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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e030659, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Imbalance of the gut microbiome is key to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is the transfer of homogenised and filtered faeces from a healthy individual to the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with disease. Published datasets show a positive signal for the use of FMT to treat UC, but the optimal route and dose of FMT remain unanswered. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, multi-centre open-label, randomised pilot study will assess two possible routes of FMT delivery, via the nasogastric (NG) route or by delivery to the COLON, in 30 patients with active UC recruited from three sites in the UK. Stool will be collected from healthy screened donors, processed, frozen and stored under a Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) "specials" manufacturing licence held at the University of Birmingham Microbiome Treatment Centre. Thawed FMT samples will be administered to patients either via eight nasogastric infusions given initially over 4 days starting on the day of randomisation, and then again for 4 days in week 4 for foregut delivery (total of 240 g of stool) or via one colonoscopic infusion followed by seven weekly enemas according to the hindgut protocol (total of 360 g of stool). Patients will be followed up weekly for 8 weeks, and then at 12 weeks. The aims of this pilot study are (1) to determine which FMT administration route (NG or COLON) should be investigated in a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and (2) to determine if a full randomised controlled trial is feasible. The primary outcome will be a composite assessment of both qualitative and quantitative data based on efficacy (clinical response), acceptability and safety. At the end of the pilot study, decisions will be made regarding the feasibility of a full randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and, if deemed feasible, which route of administration should be used in such a study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the East Midlands-Nottingham Research Ethics Committee (REC 17/EM/0274). At the end of the study, findings will be reported at national and international gastroenterology meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN74072945.

2.
BMJ ; 365: l1800, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extending initial prednisolone treatment from eight to 16 weeks in children with idiopathic steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome improves the pattern of disease relapse. DESIGN: Double blind, parallel group, phase III randomised placebo controlled trial, including a cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: 125 UK National Health Service district general hospitals and tertiary paediatric nephrology centres. PARTICIPANTS: 237 children aged 1-14 years with a first episode of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomised to receive an extended 16 week course of prednisolone (total dose 3150 mg/m2) or a standard eight week course of prednisolone (total dose 2240 mg/m2). The drug was supplied as 5 mg tablets alongside matching placebo so that participants in both groups received the same number of tablets at any time point in the study. A minimisation algorithm ensured balanced treatment allocation by ethnicity (South Asian, white, or other) and age (5 years or less, 6 years or more). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to first relapse over a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Secondary outcome measures were relapse rate, incidence of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, use of alternative immunosuppressive treatment, rates of adverse events, behavioural change using the Achenbach child behaviour checklist, quality adjusted life years, and cost effectiveness from a healthcare perspective. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in time to first relapse (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.17, log rank P=0.28) or in the incidence of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (extended course 60/114 (53%) v standard course 55/109 (50%), P=0.75), steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (48/114 (42%) v 48/109 (44%), P=0.77), or requirement for alternative immunosuppressive treatment (62/114 (54%) v 61/109 (56%), P=0.81). Total prednisolone dose after completion of the trial drug was 6674 mg for the extended course versus 5475 mg for the standard course (P=0.07). There were no statistically significant differences in serious adverse event rates (extended course 19/114 (17%) v standard course 27/109 (25%), P=0.13) or adverse event rates, with the exception of behaviour, which was poorer in the standard course group. Scores on the Achenbach child behaviour checklist did not, however, differ. Extended course treatment was associated with a mean increase in generic quality of life (0.0162 additional quality adjusted life years, 95% confidence interval -0.005 to 0.037) and cost savings (difference -£1673 ($2160; €1930), 95% confidence interval -£3455 to £109). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes did not improve when the initial course of prednisolone treatment was extended from eight to 16 weeks in UK children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. However, evidence was found of a short term health economic benefit through reduced resource use and increased quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16645249; EudraCT 2010-022489-29.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Síndrome Nefrótica , Prednisolona , Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/economia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/economia , Síndrome Nefrótica/psicologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/economia , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e027953, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of botulinum toxin for prevention of migraine in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and trial registries. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of botulinum toxin compared with placebo, active treatment or clinically relevant different dose for adults with chronic or episodic migraine, with or without the additional diagnosis of medication overuse headache. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Cochrane methods were used to review double-blind RCTs. Twelve week post-treatment time-point data was analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight trials (n=4190) were included. Trial quality was mixed. Botulinum toxin treatment resulted in reduced frequency of -2.0 migraine days/month (95% CI -2.8 to -1.1, n=1384) in chronic migraineurs compared with placebo. An improvement was seen in migraine severity, measured on a numerical rating scale 0 to 10 with 10 being maximal pain, of -2.70 cm (95% CI -3.31 to -2.09, n=75) and -4.9 cm (95% CI -6.56 to -3.24, n=32) for chronic and episodic migraine respectively. Botulinum toxin had a relative risk of treatment related adverse events twice that of placebo, but a reduced risk compared with active comparators (relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.98) and a low withdrawal rate (3%). Although individual trials reported non-inferiority to oral treatments, insufficient data were available for meta-analysis of effectiveness outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In chronic migraine, botulinum toxin reduces migraine frequency by 2 days/month and has a favourable safety profile. Inclusion of medication overuse headache does not preclude its effectiveness. Evidence to support or refute efficacy in episodic migraine was not identified.

