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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between reproductive factors and lung cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, which included 400 incident lung cancer cases among 42,615 never-smoking women followed for a median of 21 years, to examine the associations of reproductive and hormonal factors with lung cancer by histological type using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Longer fertility span ({greater than or equal to}36 years vs. {less than or equal to} 32 years) was associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.07-2.06, P trend = 0.01) but not with all lung cancer or non-adenocarcinoma. Similarly, late age at menopause ({greater than or equal to} 50 years) was associated with increased adenocarcinoma risk (vs. {less than or equal to} 47 years, HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01-1.96, P trend 0.04). Compared with premenopausal women, women with natural menopause (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.02-3.88) or surgical menopause (HR 2.75; 95% CI 1.33-5.67) were at increased risk of adenocarcinoma. In contrast, breastfeeding was associated with reduced risk of non-adenocarcinoma (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92). No significant association with parity, age at first birth, exogenous hormone use or length of menstrual cycle was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive factors may play a role in lung carcinogenesis. Future studies that include estrogen and progesterone biomarkers may help clarify the role of endogenous hormones in lung carcinogenesis. IMPACT: Fertility span and age at menopause may be useful variables in developing risk prediction models for lung adenocarcinoma among non-smoking women.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673718

RESUMO

Acrylamide can be carcinogenic to humans. However, the association between the acrylamide and the risks of renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers in Asians has not been assessed. We aimed to investigate this association in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study data in 88,818 Japanese people (41,534 men and 47,284 women) who completed a food frequency questionnaire in the five-year follow-up survey in 1995 and 1998. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary acrylamide intake. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 15.5 years (15.2 years of prostate cancer), 208 renal cell cancers, 1195 prostate cancers, and 392 bladder cancers were diagnosed. Compared to the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake, the multivariate hazard ratios for the highest quintile were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.38-1.34, p for trend = 0.294), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.75-1.22, p for trend = 0.726), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59-1.29, p for trend = 0.491) for renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers, respectively, in the multivariate-adjusted model. No significant associations were observed in the stratified analyses based on smoking. Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with the risk of renal cell, prostate, and bladder cancers.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670108

RESUMO

Acrylamide, which is present in many daily foods, is a probable human carcinogen. In 2002, it was identified in several common foods. Subsequently, western epidemiologists began to explore the relationship between dietary acrylamide exposure and cancer risk; however, limited suggestive associations were found. This prospective study aimed to examine the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of hematological malignancies, including malignant lymphoma (ML), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. We enrolled 85,303 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective study on diet and cancer as from 1995. A food frequency questionnaire that included data on acrylamide in all Japanese foods was used to assess dietary acrylamide intake. We applied multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to reckon hazard ratios (HRs) for acrylamide intake for both categorical variables (tertiles) and continuous variables. After 16.0 median years of follow-up, 326 confirmed cases of ML, 126 cases of MM, and 224 cases of leukemia were available for final multivariable-adjusted analysis. HRs were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-1.18) for ML, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.38-1.05) for MM, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.71-1.45) for leukemia. Our results implied that acrylamide may not be related to the risk of hematological malignancies.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5599, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692383

RESUMO

Little is known about the risk of cerebrovascular disease in cancer survivors. We aimed to assess the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke using a large-scale, population-based prospective study. 74,530 Japanese aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline study were matched by the status of cancer diagnosis during follow-up using propensity score nearest-neighbor matching with allowance for replacement. A total of 2242 strokes were reported during 557,885 person-years of follow-up. Associations between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on the propensity score-matched pairs. No significant association was observed between the status of cancer diagnosis of all types, gastric, colorectal and lung cancer, and subsequent occurrence of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage. However, analysis by discrete time periods suggested an elevated risk in cancer patients for one to three months after a cancer diagnosis in all stroke (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06, 4.74) and cerebral infarction (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.05, 6.53). This prospective cohort study found no association between the status of cancer diagnosis and the subsequent occurrence of all strokes and its subtypes during the entire follow-up period but suggested an increase in stroke risk during the active phase of malignancy.

