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1.
Biodivers Data J ; 10: e77341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Skvortsov Herbarium of the Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences (MHA) in the 1945-1980s dealt with vascular plants and only scattered occasional collections of bryophytes and lichens were accumulated there without special arrangement. Since the late 1980s, the bryophyte studies in the MHA Herbarium became permanent and several projects were started since then, including the currently conducted "Moss Flora of Russia". There are many white spots on the map of bryophyte exploration of Russia, but one of the most conspicuous was Yakutia, the largest administrative unit of Russia, covering 3,081,000 km2. Yana-Indigirka Region, originally defined as a floristic region, includes Verkhoyansky Range and some smaller adjacent mountain areas. It is the largest amongst the bryofloristic regions in Russia, but exploration of its territory, which is difficult to access, remains far from complete. NEW INFORMATION: Several expeditions of the Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Main Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences in 2000-2018 yielded in many bryophyte specimens, partly published in a number of papers. This dataset comprehensively represents the diversity of mosses of the Region. It includes 7,738 records of moss specimens preserved in the MHA Herbarium.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770518

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate modification of transmission spectra of long-period fiber grating structures with an acoustic shock front propagating along the fiber. We simulate transmission through inhomogeneous long-period fiber gratings, π-shift and reflective π-shift gratings deformed by an acoustic shock front. Coupled mode equations describing interaction of co-propagating modes in a long-period fiber grating structures with inhomogeneous deformation are used for the simulation. Two types of apodization are considered for the grating modulation amplitude, such as uniform and raised-cosine. We demonstrate how the transmission spectrum is produced by interference between the core and cladding modes coupled at several parts of the gratings having different periods. For the π-shift long-period fiber grating having split spectral notch, the gap between the two dips becomes several times wider in the grating with the acoustic wave front than the gap in the unstrained grating. The behavior of reflective long-period fiber gratings depends on the magnitude of the phase shift near the reflective surface: an additional dip is formed in the 0-shift grating and the short-wavelength dip disappears in the π-shift grating.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502803

RESUMO

In this work, we review the most important achievements of INESC TEC related to the properties and applications of arc-induced long-period fiber gratings. The polarization dependence loss, the spectral behavior at temperatures ranging from cryogenic up to 1200 °C and under exposure to ultraviolet and gamma radiation is described. The dependence of gratings sensitivity on the fabrication parameters is discussed. Several applications in optical communications and sensing domains are referred.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300654

RESUMO

In this work, we reviewed the most important achievements of INESC TEC related to the fabrication of long-period fiber gratings using the electric arc technique. We focused on the fabrication setup, the type of fiber used, and the effect of the fabrication parameters on the gratings' transmission spectra. The theory was presented, as well as a discussion on the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the gratings, supported by the measurement of the temperature reached by the fiber during an electric arc discharge.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916682

RESUMO

A method for controlling the excitation of cladding modes by tapering special fiber insertions made of SM450 and coreless fibers is proposed. The coupling coefficients between the core mode and the cladding modes of the tapered fiber insertion are calculated. For the calculation, changes in the effective refractive indices and phases of the fiber core and in the cladding modes upon tapering are found. The field distribution of the core mode of the standard fiber transmitted through fiber insertion is obtained. The transmission characteristics of insertions of SM450 and coreless fibers during tapering are simulated and compared with the experiment. The possibility of controlling the transmission and excitation of various cladding modes is confirmed experimentally.

6.
Ann Bot ; 122(5): 915-925, 2018 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659704

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Protosphagnalean mosses constitute the largest group of extinct mosses of still uncertain affinity. Having the general morphology of the Bryopsida, some have leaves with an areolation pattern characteristic of modern Sphagna. This study describes the structure and variation of these patterns in protosphagnalean mosses and provides a comparison with those of modern Sphagna. Methods: Preparations of fossil mosses showing preserved leaf cell structure were obtained by dissolving rock, photographed, and the resulting images were transformed to graphical format and analysed with Areoana computer software. Key Results: The sphagnoid areolation pattern is identical in its basic structure for both modern Sphagnum and Palaeozoic protosphagnalean mosses. However, in the former group the pattern develops through unequal oblique cell divisions, while in the latter the same pattern is a result of equal cell divisions taking place in a specific order with subsequent uneven cell growth. The protosphagnalean pathway leads to considerable variability in leaf structure. Conclusions: Protosphagnalean mosses had a unique ability to switch the development of leaf areolation between a pathway unique to Sphagnum and another one common to all other mosses. This developmental polyvariancy hinders attempts to classify these mosses, as characters previously considered to be of generic significance can be shown to co-occur in one individual leaf. New understanding of the ontogeny has allowed us to re-evaluate the systematic significance of such diagnostic characters in these Palaeozoic plants, showing that their similarity to Sphagnum is less substantial.