4.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(26): 1-108, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal corticosteroid regimen for treating the presenting episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) remains uncertain. Most UK centres use an 8-week regimen, despite previous systematic reviews indicating that longer regimens reduce the risk of relapse and frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine whether or not an extended 16-week course of prednisolone increases the time to first relapse. The secondary objectives were to compare the relapse rate, FRNS and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) rates, requirement for alternative immunosuppressive agents and corticosteroid-related adverse events (AEs), including adverse behaviour and costs. DESIGN: Randomised double-blind parallel-group placebo-controlled trial, including a cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: One hundred and twenty-five UK paediatric departments. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and thirty-seven children presenting with a first episode of SSNS. Participants aged between 1 and 15 years were randomised (1 : 1) according to a minimisation algorithm to ensure balance of ethnicity (South Asian, white or other) and age (≤ 5 or ≥ 6 years). INTERVENTIONS: The control group (n = 118) received standard course (SC) prednisolone therapy: 60 mg/m2/day of prednisolone in weeks 1-4, 40 mg/m2 of prednisolone on alternate days in weeks 5-8 and matching placebo on alternate days in weeks 9-18 (total 2240 mg/m2). The intervention group (n = 119) received extended course (EC) prednisolone therapy: 60 mg/m2/day of prednisolone in weeks 1-4; started at 60 mg/m2 of prednisolone on alternate days in weeks 5-16, tapering by 10 mg/m2 every 2 weeks (total 3150 mg/m2). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to first relapse [Albustix® (Siemens Healthcare Limited, Frimley, UK)-positive proteinuria +++ or greater for 3 consecutive days or the presence of generalised oedema plus +++ proteinuria]. The secondary outcome measures were relapse rate, incidence of FRNS and SDNS, other immunosuppressive therapy use, rates of serious adverse events (SAEs) and AEs and the incidence of behavioural change [using Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (ACBC)]. A comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. The analysis was by intention to treat. Participants were followed for a minimum of 24 months. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in time to first relapse between the SC and EC groups (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.17; log-rank p = 0.3). There were also no differences in the incidence of FRNS (SC 50% vs. EC 53%; p = 0.7), SDNS (44% vs. 42%; p = 0.8) or requirement for other immunosuppressive therapy (56% vs. 54%; p = 0.8). The total prednisolone dose received following completion of study medication was 5475 mg vs. 6674 mg (p = 0.07). SAE rates were not significantly different (25% vs. 17%; p = 0.1) and neither were AEs, except poor behaviour (yes/no), which was less frequent with EC treatment. There were no differences in ACBC scores. EC therapy was associated with a mean increase in generic health benefit [0.0162 additional quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)] and cost savings (£4369 vs. £2696). LIMITATIONS: Study drug formulation may have prevented some younger children who were unable to swallow whole or crushed tablets from participating. CONCLUSIONS: This trial has not shown any clinical benefit for EC prednisolone therapy in UK children. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that EC therapy may be cheaper, with the possibility of a small QALY benefit. FUTURE WORK: Studies investigating EC versus SC therapy in younger children and further cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16645249 and EudraCT 2010-022489-29. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 26. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 220, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ASTRAL trial showed no difference in clinical outcomes between medical therapy and revascularization for atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD). Here we report a sub-study using echocardiography to assess differences in cardiac structure and function at 12 months. METHODS: ASTRAL patients from 7 participating centres underwent echocardiography at baseline and 12 months after randomisation. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass (LVM), left atrial diameter (LAD), aortic root diameter (AoRD), E:A, and E deceleration time (EDT) were compared between study arms. Analyses were performed using t-tests and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Ninety two patients were included (50 medical versus 42 revascularization). There was no difference between arms in any baseline echocardiographic parameter. Comparisons of longitudinal changes in echocardiographic measurements were: δLVEF medical 0.8 ± 8.7% versus revascularization - 2.8 ± 6.8% (p = 0.05), δLVM - 2.9 ± 33 versus - 1.7 ± 39 g (p = 0.9), δLAD 0.1 ± 0.4 versus 0.01 ± 0.5 cm (p = 0.3), δAoRD 0.002 ± 0.3 versus 0.06 ± 0.3 cm (p = 0.4), δE:A - 0.0005 ± 0.6 versus 0.03 ± 0.7 (p = 0.8), δEDT - 1.1 ± 55.5 versus - 9.0 ± 70.2 ms (p = 0.6). In multivariate models, there were no differences between treatment groups for any parameter at 12 months. Likewise, change in blood pressure did not differ between arms (mean δsystolic blood pressure medical 0 mmHg [range - 56 to + 54], revascularization - 3 mmHg [- 61 to + 59], p = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: This sub-study did not show any significant differences in cardiac structure and function accompanying renal revascularization in ASTRAL. Limitations include the small sample size, the relative insensitivity of echocardiography, and the fact that a large proportion of ASTRAL patient population had only modest renal artery stenosis as described in the main study.