5.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660381

RESUMO

Antihypertensive drugs have been reported as both promotors and suppressors of cancers and this relationship has been known for several decades. We examined a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan to assess the relationship between long-term antihypertensive drug use, for 10 y, and carcinogenesis. We divided participants into 4 categories according to the period of antihypertensive drug use, and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and P trends using the Cox proportional hazard model. In all cancers, there was a significant difference in the medication period and the adjusted HR, as well as a significant difference in the P trend. Furthermore, more than 10 y use of antihypertensive drugs significantly increased the adjusted HR in colorectal cancer (multivariable HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37 in the >10 y use group; P for trend = .033) and renal cancer (multivariable HR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.32-6.10 in the 5-10 y use group; multivariable HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.29-3.56 in the >10 y use group; P for trend < .001). The highest adjusted HR in renal cancer among antihypertensive drug users was observed in the analysis performed on patients in which the outcomes were calculated from 3 y after the 10-y follow-up survey and by sex. A large-scale cohort study in Japan suggested that long-term use of antihypertensive drugs may be associated with an increased incidence of colorectal and renal cancer.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 782-788, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies examining the associations of sugary drink consumption on colorectal cancer risk have been conducted in Western populations. METHODS: This study consisted of 74,070 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire (1995-1999). The participants were followed until December 2013 to investigate the associations between sugary drink consumption and colorectal cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Among the 74,070 participants, mean age was 56.5 years at baseline, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 and a mean daily consumption of 286 mL/day for men and 145 mL/day for women. During a follow-up of 15 years, 1,648 colorectal cancer cases were identified. No overall greater risk of colorectal cancer was observed among men [multivariable HR = 0.84; 95% confidence of interval (CI), 0.70-1.02; ≥254 mL/day vs. nonconsumers] and women (HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50, ≥134 mL/day vs. nonconsumers). Sugary drink consumption was associated with colon cancer among women (HR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78, ≥134 mL/day vs. nonconsumers). HRs for proximal colon cancer among women who consumed sugary drinks, as compared with nonconsumers, were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.03-2.10) for sugary drink consumption less than 134 mL/day, and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.01-2.09) for at least 134 mL/day. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective cohort of Japanese with a moderate sugary drink consumption level and low prevalence of obesity, we observed a 36% increased risk of colon cancer in women. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of subsite- and sex-specific investigation.

8.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared working cancer survivors' self-rated health status (SRHS), physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and happiness to those of cancer-free workers. METHODS: A nationwide general population-based cross-sectional study on a sample of Japanese was conducted. Prevalence of deteriorated SRHS, restricted physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived happiness were compared between working cancer survivors and cancer-free workers with multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sociodemographic and health-related backgrounds. RESULTS: Of the 28,311 male and 26,068 female workers, 977 (3.5%) and 1267 (4.9%) were cancer survivors, respectively. Working cancer survivors reported deteriorated SRHS more frequently than cancer-free workers: 21.3% vs. 13.8%, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.64 (1.39-1.95) for men, 23.8% vs. 17.5%, 1.34 (1.16-1.54) for women. Restricted physical functional capacity was reported more frequently in working cancer survivors than cancer-free workers: 6.8% vs. 2.6%, 1.76 (1.34-2.32) for men, 4.9% vs. 2.0%, 2.06 (1.56-2.71) for women. No significant difference was found for depressive symptoms: 21.6% vs. 22.9% in men, 30.0% vs. 28.5% in women. Working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free survivors in men (77.3% vs. 71.7%, 1.21 (1.01-1.45)) but not in women (76.1% vs. 74.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Working cancer survivors had worse SRHS and more restricted physical functional capacity than cancer-free workers. In men, working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free workers. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Continuous support to improve cancer survivors' SRHS and physical functional capacity would be necessary even while they are working.

9.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2664-2673, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348433

RESUMO

Evidence of the association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk from prospective studies is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and GC risk in a large prospective study. A total of 91 946 eligible Japanese aged 45 to 74 years (42 773 men and 49 173 women) participated in a population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). From a validated food frequency questionnaire with 138 food items, total and food source-specific dietary fiber intake was calculated as exposure. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of GC incidence according to quintile of dietary fiber intake were examined after adjusting for confounding factors. In total, 2228 GC cases (1559 men and 669 women) were observed during the 15.0 years follow-up. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk; however, a marginally increased risk trend because of high HR in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was found in women (HR [95% CI] in Q5 vs Q1: 0.95 [0.79-1.14], P for trend .30 in men, HR [95% CI] 1.25 [0.98-1.61], P for trend .05 in women). Stratification by tumor location did not change the results. A marginal but not significant inverse trend was observed regarding cereal fiber intake and GC risk in men. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association.

