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1.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614608

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the key factors affecting growth and division of algal cells. High temperature inhibits the cell cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. At 39 °C, nuclear and cellular divisions in synchronized cultures were blocked completely, while DNA replication was partly affected. In contrast, growth (cell volume, dry matter, total protein, and RNA) remained unaffected, and starch accumulated at very high levels. The cell cycle arrest could be removed by transfer to 30 °C, but a full recovery occurred only in cultures cultivated up to 14 h at 39 °C. Thereafter, individual cell cycle processes began to be affected in sequence; daughter cell release, cell division, and DNA replication. Cell cycle arrest was accompanied by high mitotic cyclindependent kinase activity that decreased after completion of nuclear and cellular division following transfer to 30 °C. Cell cycle arrest was, therefore, not caused by a lack of cyclin-dependent kinase activity but rather a blockage in downstream processes.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 7173-7180, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532999

RESUMO

Color centers with long-lived spins are established platforms for quantum sensing and quantum information applications. Color centers exist in different charge states, each of them with distinct optical and spin properties. Application to quantum technology requires the capability to access and stabilize charge states for each specific task. Here, we investigate charge state manipulation of individual silicon vacancies in silicon carbide, a system which has recently shown a unique combination of long spin coherence time and ultrastable spin-selective optical transitions. In particular, we demonstrate charge state switching through the bias applied to the color center in an integrated silicon carbide optoelectronic device. We show that the electronic environment defined by the doping profile and the distribution of other defects in the device plays a key role for charge state control. Our experimental results and numerical modeling evidence that control of these complex interactions can, under certain conditions, enhance the photon emission rate. These findings open the way for deterministic control over the charge state of spin-active color centers for quantum technology and provide novel techniques for monitoring doping profiles and voltage sensing in microscopic devices.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inorganic polyphosphate modulates the contact pathway of blood clotting, which is implicated in thrombosis and inflammation. Polyphosphate polymer lengths are highly variable, with shorter polymers (approximately 60-100 phosphates) secreted from human platelets, and longer polymers (up to thousands of phosphates) in microbes. We previously reported that optimal triggering of clotting via the contact pathway requires very long polyphosphates, although the impact of shorter polyphosphate polymers on individual proteolytic reactions of the contact pathway was not interrogated. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We conducted in vitro measurements of enzyme kinetics to investigate the ability of varying polyphosphate sizes, together with high molecular weight kininogen and Zn2+ , to mediate four individual proteolytic reactions of the contact pathway: factor XII autoactivation, factor XII activation by kallikrein, prekallikrein activation by factor XIIa, and prekallikrein autoactivation. RESULTS: The individual contact pathway reactions were differentially dependent on polyphosphate length. Very long-chain polyphosphate was required to support factor XII autoactivation, whereas platelet-size polyphosphate significantly accelerated the activation of factor XII by kallikrein, and the activation of prekallikrein by factor XIIa. Intriguingly, polyphosphate did not support prekallikrein autoactivation. We also report that high molecular weight kininogen was required only when kallikrein was the enzyme (ie, FXII activation by kallikrein), whereas Zn2+ was required only when FXII was the substrate (ie, FXII activation by either kallikrein or FXIIa). Activation of prekallikrein by FXIIa required neither Zn2+ nor high molecular weight kininogen. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet polyphosphate and Zn2+ can promote subsets of the reactions of the contact pathway, with implications for a variety of disease states.

4.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 64(5): 663-672, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347103