6.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 33(10-11): 1063-1070, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035809

RESUMO

Intelligibility of speech is a key outcome in speech and language therapy (SLT) and research. SLT students frequently participate as raters of intelligibility but we lack information about whether they rate intelligibility in the same way as the general public. This paper aims to determine if there is a difference in the intelligibility ratings made by SLT students (trained in speech related topics) compared to individuals from the general public (untrained). The SLT students were in year 2 of a BSc programme or the first 6 months of a MSc programme. We recorded 10 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) related speech reading aloud the words and sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. These speech recordings were rated for intelligibility by 'trained' raters and 'untrained' raters. The effort required to understand the speech was also reported. There were no significant differences in the measures of intelligibility from the trained and untrained raters for words or sentences after adjusting for speaker by including them as a covariate in the model. There was a slight increase in effort reported by the untrained raters for the sentences. This difference in reported effort was not evident with the words. SLT students can be recruited alongside individuals from the general public as naïve raters for evaluating intelligibility in people with speech disorders.

7.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e023769, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a major cause of morbidity, limiting quality of life, in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). The aetiology of fatigue is multifactorial; biological and psychosocial mediators, such as sleep deprivation, pain and anxiety and depression, are important and may be improved by increasing physical activity. Current self-management advice is based on expert opinion and is poorly adhered to. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of increasing physical activity using a programme of direct contact and telephone support, to provide patient education, encourage behaviour self-monitoring and the development of an individual change plan with defined goals and feedback to treat fatigue compared with standard of care to inform the design of a large randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy and cost effectiveness of this programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients with AAV and significant levels of fatigue (patient self-report using multidimensional fatigue index score questionnaire ≥14) will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to the physical activity programme supported by behavioural change techniques or standard of care. The intervention programme will consist of 8 visits of supervised activity sessions and 12 telephone support calls over 12 weeks with the aim of increasing physical activity to the level advised by government guidelines. Assessment visits will be performed at baseline, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. The study will assess the feasibility of recruitment, retention, the acceptability, adherence and safety of the intervention, and collect data on various assessment tools to inform the design of a large definitive trial. A nested qualitative study will explore patient experience of the trial through focus groups or interviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All required ethical and regulatory approvals have been obtained. Findings will be disseminated through conference presentations, patient networks and academic publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11929227.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Exercício , Fadiga/prevenção & controle , Fadiga/etiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoeficácia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
8.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e026080, 2018 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 16% of adults in the UK. Patient quality of life is particularly reduced in end-stage renal disease and is strongly associated with increased hospitalisation and mortality. Thus, accurate and responsive healthcare is a key priority. Electronic patient-reported outcome measures (ePROMs) are online questionnaires which ask patients to self-rate their health status. Evidence in oncology suggests that the use of ePROM data within routine care, alongside clinical information, may enhance symptom management and improve patient outcomes. However, National Health Service (NHS)-based ePROM research in CKD is lacking. This pilot trial will assess the feasibility of undertaking a full-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients with CKD within the NHS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The renal ePROM pilot trial is an investigator-led single-centre, open-label, two-arm randomised controlled pilot trial of 66 participants ≥18 years with advanced CKD. Participants will be randomised to receive either usual care or usual care supplemented with an ePROM intervention. Participants within the intervention arm will be asked to submit monthly self-reports of their health status using the ePROM system. The system will provide tailored information to patients in response to each report and notify the clinical team of patient deterioration. The renal clinical team will monitor for ePROM notifications and will respond with appropriate action, in line with standard clinical practice. Measures of study feasibility, participant quality of life and CKD severity will be completed at 3 monthly intervals. Health economic outcomes will be assessed. Clinicians will record treatment decision-making. Acceptability and feasibility of the protocol will be assessed alongside outcome measure and intervention compliance rates. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The findings will inform the design of a full-scale RCT and the results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The study has ethical approval. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ISRCTN12669006; Pre-results.