11.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(1): 157-163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380205

RESUMO

AIMS: This study, using a surgeon-maintained database, aimed to explore the risk factors for surgery-related complications in patients undergoing primary cervical spine surgery for degenerative diseases. METHODS: We studied 5,015 patients with degenerative cervical diseases who underwent primary cervical spine surgery from 2012 to 2018. We investigated the effects of diseases, surgical procedures, and patient demographics on surgery-related complications. As subcategories, the presence of cervical kyphosis ≥ 10°, the presence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with a canal-occupying ratio ≥ 50%, and foraminotomy were selected. The surgery-related complications examined were postoperative upper limb palsy (ULP) with a manual muscle test (MMT) grade of 0 to 2 or a reduction of two grade or more in the MMT, neurological deficit except ULP, dural tear, dural leakage, surgical-site infection (SSI), and postoperative haematoma. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The significant risk factors (p < 0.050) for ULP were OPLL (odds ratio (OR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 2.75), foraminotomy (OR 5.38, 95% CI 3.28 to 8.82), old age (per ten years, OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), anterior spinal fusion (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.53 to 5.34), and the number of operated levels (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.40). OPLL was also a risk factor for neurological deficit except ULP (OR 5.84, 95% CI 2.80 to 12.8), dural tear (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.39), and dural leakage (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.48 to 6.68). Among OPLL patients, dural tear and dural leakage were frequently observed in those with a canal-occupying ratio ≥ 50%. Cervical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was a risk factor for SSI (OR 10.1, 95% CI 2.66 to 38.4). CONCLUSION: The high risk of ULP, neurological deficit except ULP, dural tear, and dural leak should be acknowledged by clinicians and OPLL patients, especially in those patients with a canal-occupying ratio ≥ 50%. Foraminotomy and RA were dominant risk factors for ULP and SSI, respectively. An awareness of these risks may help surgeons to avoid surgery-related complications in these conditions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(1):157-163.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Cancer Med ; 10(2): 757-771, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preclinical studies suggest that fermented soy foods may have a protective effect against breast cancer, no prospective cohort studies have examined this association. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined the association between fermented and nonfermented soy food intake and breast cancer risk using a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS: We included a total of 47,614 women aged 45-74 years in an analysis of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for the assessment of dietary intake. Breast cancer incidence was analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During an average of 15.5 years of follow-up, 825 breast cancer cases were newly identified. We found no association of intake of soy foods with breast cancer risk, regardless of fermentation, with multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest quartiles of fermented and nonfermented soy food intake of 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) and 1.15 (0.85, 1.57) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend = 0.305 and 0.393). Unlike nonfermented soy, higher intake of fermented soy foods was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of nonlocalized breast cancer. The HR and 95% CI in the highest compared to lowest intake category of fermented soy foods was 0.53 (0.28, 0.99) versus nonfermented soy foods 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) (p for trend = 0.026 and 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that fermented soy foods had no association with overall breast cancer but may be associated with decreased risk of nonlocalized breast cancer.

13.
Clin Spine Surg ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290326

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare the surgical outcomes between bilateral partial laminectomy (BPL) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in patients with mild degree of slippage. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To date, there have not been established surgical procedures for patients with mild degree of slippage. Moreover, sufficient studies that have compared surgical outcomes between BPL and PLIF are very few. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the authors enrolled 202 consecutive patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis with slippage at L3 or L4 of >3% who underwent spine surgery between 2005 and 2015. Patients were grouped into those who underwent single-segment PLIF (n=106) and those who underwent BPL (n=51). To adjust for potential confounders, the inverse probability of treatment weighting based on the propensity score was used. Surgical outcomes were compared between the BPL and PLIF groups. The threshold age for the final recovery rate of >70% was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to assess the limit of age to achieve good outcomes. Patients who underwent reoperation in both groups were also evaluated. RESULTS: Operation time and blood loss were significantly lower in the BPL group. The final recovery rate was similar between the groups without age stratification. The cutoff age to achieve a final recovery rate of >70% was 75 years in the PLIF group, and the final recovery rate was significantly higher in the PLIF group than in the BPL group in patients aged less than 75 years but not in patients aged 75 years or older. In addition, the reoperation rate was similar between groups, and all reoperations in the PLIF group were for adjacent segment disease. CONCLUSIONS: BPL is one of the useful options in patients with mild degenerative spondylolisthesis, particularly in patients aged more than 75 years.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266487

