$50,000 per LYG or QALY) and sometimes cost-saving (results ranging from cost-saving to US$84,636/QALY). The estimates of disease burden, the efficacy/effectiveness of PPV23, and the effects of herd protection from childhood immunization had most influence on the results. CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed cost-effectiveness studies of PPV23 that represent the current epidemiological scenario and reduce uncertainty related to efficacy/effectiveness are extremely relevant to informing the decision-making process.

10.
Clinics ; 73: e385, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952819

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to critically evaluate the quality of the models used in economic evaluations of screening strategies for cervical cancer prevention. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting model-based full economic evaluations (cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-benefit analyses) of cervical cancer screening strategies. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and performed data extraction. Methodological assessment of the quality of the models utilized formal checklists, and a qualitative narrative synthesis was performed. Thirty-eight articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were conducted in high-income countries (82%, n=31). The Pap test was the most used screening strategy investigated, which was present in 86% (n=33) of the studies. Half of the studies (n=19) used a previously published Markov model. The deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed in 92% (n=35) of the studies. The mean number of properly reported checklist items was 9 out of the maximum possible 18. Items that were better reported included the statement of decision problem, the description of the strategies/comparators, the statement of time horizon, and information regarding the disease states. Compliance with some items of the checklist was poor. The Markov models for economic evaluation of screening strategies for cervical cancer varied in quality. The following points require improvement: 1) assessment of methodological, structural, heterogeneity, and parameter uncertainties; 2) model type and cycle length justification; 3) methods to account for heterogeneity; and 4) report of consistency evaluation (through calibration and validation methods).

11.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 15(2): 212-219, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767921

RESUMO

Objective: To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Methods: Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates. Costs estimates obtained via different methods were compared using the Friedman test. Results: Cost estimates of inpatient cases of severe pneumonia amounted to R$ 780,70/$Int. 858.7 (medical record review), R$ 641,90/$Int. 706.90 (therapeutic guidelines) and R$ 594,80/$Int. 654.28 (Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates). Costs estimated via micro-costing (medical record review or therapeutic guidelines) did not differ significantly (p=0.405), while estimates based on reimbursement rates were significantly lower compared to estimates based on therapeutic guidelines (p<0.001) or record review (p=0.006). Conclusion: Brazilian Public Unified Health System costs estimated via different costing methods differ significantly, with gross-costing yielding lower cost estimates. Given costs estimated by different micro-costing methods are similar and costing methods based on therapeutic guidelines are easier to apply and less expensive, this method may be a valuable alternative for estimation of hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in children. Objetivo: Determinar e comparar custos hospitalares no tratamento da pneumonia bacteriana adquirida na comunidade por diferentes metodologias de custeio, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos: Estudo de custo, com coleta de dados primários de uma amostra de 59 crianças com 28 dias a 35 meses de idade hospitalizadas por pneumonia bacteriana. Foram considerados custos diretos médicos e não médicos. Três metodologias de custeio foram utilizadas: microcusteio por revisão de prontuários, microcusteio considerando diretriz terapêutica e macrocusteio por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os custos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias foram comparados utilizando o teste de Friedman. Resultados: Os custos hospitalares de crianças com pneumonia grave foram R$ 780,70 ($Int. 858.7) por revisão de prontuários, R$ 641,90 ($Int. 706.90) por diretriz terapêutica e R$ 594,80 ($Int. 654.28) por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde, respectivamente. A utilização de metodologias de microcusteio (revisão de prontuários e diretriz) resultou em estimativas de custos equivalentes (p=0,405), enquanto o custo estimado por ressarcimento foi significativamente menor do que aqueles estimados por diretriz (p<0,001) e por revisão de prontuário (p=0,006), sendo, assim, significativamente diferentes. Conclusão: Na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde, existe diferença significativa nos custos estimados quando se utilizam diferentes metodologias, sendo a estimativa por ressarcimento a que resulta em valores menores. Considerando que não há diferença nos valores de custos estimados por diferentes metodologias de microcusteio, a metodologia de custeio por diretriz, de mais fácil e rápida execução, é uma alternativa válida para estimativa de custos de hospitalização por pneumonias bacterianas em crianças.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Hospitalização/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/terapia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Registros Médicos/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso/economia
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 212-219, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-891386