Assuntos
Briófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Briófitas/anatomia & histologia , Briófitas/classificação , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
7.
Opt Express ; 25(25): 31197-31203, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245796

RESUMO

We investigate thin-core fiber-optic structures with film overlays that can be used for sensing applications. The structures are formed by a section of thin-core fibers (SM630 or SM450) spliced between standard SMF-28 fibers. The fibers are coated with overlays using the layer-by-layer assembly technology based on sequential alternating adsorption of polymer monolayers via electrostatic attraction. Transmission spectrum of the structures exhibits resonance dips caused by interaction between cladding modes. We measure the shifts of spectra with increasing thickness of the overlay and with pH value of the external medium. We calculate the shift of resonance wavelengths, which we compare with the experiment.

8.
Appl Opt ; 49(16): 2994-9, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20517367

RESUMO

We present results on the characterization of the response of a dual resonance observed in the spectrum of a single long-period grating arc-induced in a B/Ge co-doped fiber to different physical parameters. The dual resonance is formed by two overlapping resonances corresponding to coupling of the core mode to symmetric and antisymmetric cladding modes. The behavior of the resonances is studied when the grating is subject to strain, bending, torsion, temperature, or external refractive-index changes. The strain, bending, and torsion sensitivities of the two resonances differ, whereas the temperature sensitivities are almost the same. The sensitivities to variation in external refractive index are the same for the two resonances when the long-period grating is straight and differ when the fiber with the grating is curved.

9.
Opt Lett ; 32(20): 2984-6, 2007 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17938674

RESUMO

We demonstrate that under certain conditions it is possible to fabricate in a B/Ge co-doped fiber an arc-induced long-period grating whose spectrum contains a dual set of resonances. These two sets of resonances are formed by distinct mechanisms and are caused by coupling to cladding modes of different symmetries. They behave differently at high temperatures: the set produced by symmetric perturbation disappears during annealing at a temperature of 800 degrees C, while the other set produced by an antisymmetric mechanism can withstand temperatures above 1000 degrees C.

10.
Opt Express ; 14(21): 9594-9, 2006 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19529349

RESUMO

The symmetry of cladding modes excited in microbend and arcinduced long-period fiber gratings is investigated. An optimization technique is developed to determine the fiber parameters and to associate grating resonances with cladding modes of a particular symmetry. Using this optimization procedure, we show that the gratings induced in a standard fiber by arc discharges and microbends couple light to the antisymmetric cladding modes. In the case of a boron-germanium codoped fiber, the cladding modes excited by arc-induced gratings are found to be symmetric. Measurements of the near-field intensity distribution of cladding modes confirm the mode symmetry ascertained by the optimization technique.

11.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 22(4): 716-23, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15839279

RESUMO

The first-order paraxial approximation is used to obtain the distributions of the electric and magnetic fields for the core and cladding hybrid fiber modes. The coupling coefficients of these modes are found for fibers subject to twist. The longitudinal electric field component determines the mode coupling in twisted fibers. It is shown that in the first-order paraxial approximation the cladding hybrid modes propagating in a twisted fiber rotate along the direction of the twist at the same rate as the core mode, independently of the azimuthal and radial mode numbers. Four hybrid modes constituting one linearly polarized mode have different longitudinal components, and the corresponding cladding-mode resonances of a long-period fiber grating undergo different shifts owing to different mode self-coupling coefficients. This results in the removal of mode degeneracy and splitting of resonances of long-period gratings in twisted fibers.

12.
Opt Lett ; 30(24): 3290-2, 2005 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16389808

RESUMO

A new method of fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by twisting of a standard single-mode fiber at high temperature is presented. The method relies on the fact that there always exists some core-cladding eccentricity in the optical fiber. Therefore, when the fiber is twisted, its core follows a helicoidal path inside the cladding. The transmission spectrum of the helicoidal long-period fiber grating that is produced contains several dips that correspond to resonances with the fiber cladding modes.

13.
Appl Opt ; 42(13): 2264-72, 2003 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12737456

RESUMO

A finite deformation theory of elasticity and a theory of nonlinear photoelasticity are applied to describe the wavelength shifts of cladding-mode resonance in corrugated long-period fiber gratings under torsion. The deformation of fiber is found by use of the Murnaghan model of a solid elastic body. The quadratic photoelastic effect that is proportional to the second-order displacement gradient is investigated and compared with the classical photoelastic effect. The electromagnetic field in the twisted corrugated structure is presented as a superposition of circularly polarized modes of the etched fiber section. The wavelength shift is found to be proportional to the square of the twist angle. As predicted by our theory, a wavelength shift of the same nature has been found in a conventionally photoinduced long-period fiber grating.

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