RESUMO

Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen in humans. Few studies have assessed dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, these studies are based on Western populations. Our purpose was to investigate the association of dietary acrylamide intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer utilizing data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. We evaluated the data of 89,729 participants aged 45-74 years, who replied to a questionnaire on past medical history and lifestyle habits from 1995-1998. Dietary acrylamide intake was estimated utilizing a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. The average follow-up was 15.2 years, and 576 cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed. In the multivariate-adjusted model, an association between dietary acrylamide intake and pancreatic cancer risk was not demonstrated (hazard ratio for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.65-1.05, p for trend = 0.07). Furthermore, in the analyses stratified by sex, smoking status, coffee consumption, green tea consumption, alcohol consumption, and body mass index, no significant association was detected. Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with the pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese individuals.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the association between meat intake and mortality due to all-cause and major causes of death using a population-based cohort study in Japan. METHODS: 87,507 Japanese aged between 45 and 74 years old at 5-year follow-up study were followed for 14.0 years on average. Associations between meat intake and mortality risk were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A heavy intake of total meat was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality relative to the lowest quartile intake in men (Q4: HR,1.18; 95%CIs, 1.06-1.31). A higher intake of total meat was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women (Q2: HR, 0.70; 95%CIs, 0.51-0.94, Q3: HR, 0.68; 95%CIs, 0.50-0.95, Q4: HR, 0.66; 95%CIs, 0.44-0.99). A heavy intake of red meat was also associated with all-cause mortality (Q4: HR, 1.13; 95%CIs, 1.02-1.26) and heart disease mortality (Q4: HR, 1.51; 95%CIs, 1.11-2.06) in men but not in women. Heavy intake of chicken was inversely associated with cancer mortality in men. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy intakes of total and red meat were associated with an increase in all-cause and heart disease mortality in men, while total meat intake was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score (based on percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality among Asians. DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 16.9 years involving 43008 men and 50646 women aged 45-75 years. Association of LCD score, LCD score based on animal sources of protein and fat, and LCD score based on plant sources of protein and fat with risk of mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.

17.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1169-1177, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020668

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.

18.
JBJS Case Connect ; 10(3): e2000236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910593

RESUMO

CASE: A 48-year-old woman underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at C5/6. Extubation was performed immediately after surgery. Tachycardia, limb tremor, and panic attack developed approximately 4 hours after surgery at 16:15. Thirty minutes later, cessation of respiration occurred at 16:50. An experienced anesthesiologist attempted intubation but was unsuccessful because of laryngopharyngeal edema at the C2 level. Finally, an otolaryngologist performed tracheotomy and secured the airway at 17:20 but hypoxic encephalopathy ensued. CONCLUSION: Predicting the airway obstruction caused by laryngopharyngeal edema was very difficult; hence, to prevent critical complications, systematic perioperative management is essential in anterior cervical spine surgery.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many epidemiological studies have reported the preventive effects of soy products and isoflavones on prostate cancer, our previous studies reported that the association between soy and isoflavones and prostate cancer incidence differed according to stage. It is more important to identify modifiable risk factors related to lethal prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the association between soy, soy products and isoflavones intake and prostate cancer mortality, in a prospective study in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study in 43 580 Japanese men with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (aged 45-74 years). Participants completed a validated questionnaire which included 138 food items. We followed participants from 1995 to 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prostate cancer mortality were calculated according to quintiles of soy products and isoflavones intake, using Cox hazard proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During 16.9 years follow-up, we registered 221 deaths from prostate cancer. Isoflavones and soy products intake was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death, with multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.39, 95% CI = 0.87-2.20, p for trend = 0.04 for isoflavones and multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.76, 95% CI = 1.10-2.82, p for trend = 0.04 for soy food. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that high intake of soy and isoflavones might increase the risk of prostate cancer mortality.

20.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association of fermented soy products, separately from total soy products, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total cancer has not been reported. We examined this association in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 79,648 participants (42,788 women; 36,860 men) aged 45-74 years without a history of cancer, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (1995-1998) and were followed to 2009-2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incidence of CVD and total cancer according to quartiles of total soy products, nonfermented soy products, fermented soy products, miso soup, natto, total isoflavones from soy products, isoflavones from nonfermented soy products, and isoflavones from fermented soy products. RESULTS: In women, we observed a significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of CVD (multivariate HR in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of fermented soy product intake: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.95; P for trend = 0.010), and also found significant inverse associations for natto and isoflavones among fermented soy products. In site-specific analysis, we observed a similar, significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of stroke in women. We found no significant association between any soy product and risk of CVD in men or total cancer in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of fermented soy products such as natto was inversely associated with the risk of CVD in women.

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