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Methods Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates. Costs estimates obtained via different methods were compared using the Friedman test. Results Cost estimates of inpatient cases of severe pneumonia amounted to R$ 780,70/$Int. 858.7 (medical record review), R$ 641,90/$Int. 706.90 (therapeutic guidelines) and R$ 594,80/$Int. 654.28 (Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates). Costs estimated via micro-costing (medical record review or therapeutic guidelines) did not differ significantly (p=0.405), while estimates based on reimbursement rates were significantly lower compared to estimates based on therapeutic guidelines (p<0.001) or record review (p=0.006). Conclusion Brazilian Public Unified Health System costs estimated via different costing methods differ significantly, with gross-costing yielding lower cost estimates. Given costs estimated by different micro-costing methods are similar and costing methods based on therapeutic guidelines are easier to apply and less expensive, this method may be a valuable alternative for estimation of hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in children.


RESUMO Objetivo Determinar e comparar custos hospitalares no tratamento da pneumonia bacteriana adquirida na comunidade por diferentes metodologias de custeio, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos Estudo de custo, com coleta de dados primários de uma amostra de 59 crianças com 28 dias a 35 meses de idade hospitalizadas por pneumonia bacteriana. Foram considerados custos diretos médicos e não médicos. Três metodologias de custeio foram utilizadas: microcusteio por revisão de prontuários, microcusteio considerando diretriz terapêutica e macrocusteio por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os custos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias foram comparados utilizando o teste de Friedman. Resultados Os custos hospitalares de crianças com pneumonia grave foram R$ 780,70 ($Int. 858.7) por revisão de prontuários, R$ 641,90 ($Int. 706.90) por diretriz terapêutica e R$ 594,80 ($Int. 654.28) por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde, respectivamente. A utilização de metodologias de microcusteio (revisão de prontuários e diretriz) resultou em estimativas de custos equivalentes (p=0,405), enquanto o custo estimado por ressarcimento foi significativamente menor do que aqueles estimados por diretriz (p<0,001) e por revisão de prontuário (p=0,006), sendo, assim, significativamente diferentes. Conclusão Na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde, existe diferença significativa nos custos estimados quando se utilizam diferentes metodologias, sendo a estimativa por ressarcimento a que resulta em valores menores. Considerando que não há diferença nos valores de custos estimados por diferentes metodologias de microcusteio, a metodologia de custeio por diretriz, de mais fácil e rápida execução, é uma alternativa válida para estimativa de custos de hospitalização por pneumonias bacterianas em crianças.

13.
Vaccine ; 35(21): 2781-2793, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several countries require manufacturers to present a budget impact analysis (BIA), together with a cost-effectiveness analysis, to support national funding requests. However, guidelines for conducting BIA of vaccines are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the methodological approaches used in published budget impact analysis (BIA) of vaccines, discussing specific methodological issues related to vaccines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This systematic review of the literature on BIA of vaccines was carried out in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD guidelines. We searched multiple databases: MedLine, Embase, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Cochrane Library, DARE Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), HTA Database (via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD), and grey literature. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodology quality of individual studies was assessed using the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force. A qualitative narrative synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The most frequently evaluated vaccines were pneumococcal (41%), influenza (23%) and rotavirus (18%). The target population was stated in 21 studies (95%) and the perspective was clear in 20 (91%). Only 36% reported the calculations used to complete the BIA, 27% informed the total and disaggregated costs for each time period, and 9% showed the change in resource use for each time period. More than half of the studies (55%, n=12) reported less than 50% of the items recommended in the checklist. CONCLUSIONS: The production of BIA of vaccines has increased from 2009. The report of the methodological steps was unsatisfactory, making it difficult to assess the validity of the results presented. Vaccines specific issues should be discussed in international guidelines for BIA of vaccines, to improve the quality of the studies.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Programas de Imunização/economia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/economia , Humanos , Vacinas/imunologia
14.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 8(3): 174-184, 10/02/2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-831844