Assuntos
/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
BMJ ; 361: k2241, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone health coaching delivered by a nurse to support self management in a primary care population with mild symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 71 general practices in four areas of England. PARTICIPANTS: 577 patients with Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale scores of 1 or 2, recruited from primary care COPD registers with spirometry confirmed diagnosis. Patients were randomised to telephone health coaching (n=289) or usual care (n=288). INTERVENTIONS: Telephone health coaching intervention delivered by nurses, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory. The coaching promoted accessing smoking cessation services, increasing physical activity, medication management, and action planning (4 sessions over 11 weeks; postal information at weeks 16 and 24). The nurses received two days of training. The usual care group received a leaflet about COPD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was health related quality of life at 12 months using the short version of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C). RESULTS: The intervention was delivered with good fidelity: 86% of scheduled calls were delivered; 75% of patients received all four calls. 92% of patients were followed-up at six months and 89% at 12 months. There was no difference in SGRQ-C total score at 12 months (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -3.6 to 0.9, P=0.23). Compared with patients in the usual care group, at six months follow-up, the intervention group reported greater physical activity, more had received a care plan (44% v 30%), rescue packs of antibiotics (37% v 29%), and inhaler use technique check (68% v 55%). CONCLUSIONS: A new telephone health coaching intervention to promote behaviour change in primary care patients with mild symptoms of dyspnoea did lead to changes in self management activities, but did not improve health related quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN 06710391.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autogestão/métodos , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD011616, 2018 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine occurs in around 15% of adults and is ranked as the seventh most disabling disease amongst all diseases globally. Despite the available treatments many people suffer prolonged and frequent attacks which have a major impact on their quality of life. Chronic migraine is defined as 15 or more days of headache per month, at least eight of those days being migraine. People with episodic migraine have fewer than 15 headache days per month. Botulinum toxin type A has been licensed in some countries for chronic migraine treatment, due to the results of just two trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of botulinum toxins versus placebo or active treatment for the prevention or reduction in frequency of chronic or episodic migraine in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE & MEDLINE in Process, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry (to December 2017). We examined reference lists and carried out citation searches on key publications. We sent correspondence to major manufacturers of botulinum toxin. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, controlled trials of botulinum toxin (any sero-type) injections into the head and neck for prophylaxis of chronic or episodic migraine in adults. Eligible comparators were placebo, alternative prophylactic agent or different dose of botulinum toxin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data. For continuous outcomes we used mean change data when available. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs). We used data from the 12-week post-treatment follow-up time point. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created two 'Summary of findings' tables. MAIN RESULTS: Description of trialsWe found 90 articles describing 28 trials (4190 participants), which were eligible for inclusion. The longest treatment duration was three rounds of injections with three months between treatments, so we could not analyse long-term effects. For the primary analyses, we pooled data from both chronic and episodic participant populations. Where possible, we also separated data into chronic migraine, episodic migraine and 'mixed group' classification subgroups. Most trials (21 out of 28) were small (fewer than 50 participants per trial arm). The risk of bias for included trials was low or unclear across most domains, with some trials reporting a high risk of bias for incomplete outcome data and selective outcome reporting.Botulinum toxin versus placeboTwenty-three trials compared botulinum toxin with placebo. Botulinum toxin may reduce the number of migraine days per month in the chronic migraine population by 3.1 days (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.7 to -1.4, 4 trials, 1497 participants, low-quality evidence). This was reduced to -2 days (95% CI -2.8 to -1.1, 2 trials, 1384 participants; moderate-quality evidence) when we removed small trials.A single trial of people with episodic migraine (N = 418) showed no difference between groups for this outcome measure (P = 0.49).In the chronic migraine population, botulinum toxin reduces the number of headache days per month by 1.9 days (95% CI -2.7 to -1.0, 2 trials, 1384 participants, high-quality evidence). We did not find evidence of a difference in the number of migraine attacks for both chronic and episodic migraine participants (6 trials, N = 2004, P = 0.30, low-quality evidence). For the population of both chronic and episodic migraine participants a reduction in severity of migraine rated during clinical visits, on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) of 3.3 cm (95% CI -4.2 to -2.5, very low-quality evidence) in favour of botulinum toxin treatment came from four small trials (N = 209); better reporting of this outcome measure from the additional eight trials that recorded it may have improved our confidence in the pooled estimate. Global assessment and quality-of-life measures were poorly reported and it was not possible to carry out statistical analysis of these outcome measures. Analysis of adverse events showed an increase in the risk ratio with treatment with botulinum toxin over placebo 30% (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.47, moderate-quality evidence). For every 100 participants 60 experienced