RESUMO

Most cells divide into two daughter cells; however, some green algae can have different division patterns in which a single mother cell can sometimes give rise to up to thousands of daughter cells. Although such cell cycle patterns can be very complex, they are governed by the same general concepts as the most common binary fission. Moreover, cell cycle progression appears to be connected with size, since cells need to ensure that their size after division will not drop below the limit required for survival. Although the exact mechanism that lets cells measure cell size remains largely unknown, there have been several prominent hypotheses that try to explain it.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 377-390, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial metabolism of lignans from high-fiber plant foods produces bioactive enterolignans, such as enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END). Enterolignan exposure influences cellular pathways important to cancer risk and is associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis in animal models and lower colorectal cancer risk in humans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the effects of a flaxseed lignan supplement (50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglucoside/d) compared with placebo on host gene expression in colon biopsies and exfoliated colonocyte RNA in feces and fecal microbial community composition, and to compare responses in relation to ENL excretion. METHODS: We conducted a 2-period randomized, crossover intervention in 42 healthy men and women (20-45 y). We used RNA-seq to measure differentially expressed (DE) genes in colonic mucosa and fecal exfoliated cells through the use of edgeR and functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3) analysis to characterize the fecal microbiome, and measured END and ENL in 24-h urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We detected 32 DE genes (false discovery rate <0.05) in the exfoliome, but none in the mucosal biopsies, in response to 60 d of lignan supplement compared with placebo. Statistically significant associations were detected between ENL excretion and fecal microbiome measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention periods. Further, we detected DE genes in colonic mucosa and exfoliome between low- and high-ENL excreters. Analysis of biopsy samples indicated that several anti-inflammatory upstream regulators, including transforming growth factor ß and interleukin 10 receptor, were suppressed in low-ENL excreters. Complementary analyses in exfoliated cells also suggested that low-ENL excreters may be predisposed to proinflammatory cellular events due to upregulation of nuclear transcription factor κB and NOS2, and an inhibition of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ network. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ENL or other activities of the associated gut microbial consortia may modulate response to a dietary lignan intervention. This has important implications for dietary recommendations and chemoprevention strategies. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619020.

6.
Methods ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228549

RESUMO

Biological macromolecules undergo dynamic conformational changes. Single-molecule methods can track such structural rearrangements in real time. However, while the structure of large macromolecules may change along many degrees of freedom, single-molecule techniques only monitor a limited number of these axes of motion. Advanced single-molecule methods are being developed to track multiple degrees of freedom in nucleic acids and nucleoprotein complexes at high resolution, to enable better manipulation and control of the system under investigation, and to collect measurements in massively parallel fashion. Combining complementary single-molecule methods within the same assay also provides unique measurement opportunities. Implementations of magnetic and optical tweezers combined with fluorescence and FRET have demonstrated results unattainable by either technique alone. Augmenting other advanced single-molecule methods with fluorescence detection will allow us to better capture the multidimensional dynamics of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein complexes central to biology.

7.
Chembiochem ; 20(20): 2604-2608, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090995

RESUMO

Liposomes are used in synthetic biology as cell-like compartments and their microfluidic production through double emulsions allows for efficient encapsulation of various components. However, residual oil in the membrane remains a critical bottleneck for creating pristine phospholipid bilayers. It has been discovered that osmotically driven shrinking leads to detachment of the oil drop. Separation inside a microfluidic chip has been realized to automate the procedure, which allows for controlled continuous production of monodisperse liposomes.

8.
Am J Pathol ; 189(6): 1212-1225, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954472

RESUMO

Normal proliferation and differentiation of uterine epithelial cells are critical for uterine development and function. Enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2), a core component of polycomb repressive complexes 2, possesses histone methyltransferase activity that catalyzes the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3. EZH2 has been involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a key event in development and carcinogenesis. However, its role in uterine epithelial cell function remains unknown. To determine the role of uterine EZH2, Ezh2 was conditionally deleted using progesterone receptor Cre recombinase, which is expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the uterus. Loss of EZH2 promoted stratification of uterine epithelium, an uncommon and detrimental event in the uterus. The abnormal epithelium expressed basal cell markers, including tumor protein 63, cytokeratin 5 (KRT5), KRT6A, and KRT14. These results suggest that EZH2 serves as a guardian of uterine epithelial integrity, partially via inhibiting the differentiation of basal-like cells and preventing epithelial stratification. The observed epithelial abnormality was accompanied by fertility defects, altered uterine growth and function, and the development of endometrial hyperplasia. Thus, the Ezh2 conditional knockout mouse model may be useful to explore mechanisms that regulate endometrial homeostasis and uterine function.