RESUMO

Objetivos: Resumir os principais pontos da Diretriz de Avaliação Econômica em Saúde (AES) do Ministério da Saúde. Métodos: As diretrizes para AES no Brasil foram desenvolvidas por intermédio de múltiplas rodadas de trabalho iterativas por grupo multidisciplinar de especialistas em economia da saúde e foram submetidas à consulta pública. Resultados: O problema deve ser definido por meio de uma questão de pesquisa estruturada. O estudo pode ser baseado em dados primários ou em modelagem, em que o primeiro aumenta a validade interna dos resultados e o segundo, a capacidade de generalização do estudo. Quando o trabalho for baseado em modelagem e focado em doença crônica, o modelo de Markov pode ser usualmente empregado, quando não houver necessidades que apontem para simulação de eventos discretos (como competição dos indivíduos por recursos escassos) ou modelos de transmissão dinâmica (em vacinação e/ou doenças infecciosas com alta transmissão entre indivíduos). O horizonte temporal preferencial é o de tempo de vida, e a taxa de desconto padrão é de 5% para custo e efetividade. Os custos devem representar a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), podendo ser estimados por macrocusteio ou microcusteio. Sempre que possível, os resultados devem ser apresentados no formato de custo por ano de vida salvo ajustado para qualidade, para facilitar comparações com outros estudos. Análises de sensibilidade devem ser extensamente empregadas, de forma a avaliar o impacto da incerteza nos resultados produzidos. Conclusões: Espera-se que, com a padronização da metodologia proposta na Diretriz, a produção de AES no país tenha incremento na sua qualidade e reprodutibilidade.


Objectives: To summarize the main points from the Brazilian's Ministry of Health Economic Evaluations (HEE) guideline. Methods: The guideline was developed through multiple rounds of iterative work, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in health economics, and where submitted to public consultation. Results: The decision problem should be defined through a structured research question. The study can be either primary data or model-based; in the first case, there is greater internal validity, while the second generates a superior generalizability. When the study is model-based and focused on a chronic disease, a Markov model can be usually employed, except for situations that points towards the need of a discrete event simulation (such as competition of individuals for scarce resources) or a dynamic transition model (for example, vaccination models and infectious diseases with high transmission rates between individuals). The preferred time horizon is the lifetime one, and the default discount rate is 5% for both costs and effectiveness. Costs should represent the Unified Health System (SUS) perspective and can be estimated through either gross-costing or micro-costing. Results should be presented as costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) whenever possible, to facilitate comparison with other studies. Sensitivity analyses should be widely employed, in order to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in the results produced by the model. Conclusions: It is expected that, with the standardization proposed in this guideline, the HEE production in Brazil has gains in quality and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia da Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
15.
J Bras Nefrol ; 38(3): 313-319, 2016 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737389

RESUMO

Introduction: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a consequence of chronic kidney disease. The treatment at the Brazilian Unified Heath System (SUS) is performed with calcitriol, a drug which favors hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia, hindering the control of SHPT. Another option is paricalcitol, which causes parathormone (PTH) suppression faster than calcitriol, with minor changes in calcium-phosphorus product and calcium and phosphorus serum levels. Objective: This study aims to develop a cost-effectiveness analysis of paricalcitol versus calcitriol for patients in dialytic treatment with SHPT, from the SUS perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was developed for patients ≥ 50 years old with end stage renal disease in dialytic treatment and SHPT. Quarterly cycles and a lifetime time horizon were considered. Life years (LY) gained were assessed as clinical outcome. Clinical and economic inputs were obtained from systematic literature review and official databases. Costs are presented in Brazilian real (BRL), for the year 2014. Results: In the base case: paricalcitol generated a clinical benefit of 16.28 LY gained versus 14.11 LY gained with calcitriol, total costs of BRL 131,064 and BRL 114,262, respectively, determining an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of BRL 7,740 per LY gained. The data robustness was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: According to cost-effectiveness threshold recommended by the World Health Organization for 2013, the treatment of SHPT in patients on dialysis with paricalcitol is cost-effective when compared to calcitriol, from the public healthcare system perspective, in Brazil.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/economia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Calcitriol/economia , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ergocalciferóis/economia , Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/economia , Diálise Renal , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(3): 313-319, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-796193