an adverse event in the botulinum toxin group compared with 47 in the placebo group.Botulinum toxin versus other prophylactic agentThree trials studied comparisons with alternative oral prophylactic medications. Meta-analyses were not possible for number of migraine days, number of headache days or number of migraine attacks due to insufficient data, but individually trials reported no differences between groups for a variety of efficacy measures in the population of both chronic and episodic migraine participants. The global impression of disease measured using Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores were reported from two trials that showed no difference between groups. Compared with oral treatments, botulinum toxin showed no between-group difference in the risk of adverse events (2 trials, N = 114, very low-quality evidence). The relative risk reduction (RRR) for withdrawing from botulinum toxin due to adverse events compared with the alternative prophylactic agent was 72% (P = 0.02, 2 trials, N = 119).Dosing trialsThere were insufficient data available for the comparison of different doses.Quality of the evidenceThe quality of the evidence assessed using GRADE methods was varied but mostly very low; the quality of the evidence for the placebo and active control comparisons was low and very low, respectively for the primary outcome measure. Small trial size, high risk of bias and unexplained heterogeneity were common reasons for downgrading the quality of the evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In chronic migraine, botulinum toxin type A may reduce the number of migraine days per month by 2 days compared with placebo treatment. Non-serious adverse events were probably experienced by 60/100 participants in the treated group compared with 47/100 in the placebo group. For people with episodic migraine, we remain uncertain whether or not this treatment is effective because the quality of this limited evidence is very low. Better reporting of outcome measures in published trials would provide a more complete evidence base on which to draw conclusions.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(14): 1-88, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypoxia is common after stroke and is associated with worse outcomes. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary brain damage. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess whether or not routine low-dose oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke improves outcome compared with no oxygen; and (2) to assess whether or not oxygen given at night only, when oxygen saturation is most likely to be low, is more effective than continuous supplementation. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded-end point trial. SETTING: Secondary care hospitals with acute stroke wards. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients within 24 hours of hospital admission and 48 hours of stroke onset, without definite indications for or contraindications to oxygen or a life-threatening condition other than stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Allocated by web-based minimised randomisation to: (1) continuous oxygen: oxygen via nasal cannula continuously (day and night) for 72 hours after randomisation at a flow rate of 3 l/minute if baseline oxygen saturation was ≤ 93% or 2 l/minute if > 93%; (2) nocturnal oxygen: oxygen via nasal cannula overnight (21:00-07:00) for three consecutive nights. The flow rate was the same as the continuous oxygen group; and (3) control: no routine oxygen supplementation unless required for reasons other than stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: disability assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months by postal questionnaire (participant aware, assessor blinded). Secondary outcomes at 7 days: neurological improvement, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), mortality, and the highest and lowest oxygen saturations within the first 72 hours. Secondary outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months: mortality, independence, current living arrangements, Barthel Index, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels) and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living scale by postal questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 8003 patients were recruited between 24 April 2008 and 17 June 2013 from 136 hospitals in the UK [continuous, n = 2668; nocturnal, n = 2667; control, n = 2668; mean age 72 years (standard deviation 13 years); 4398 (55%) males]. All prognostic factors and baseline characteristics were well matched across the groups. Eighty-two per cent had ischaemic strokes. At baseline the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (interquartile range 15-15) and the mean and median NIHSS scores were 7 and 5 (range 0-34), respectively. The mean oxygen saturation at randomisation was 96.6% in the continuous and nocturnal oxygen groups and 96.7% in the control group. Primary outcome: oxygen supplementation did not reduce disability in either the continuous or the nocturnal oxygen groups. The unadjusted odds ratio for a better outcome (lower mRS) was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 1.05; p = 0.5] for the combined oxygen groups (both continuous and nocturnal together) (n = 5152) versus the control (n = 2567) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.13; p = 0.6) for continuous versus nocturnal oxygen. Secondary outcomes: oxygen supplementation significantly increased oxygen saturation, but did not affect any of the other secondary outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Severely hypoxic patients were not included. CONCLUSIONS: Routine low-dose oxygen supplementation in stroke patients who are not severely hypoxic is safe, but does not improve outcome after stroke. FUTURE WORK: To investigate the causes of hypoxia and develop methods of prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52416964 and European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) number 2006-003479-11. FUNDING DETAILS: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research for Patient Benefit and Health Technology Assessment programmes and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 14. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Atividades Cotidianas , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação da Deficiência , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/economia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344405