9.
JAMA ; 321(14): 1391-1399, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964529

RESUMO

Importance: Data sets linking comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to clinical outcomes may accelerate precision medicine. Objective: To assess whether a database that combines EHR-derived clinical data with CGP can identify and extend associations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical data from EHRs were linked with CGP results for 28 998 patients from 275 US oncology practices. Among 4064 patients with NSCLC, exploratory associations between tumor genomics and patient characteristics with clinical outcomes were conducted, with data obtained between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2018. Exposures: Tumor CGP, including presence of a driver alteration (a pathogenic or likely pathogenic alteration in a gene shown to drive tumor growth); tumor mutation burden (TMB), defined as the number of mutations per megabase; and clinical characteristics gathered from EHRs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), time receiving therapy, maximal therapy response (as documented by the treating physician in the EHR), and clinical benefit rate (fraction of patients with stable disease, partial response, or complete response) to therapy. Results: Among 4064 patients with NSCLC (median age, 66.0 years; 51.9% female), 3183 (78.3%) had a history of smoking, 3153 (77.6%) had nonsquamous cancer, and 871 (21.4%) had an alteration in EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 (701 [17.2%] with EGFR, 128 [3.1%] with ALK, and 42 [1.0%] with ROS1 alterations). There were 1946 deaths in 7 years. For patients with a driver alteration, improved OS was observed among those treated with (n = 575) vs not treated with (n = 560) targeted therapies (median, 18.6 months [95% CI, 15.2-21.7] vs 11.4 months [95% CI, 9.7-12.5] from advanced diagnosis; P < .001). TMB (in mutations/Mb) was significantly higher among smokers vs nonsmokers (8.7 [IQR, 4.4-14.8] vs 2.6 [IQR, 1.7-5.2]; P < .001) and significantly lower among patients with vs without an alteration in EGFR (3.5 [IQR, 1.76-6.1] vs 7.8 [IQR, 3.5-13.9]; P < .001), ALK (2.1 [IQR, 0.9-4.0] vs 7.0 [IQR, 3.5-13.0]; P < .001), RET (4.6 [IQR, 1.7-8.7] vs 7.0 [IQR, 2.6-13.0]; P = .004), or ROS1 (4.0 [IQR, 1.2-9.6] vs 7.0 [IQR, 2.6-13.0]; P = .03). In patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies (n = 1290, 31.7%), TMB of 20 or more was significantly associated with improved OS from therapy initiation (16.8 months [95% CI, 11.6-24.9] vs 8.5 months [95% CI, 7.6-9.7]; P < .001), longer time receiving therapy (7.8 months [95% CI, 5.5-11.1] vs 3.3 months [95% CI, 2.8-3.7]; P < .001), and increased clinical benefit rate (80.7% vs 56.7%; P < .001) vs TMB less than 20. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with NSCLC included in a longitudinal database of clinical data linked to CGP results from routine care, exploratory analyses replicated previously described associations between clinical and genomic characteristics, between driver mutations and response to targeted therapy, and between TMB and response to immunotherapy. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of creating a clinicogenomic database derived from routine clinical experience and provide support for further research and discovery evaluating this approach in oncology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/análise
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1954, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028260

RESUMO

Scalable quantum networking requires quantum systems with quantum processing capabilities. Solid state spin systems with reliable spin-optical interfaces are a leading hardware in this regard. However, available systems suffer from large electron-phonon interaction or fast spin dephasing. Here, we demonstrate that the negatively charged silicon-vacancy centre in silicon carbide is immune to both drawbacks. Thanks to its 4A2 symmetry in ground and excited states, optical resonances are stable with near-Fourier-transform-limited linewidths, allowing exploitation of the spin selectivity of the optical transitions. In combination with millisecond-long spin coherence times originating from the high-purity crystal, we demonstrate high-fidelity optical initialization and coherent spin control, which we exploit to show coherent coupling to single nuclear spins with ∼1 kHz resolution. The summary of our findings makes this defect a prime candidate for realising memory-assisted quantum network applications using semiconductor-based spin-to-photon interfaces and coherently coupled nuclear spins.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 30(28): 285701, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901765

RESUMO

The photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy were utilized for the study of anodized epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide as a fundamental aspect of the oxygen evolution reaction on graphitic materials. The high-resolution analysis of surface morphology and composition quantified the material transformation during the anodization. We investigated the surface with lateral resolution <150 nm, revealing significant transformations on the EG and the role of multilayer edges in increasing the film capacitance.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1020-1024, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868738