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a consequence of chronic kidney disease. The treatment at the Brazilian Unified Heath System (SUS) is performed with calcitriol, a drug which favors hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia, hindering the control of SHPT. Another option is paricalcitol, which causes parathormone (PTH) suppression faster than calcitriol, with minor changes in calcium-phosphorus product and calcium and phosphorus serum levels. Objective: This study aims to develop a cost-effectiveness analysis of paricalcitol versus calcitriol for patients in dialytic treatment with SHPT, from the SUS perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was developed for patients ≥ 50 years old with end stage renal disease in dialytic treatment and SHPT. Quarterly cycles and a lifetime time horizon were considered. Life years (LY) gained were assessed as clinical outcome. Clinical and economic inputs were obtained from systematic literature review and official databases. Costs are presented in Brazilian real (BRL), for the year 2014. Results: In the base case: paricalcitol generated a clinical benefit of 16.28 LY gained versus 14.11 LY gained with calcitriol, total costs of BRL 131,064 and BRL 114,262, respectively, determining an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of BRL 7,740 per LY gained. The data robustness was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: According to cost-effectiveness threshold recommended by the World Health Organization for 2013, the treatment of SHPT in patients on dialysis with paricalcitol is cost-effective when compared to calcitriol, from the public healthcare system perspective, in Brazil.


Resumo Introdução: O hiperparatireoidismo secundário (HPTS) é uma consequência da doença renal crônica. O tratamento no SUS é realizado com calcitriol, que favorece a hipercalcemia e/ou hiperfosfatemia, dificultando o controle do HPTS. Uma opção clinicamente relevante é o paricalcitol, que ocasiona a supressão do paratormônio (PTH) de forma mais rápida que o calcitriol e com menores alterações nas taxas séricas de cálcio, fósforo e do produto cálcio-fósforo. Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver uma análise de custo-efetividade de paricalcitol versus calcitriol para pacientes em diálise com HPTS, perspectiva do SUS. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido um modelo de decisão de Markov para a população ≥ 50 anos, com DRC em diálise e HPTS. Foram considerados ciclos trimestrais e um horizonte temporal lifetime. O desfecho clínico avaliado foram os anos de vida ganhos. Dados foram obtidos a partir de revisão sistemática da literatura e bases de dados oficiais. Custos em reais (R$), ano de 2014. Resultados: No caso base: paricalcitol gerou benefício clínico de 16,28 anos de vida ganhos versus 14,11 anos de vida ganhos com calcitriol, custos totais de R$ 131.064 e R$ 114.262, respectivamente. A razão de custo-efetividade incremental de R$ 7.740 por ano de vida salvo. Dados robustos confirmados pela análise de sensibilidade. Conclusão: De acordo com o limiar de custo-efetividade recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde para o ano de 2013, o tratamento de pacientes com HPTS em diálise com paricalcitol é custo-efetivo, comparado ao calcitriol, perspectiva SUS.

17.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 24(4): 661-670, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-772124

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: estimar os custos do Programa Municipal de Controle da Dengue de Goiânia-GO, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo de custo de programa considerando períodos epidêmico (outubro/2009-abril/2010) e endêmico (maio-setembro/2010) de transmissão da doença, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS); os componentes de custo analisados foram recursos humanos, capacitação, infraestrutura, equipamentos de escritório, transporte, equipamentos de proteção individual, material de campo, material laboratorial, inseticidas e mobilização social; custos de capital (investimento) e recorrentes foram considerados. RESULTADOS: a média mensal de custos recorrentes foi de R$1.355.760 (US$814,075) e R$981.100 (US$589,108) nos períodos epidêmico e endêmico respectivamente; o custo de capital anual foi estimado em R$683.315 (US$410,301); cerca de 82%, 15% e 3% do custo total referem-se, respectivamente, às fontes de recurso municipal, federal e estadual. CONCLUSÃO: o custo adicional resultante das epidemias de dengue fornece subsídios para um melhor planejamento das atividades de prevenção e controle da infecção.