RESUMO

Background: Speech-related problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there is little evidence for the effectiveness of standard speech and language therapy (SLT) or Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD®). Methods: The PD COMM pilot was a three-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of LSVT LOUD®, SLT and no intervention (1:1:1 ratio) to assess the feasibility and to inform the design of a full-scale RCT. Non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and speech problems and no SLT for speech problems in the past 2 years were eligible. LSVT LOUD® is a standardised regime (16 sessions over 4 weeks). SLT comprised individualised content per local practice (typically weekly sessions for 6-8 weeks). Outcomes included recruitment and retention, treatment adherence, and data completeness. Outcome data collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months included patient-reported voice and quality of life measures, resource use, and assessor-rated speech recordings. Results: Eighty-nine patients were randomised with 90% in the therapy groups and 100% in the control group completing the trial. The response rate for Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in each arm was ≥ 90% at all time-points. VHI was highly correlated with the other speech-related outcome measures. There was a trend to improvement in VHI with LSVT LOUD® (difference at 3 months compared with control: - 12.5 points; 95% CI - 26.2, 1.2) and SLT (difference at 3 months compared with control: - 9.8 points; 95% CI - 23.2, 3.7) which needs to be confirmed in an adequately powered trial. Conclusion: Randomisation to a three-arm trial of speech therapy including a no intervention control is feasible and acceptable. Compliance with both interventions was good. VHI and other patient-reported outcomes were relevant measures and provided data to inform the sample size for a substantive trial. Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN75223808. registered 22 March 2012.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(1)2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922786

RESUMO

Background: We assessed whether relapse-free survival (RFS; time until recurrence/death) is a valid surrogate for overall survival (OS) among resected stage II-III melanoma patients through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods: Individual patient data (IPD) on RFS and OS were collected from 5826 patients enrolled in 11 randomized adjuvant trials comparing interferon (IFN) to observation. In addition, IPD from two studies comparing IFN and vaccination in 989 patients were included. A two-level modeling approach was used for assessing Spearman's patient-level correlation (rho) of RFS and OS and the trial-level coefficient of determination (R²) of the treatment effects on RFS and on OS. The results were validated externally in 13 adjuvant studies without available IPD. We then tested the results on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071 double-blind trial comparing ipilimumab 10 mg/kg with placebo, which showed a statistically significant impact of the checkpoint inhibitor on RFS and OS. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: With a median follow-up of seven years, 12 of 13 trials showed a consistency between the IFN vs No IFN differences regarding RFS (hazard ratio [HR]RFS = 0.88) and OS (HROS = 0.91), but the small trial, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2696, was an outlier (HRRFS = 0.72 vs HROS = 1.11). Therefore, even if rho was high, R² was low and could not reliably be estimated. Based on the 12 trials, rho remained high (0.89), and the hazard ratios for RFS and OS were strongly correlated (R² = 0.91). The surrogate threshold effect for RFS was estimated to be 0.77. For the EORTC 18071 trial, the hazard ratio for RFS was 0.75, predicting an effect of ipilimumab on OS. This was subsequently confirmed (HROS = 0.72, 95.1% confidence interval = 0.58 to 0.88, P = .001). Conclusions: In high-risk stage II-III melanoma, RFS appeared to be a valid surrogate end point for OS for adjuvant randomized studies assessing interferon or a checkpoint inhibitor. In future similar adjuvant studies, a hazard ratio for RFS of 0.77 or less would predict a treatment impact on OS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 36(4): 451-465, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) questionnaire is a widely used, generic instrument designed for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, it is not preference-based and therefore not suitable for cost-utility analysis. The Child Health Utility Index-9 Dimension (CHU-9D), however, is a preference-based instrument that has been primarily developed to support cost-utility analysis. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a method for estimating CHU-9D index scores from responses to the PedsQL™ using data from a randomised controlled trial of prednisolone therapy for treatment of childhood corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: HRQoL data were collected from children at randomisation, week 16, and months 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48. Observations on children aged 5 years and older were pooled across all data collection timepoints and were then randomised into an estimation (n = 279) and validation (n = 284) sample. A number of models were developed using the estimation data before internal validation. The best model was chosen using multi-stage selection criteria. RESULTS: Most of the models developed accurately predicted the CHU-9D mean index score. The best performing model was a generalised linear model (mean absolute error = 0.0408; mean square error = 0.0035). The proportion of index scores deviating from the observed scores by <  0.03 was 53%. CONCLUSIONS: The mapping algorithm provides an empirical tool for estimating CHU-9D index scores and for conducting cost-utility analyses within clinical studies that have only collected PedsQL™ data. It is valid for children aged 5 years or older. Caution should be exercised when using this with children younger than 5 years, older adolescents (>  13 years) or patient groups with particularly poor quality of life. ISRCTN REGISTRY NO: 16645249.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Trials ; 18(1): 535, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit increased morbidity and mortality which is associated with an increased systemic inflammatory burden. Identifying and managing comorbid diseases that contribute to this load may inform novel care pathways that could have a beneficial impact on the morbidity/mortality associated with CKD. Periodontitis, a highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of teeth, is associated with an increased systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress burden and the successful treatment of periodontitis has been shown to reduce both. This pilot study aims to gather data to inform a definitive study into the impact of successful periodontal treatment on the cardio-renal health of patients with CKD. METHODS/DESIGN: This pilot study will employ a randomised, controlled, parallel-group design. Sixty adult patients, with CKD with a high risk of progression and with periodontitis, from the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, will be randomised to receive either immediate, intensive periodontal treatment (n = 30) or treatment at a delay of 12 months (n = 30). Patients will be excluded if they have reached end-stage renal disease or have received specialist periodontal treatment in the previous year. Periodontal treatment will be delivered under local anaesthetic, on an outpatient basis, over several visits by a qualified dental hygienist at the Birmingham Dental Hospital, UK. Patients in the delayed-treatment arm will continue to receive the standard community level of periodontal care for a period of 12 months followed by the intensive periodontal treatment. Randomization will occur using a centralised telephone randomisation service, following baseline assessments. The assessor of periodontal health will be blinded to the patients' treatment allocation. Patients in either arm will be followed up at 3-monthly intervals for 18 months. Aside from the pilot outcomes to inform the practicalities of a larger trial later, data on cardio-renal function, periodontal health and patient-reported outcomes will be collected at each time point. DISCUSSION: This pilot randomised controlled trial will investigate the viability of undertaking a larger-scale study investigating the effect of treating periodontitis and maintaining periodontal health on cardio-renal outcomes in patients with CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network (UKCRN ID: 18458), ID: ISRCTN10227738 . Registered retrospectively to both registers on 23 April 2015.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Higiene Bucal/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Desbridamento Periodontal , Periodontite/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Comorbidade , Raspagem Dentária/efeitos adversos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Saúde Bucal , Desbridamento Periodontal/efeitos adversos , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JAMA ; 318(12): 1125-1135, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973619