RESUMO

Andermann syndrome (AS) is caused by mutation of SLC12A6 gene. It comprises severe progressive sensory and motor neuropathy with early onset, varying degree of agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) and mental retardation. AS occurs occasionally among population outside the northeastern Quebec-Saguenay-Lac- St-Jean and Charlevoix regions, inhabited by French Canadians. None of the described patients were of Roma ethnic origin. We present an 8-month-old infant of Roma ethnic origin with AS, caused by a novel frame shift mutation c.2604delT,p.(Asp868GlufsTer11) in exon 20 of SLC12A6 gene. Our case presented with several atypical findings: clinical presentation resembling "spinal muscular atrophy plus" syndrome; tongue fasciculations, which are not reported in the literature; early contractures of the wrists; normal motor action potentials and preserved sensory action potentials. Our patient is the first of Roma origin from nonconsanguineous parents, which suggests that this mutation might be widespread in the Roma population, although screening for this mutation in 140 alleles from Roma individuals originating from the same geographic region did not reveal further carriers, implying the mutation is rare. We recommend that Roma patients presenting with the clinical phenotype of AS should be tested for this mutation primarily.

13.
Environ Int ; 125: 542-553, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. Here, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of disability-adjusted life years of cataracts from occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation on the development of cataract (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework and conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in WHO and/or ILO Member States, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative studies on the prevalence of relevant levels of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and of the total working time spent outdoors from 1960 to 2018, stratified by sex, age, country and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of any occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (i.e. ≥30 Jm-2/day of occupational solar UV exposure at the surface of the eye) on the prevalence or incidence of cataract, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. <30 Jm-2/day of occupational solar UV exposure at the surface of the eye). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration: CRD42018098897.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Environ Int ; 125: 515-528, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from depression attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on depression (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsycINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) participants in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude child workers (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of occupational exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35-40, 41-48, 49-54 and ≥55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 2005-2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of relevant level(s) of long working hours on the incidence of or mortality due to depression, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35-40 h/week). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018085729.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Environ Int ; 126: 804-815, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (or keratinocyte carcinoma) from occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation on melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework and conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative studies on the prevalence of relevant levels of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (i.e. <0.33 SED/d and ≥0.33 SED/d) and of the total working time spent outdoors, stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 1960 to 2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of any occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (i.e., ≥0.33 SED/d) on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality due to melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. <0.33 SED/d). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess the risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018094817.


Assuntos
Melanoma/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(19): 195501, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763923

RESUMO

The negative silicon vacancy ([Formula: see text]) in SiC has recently emerged as a promising defect for quantum communication and room-temperature quantum sensing. However, its electronic structure is still not well characterized. While the isolated Si vacancy is expected to give rise to only two paramagnetic centers corresponding to two inequivalent lattice sites in 4H-SiC, there have been five electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) centers assigned to [Formula: see text] in the past: the so-called isolated no-zero-field splitting (ZFS) [Formula: see text] center and another four axial configurations with small ZFS: T V1a, T V2a, T V1b, and T V2b. Due to overlapping with 29Si hyperfine (hf) structures in EPR spectra of natural 4H-SiC, hf parameters of T V1a have not been determined. Using isotopically enriched 4H-28SiC, we overcome the problems of signal overlapping and observe hf parameters of nearest C neighbors for all three components of the S = 3/2 T V1a and T V2a centers. The obtained EPR data support the conclusion that only T V1a and T V2a are related to [Formula: see text] and the two configurations of the so-called isolated no-ZFS [Formula: see text] center, [Formula: see text] (I) and [Formula: see text] (II), are actually the central lines corresponding to the transition |-1/2〉 ↔ |+1/2〉 of the T V2a and T V1a centers, respectively.

17.
Environ Int ; 125: 567-578, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease attributable to exposure to occupational noise, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on exposure to occupational noise (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational noise on cardiovascular diseases (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and CISDOC. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. The eligible risk factor will be occupational noise. Eligible outcomes will be hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, endocarditis and other circulatory diseases. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of exposure to occupational noise (i.e., low: <85 dB(A) and high: ≥85 dB(A)) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of high exposure to occupational noise on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality due to cardiovascular disease, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e., low exposure). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018092272.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Photochem Photobiol ; 95(4): 924-930, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613996

RESUMO

Photooxidation of aryl(hetaryl)pyrazolines in the presence of benzoquinone has been studied in organic solvents. This reaction occurs at high rate to provide the corresponding pyrazole in a good yield. The effects of the solvent, pyrazoline structure and oxygen provide definite information on the reaction pathway. It appears that radical species are intermediates in the photooxidation of aryl(hetaryl)pyrazolines in the presence of benzoquinone. A comparison of the new results with the photooxidation of aryl(hetaryl)pyrazolines in the presence of perchloroalkanes is also discussed.

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