OBJECTIVE: to estimate the cost of the Municipal Program for Dengue Control in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHODS: Costs of program considering epidemic (October/2009-April/2010) and endemic (May-September/2010) periods of dengue transmission, from the perspective of the National Unified Health System (SUS); cost components considered were human resources, training, infrastructure, office equipment, transportation, personal protective equipment, field equipment, laboratory equipment, insecticides and social mobilization; capital (investment) and recurring costs were considered. RESULTS: average monthly recurring costs were R$1,355,760 (US$814,075) and R$981,100 (US$589,108), for the epidemic and endemic periods, respectively; annual capital cost was R$683,315 (US$410,301); approximately 82%, 15% and 3% of the total cost were from municipal, federal and state level funding sources, respectively. CONCLUSION: estimated incremental costs resulting from dengue epidemics provide information to support planning of dengue prevention and control activities.


OBJETIVO: estimar los costos del Programa Municipal de Control de Dengue en el municipio de Goiânia-GO, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudio de costos del programa teniendo en cuenta períodos epidémicos (octubre/2009-abril/2010) y endémicos (mayo-septiembre/2010) de la transmisión de dengue; dentro de la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS); los componentes de los costos analizados fueron recursos humanos, capacitación, infraestructura, equipo de oficina, transporte, equipo de protección personal, equipo de campo, materiales de laboratorio, insecticidas y movilización social, teniendo en cuenta los costos de capital (inversión) y recurrentes. RESULTADOS: el valor mensual de costos recurrentes fue R$1.355.760 (US$814,075) y R$981.100 (US$589,108), en los períodos epidémicos y endémicos, respectivamente; los costos de capital durante el periodo de estudio fueron R$683,315 (US$410,301); alrededor de 82%, 15% y 3% de los costos totales fueron de fuente municipal, federal y estatal, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: el conocimiento de los costos adicionales resultantes de las epidemias de dengue puede apoyar a una mejor planificación de las actividades de prevención y control del dengue.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Programas Governamentais/economia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Economia da Saúde , Governo Local , Sistema Único de Saúde
18.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 70(4): 289-95, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Brasil , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia
19.
Vaccine ; 33 Suppl 1: A135-42, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25919154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Brazil. METHODS: The Excel-based CERVIVAC decision support model was used to compare two strategies: (1) status quo (with current screening program) and (2) vaccination of a cohort of 11-year-old girls. National parameters for the epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer were estimated in depth. The estimates were based on data from the health information systems of the public health system, the PNAD 2008 national household survey, and relevant scientific literature on Brazil. Costs are expressed in 2008 United States dollars (US$), and a 5% discount rate is applied to both future costs and future health benefits. RESULTS: Introducing the HPV vaccine would reduce the burden of disease. The model estimated there would be 229 deaths avoided and 6677 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in the vaccinated cohort. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per DALY averted from the perspectives of the government (US$ 7663), health system (US$ 7412), and society (US$ 7298) would be considered cost-effective, according to the parameters adopted by the World Health Organization. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICERs were most sensitive to variations in discount rate, disease burden, vaccine efficacy, and proportion of cervical cancer caused by types 16 and 18. However, universal HPV vaccination remained a cost-effective strategy in most variations of the key estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine introduction could contribute additional benefits in controlling cervical cancer, but it requires large investments by the NIP. Among the essential conditions for attaining the expected favorable results are immunization program sustainability, equity in a population perspective, improvement of the screening program, and development of a surveillance system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clinics ; 70(4): 289-295, 04/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-747117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Integração Comunitária , Relações Interpessoais , Laringectomia/psicologia , Laringectomia/reabilitação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/reabilitação , Avaliação da Deficiência , Alemanha , Estudos Longitudinais , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários
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