RESUMO

Importance: Hypoxia is common in the first few days after acute stroke, is frequently intermittent, and is often undetected. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary neurological deterioration and thus has the potential to improve recovery. Objective: To assess whether routine prophylactic low-dose oxygen therapy was more effective than control oxygen administration in reducing death and disability at 90 days, and if so, whether oxygen given at night only, when hypoxia is most frequent, and oxygen administration is least likely to interfere with rehabilitation, was more effective than continuous supplementation. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, 8003 adults with acute stroke were enrolled from 136 participating centers in the United Kingdom within 24 hours of hospital admission if they had no clear indications for or contraindications to oxygen treatment (first patient enrolled April 24, 2008; last follow-up January 27, 2015). Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to continuous oxygen for 72 hours (n = 2668), nocturnal oxygen (21:00 to 07:00 hours) for 3 nights (n = 2667), or control (oxygen only if clinically indicated; n = 2668). Oxygen was given via nasal tubes at 3 L/min if baseline oxygen saturation was 93% or less and at 2 L/min if oxygen saturation was greater than 93%. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was reported using the modified Rankin Scale score (disability range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]; minimum clinically important difference, 1 point), assessed at 90 days by postal questionnaire (participant aware, assessor blinded). The modified Rankin Scale score was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, which yields a common odds ratio (OR) for a change from one disability level to the next better (lower) level; OR greater than 1.00 indicates improvement. Results: A total of 8003 patients (4398 (55%) men; mean [SD] age, 72 [13] years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 5; mean baseline oxygen saturation, 96.6%) were enrolled. The primary outcome was available for 7677 (96%) participants. The unadjusted OR for a better outcome (calculated via ordinal logistic regression) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05; P = .47) for oxygen vs control, and the OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.13; P = .61) for continuous vs nocturnal oxygen. No subgroup could be identified that benefited from oxygen. At least 1 serious adverse event occurred in 348 (13.0%) participants in the continuous oxygen group, 294 (11.0%) in the nocturnal group, and 322 (12.1%) in the control group. No significant harms were identified. Conclusions and Relevance: Among nonhypoxic patients with acute stroke, the prophylactic use of low-dose oxygen supplementation did not reduce death or disability at 3 months. These findings do not support low-dose oxygen in this setting. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN52416964.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMJ Open ; 7(9): e017426, 2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effective treatments are lacking for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a condition characterised by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and papilloedema, and found primarily in obese women. Weight loss and lowering body mass index (BMI) have been shown to lower ICP and improve symptoms in IIH; however, weight loss is typically not maintained, meaning IIH symptoms return. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Weight Trial (IIH:WT) will assess whether bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for patients with IIH with a BMI over 35 kg/m2. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends bariatric surgery in people with a BMI over 35 kg/m2 and a qualifying comorbidity; currently IIH does not qualify as a comorbidity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: IIH:WT is a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled clinical trial of 64 participants with active IIH and a BMI over 35 kg/m2. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to bariatric surgery or a dietary weight loss programme and followed up for 5 years. The primary outcome measure is ICP at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures include ICP at 24 and 60 months, and IIH symptoms, visual function, papilloedema, headache, quality of life and cost-effectiveness at 12, 24 and 60 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: IIH:WT is registered as ISRCTN40152829 and on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02124486 and is in the pre-results stage.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/terapia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/complicações , Programas de Redução de Peso , Peso Corporal , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pseudotumor Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Perda de Peso
18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 6(9): e181, 2017 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition with few effective management options. So far, there have been no randomized controlled trials evaluating new treatments in IIH. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to outline the trial design for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Drug Trial (IIH:DT), assessing an innovative medical treatment in IIH and the rationale for the chosen trial methodology. METHODS: IIH:DT is a phase II double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial recruiting 30 female participants with active IIH (intracranial pressure >25cm H2 O and papilledema). Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 12 weeks of either AZD4017, an 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, or a matching placebo. They receive either 400 mg of AZD4017 or placebo twice daily. Participants are followed up at Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 postrandomization. The primary outcome is to examine the effect of AZD4017 on intracranial pressure, measured by lumbar puncture, over 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include IIH symptoms, visual function, papilledema, headache measures, safety, and tolerability. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, plasma, urine, and adipose tissue are also taken for exploratory outcomes. RESULTS: All participants were recruited between April 2014 and August 2016. CONCLUSIONS: IIH:DT is the first phase II double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of the novel pharmacological intervention, AZD4017, for the treatment of IIH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02017444; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02017444 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6tVHesN6s).

19.
Am Heart J ; 191: 37-46, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass and arterial stiffness. In a previous trial, spironolactone improved these end points compared with placebo in subjects with early-stage CKD, but it is not known whether these effects were specific to the drug or secondary to blood pressure lowering. AIM: The aim was to investigate the hypothesis that spironolactone is superior to chlorthalidone in the reduction of LV mass while exerting similar effects on blood pressure. DESIGN: This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point clinical trial initially designed to compare the effects of 40weeks of treatment with spironolactone 25mg once daily to chlorthalidone 25mg once daily on the co-primary end points of change in pulse wave velocity and change in LV mass in 350 patients with stages 2 and 3 CKD on established treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Because of slow recruitment rates, it became apparent that it would not be possible to recruit this sample size within the funded time period. The study design was therefore changed to one with a single primary end point of LV mass requiring 150 patients. Recruitment was completed on 31 December 2016, at which time 154 patients had been recruited. Investigations included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, applanation tonometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and laboratory tests. Subjects are assessed before and after 40weeks of randomly allocated drug therapy and at 46weeks after discontinuation of the study drug.


Assuntos
Clortalidona/administração & dosagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Espironolactona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Método Simples-Cego , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Rigidez Vascular
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 82: 171-183, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many randomised trials assessing interferon-α (IFN-α) as adjuvant therapy for high-risk malignant melanoma have been undertaken. To better assess the role of IFN-α, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of these trials was undertaken. METHODS: IPD was sought from all randomised trials of adjuvant IFN-α versus no IFN-α for high-risk melanoma. Primary outcomes were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Standard methods for quantitative IPD meta-analysis were used. Subgroup analyses by dose, duration of treatment and various patient and disease-specific parameters were performed. FINDINGS: Fifteen trials were included in the analysis (eleven with IPD). EFS was significantly improved with IFN-α (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, CI 0.81-0.91; P < 0.00001), as was OS (HR = 0.90, CI 0.85-0.97; P = 0.003). The absolute differences in EFS at 5 and 10 years were 3.5% and 2.7%, and for OS were 3.0% and 2.8% respectively in favour of IFN-α. There was no evidence that the benefit of IFN-α differed depending on dose or duration of treatment, or by age, gender, site of primary tumour, disease stage, Breslow thickness, or presence of clinical nodes. Only for ulceration was there evidence of an interaction (test for heterogeneity: P = 0.04 for EFS; P = 0.002 for OS); only patients with ulcerated tumours appeared to obtain benefit from IFN-α. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides clear evidence that adjuvant IFN-α significantly reduces the risk of relapse and improves survival and shows no benefit for higher doses compared to lower doses. The increased benefit in patients with ulcerated tumours, and lack of benefit in patients without ulceration, needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida , Úlcera/induzido quimicamente
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