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1.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822319

RESUMO

The availability of electronic health record (EHR)-linked biobank data for research presents opportunities to better understand complex ocular diseases. Developing accurate computable phenotypes for ocular diseases for which gold standard diagnosis includes imaging remains inaccessible in most biobank-linked EHRs. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a computable phenotype to identify primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) through accessing the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) and Million Veteran Program (MVP) biobank. Accessing CPRS clinical ophthalmology data from VA Medical Center Eye Clinic (VAMCEC) patients, we developed and iteratively refined POAG case and control algorithms based on clinical, prescription, and structured diagnosis data (ICD-CM codes). Refinement was performed via detailed chart review, initially at a single VAMCEC (n = 200) and validated at two additional VAMCECs (n = 100 each). Positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were computed as the proportion of CPRS patients correctly classified with POAG or without POAG, respectively, by the algorithms, validated by ophthalmologists and optometrists with access to gold-standard clinical diagnosis data. The final algorithms performed better than previously reported approaches in assuring the accuracy and reproducibility of POAG classification (PPV >83% and NPV >97%) with consistent performance in Black or African American and in White Veterans. Applied to the MVP to identify cases and controls, genetic analysis of a known POAG-associated locus further validated the algorithms. We conclude that ours is a viable approach to use combined EHR-genetic data to study patients with complex diseases that require imaging confirmation.

2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2572-2588, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609155

RESUMO

Purpose Adolescent psychosocial outcomes of individuals with histories of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were compared to outcomes of individuals with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) only and SSD with language impairment (LI). It was hypothesized that individuals with more severe and persistent disorders such as CAS would report poorer psychosocial outcomes. Method Groups were compared using analyses of variance on a psychosocial assessment battery that included measures of hyperactivity and inattention, anxiety, depression, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, thought problems, and social outcomes. Results Results revealed significant group differences on self-report of social problems and parent report of hyperactivity, thought problems, and social problems at adolescence. Compared to the SSD-only group, the CAS group had significantly higher parental ratings of hyperactivity and social problems in adolescence. The CAS and SSD + LI groups did not differ on psychosocial measures, possibly due to the high rate of comorbid LI in the CAS group. The CAS group also had more individuals who scored in the borderline/clinical range on self-report of social problems than the SSD-only group. The CAS group did not differ from the SSD + LI group in the number of participants scoring in the borderline/clinical range on measures. Conclusions Individuals with histories of CAS demonstrate increased rates of social problems and hyperactivity based on parent ratings compared to adolescents with histories of SSD only; however, most do not score within the clinical range. The persistence of speech sound errors combined with self-reported and parent-reported social difficulties suggests that speech-language pathologists should be sensitive to the social and emotional impact of CAS and make appropriate referrals to mental health professionals when warranted.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtorno Fonológico , Adolescente , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Fala
3.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642702

RESUMO

The study aims to determine the shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity with existing medical conditions using electronic health record (EHR) data. We conducted a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) of genetic variants associated with critical illness (n=35) or hospitalization (n=42) due to severe COVID-19 using genome-wide association summary from the Host Genetics Initiative. PheWAS analysis was performed using genotype-phenotype data from the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Program (MVP). Phenotypes were defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes mapped to clinically relevant groups using published PheWAS methods. Among 658,582 Veterans, variants associated with severe COVID-19 were tested for association across 1,559 phenotypes. Variants at the ABO locus (rs495828, rs505922) associated with the largest number of phenotypes (n rs495828 = 53 and n rs505922 =59); strongest association with venous embolism, odds ratio (OR rs495828 1.33 (p=1.32 × 10 -199 ), and thrombosis OR rs505922 1.33, p=2.2 x10 -265 . Among 67 respiratory conditions tested, 11 had significant associations including MUC5B locus (rs35705950) with increased risk of idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis OR 2.83, p=4.12 × 10 -191 ; CRHR1 ( rs61667602) associated with reduced risk of pulmonary fibrosis, OR 0.84, p=2.26× 10 -12 . The TYK2 locus (rs11085727) associated with reduced risk for autoimmune conditions, e.g., psoriasis OR 0.88, p=6.48 x10 -23 , lupus OR 0.84, p=3.97 × 10 -06 . PheWAS stratified by genetic ancestry demonstrated differences in genotype-phenotype associations across ancestry. LMNA (rs581342) associated with neutropenia OR 1.29 p=4.1 × 10 -13 among Veterans of African ancestry but not European. Overall, we observed a shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity and conditions related to underlying risk factors for severe and poor COVID-19 outcomes. Differing associations between genotype-phenotype across ancestries may inform heterogenous outcomes observed with COVID-19. Divergent associations between risk for severe COVID-19 with autoimmune inflammatory conditions both respiratory and non-respiratory highlights the shared pathways and fine balance of immune host response and autoimmunity and caution required when considering treatment targets.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 64, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315907

RESUMO

Speech sound disorders (SSD) manifest as difficulties in phonological memory and awareness, oral motor function, language, vocabulary, reading, and spelling. Families enriched for SSD are rare, and typically display a cluster of deficits. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 435 children from 148 families in the Cleveland Family Speech and Reading study (CFSRS), examining 16 variables representing 6 domains. Replication was conducted using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We identified 18 significant loci (combined p < 10-8) that we pursued bioinformatically. We prioritized 5 novel gene regions with likely functional repercussions on neural pathways, including those which colocalized with differentially methylated regions in our sample. Polygenic risk scores for receptive language, expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, spelling, and reading decoding associated with increasing clinical severity. In summary, neural-genetic influence on SSD is primarily multigenic and acts on genomic regulatory elements, similar to other neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 233: 111-123, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166655

RESUMO

To identify functionally related genes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk using gene set enrichment analyses applied to genome-wide association study meta-analyses. METHODS: We analyzed DR GWAS meta-analyses performed on 3246 Europeans and 2611 African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gene sets relevant to 5 key DR pathophysiology processes were investigated: tissue injury, vascular events, metabolic events and glial dysregulation, neuronal dysfunction, and inflammation. Keywords relevant to these processes were queried in 4 pathway and ontology databases. Two GSEA methods, Meta-Analysis Gene set Enrichment of variaNT Associations (MAGENTA) and Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA), were used. Gene sets were defined to be enriched for gene associations with DR if the P value corrected for multiple testing (Pcorr) was <.05. RESULTS: Five gene sets were significantly enriched for numerous modest genetic associations with DR in one method (MAGENTA or MAGMA) and also at least nominally significant (uncorrected P < .05) in the other method. These pathways were regulation of the lipid catabolic process (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .014); nitric oxide biosynthesis (1.92-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .022); lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport (1.6-fold enrichment, P = .032); apoptosis (1.53-fold enrichment, P = .041); and retinal ganglion cell degeneration (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .049). The interferon gamma (IFNG) gene, previously implicated in DR by protein-protein interactions in our GWAS, was among the top ranked genes in the nitric oxide pathway (best variant P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: These GSEA indicate that variants in genes involved in oxidative stress, lipid transport and catabolism, and cell degeneration are enriched for genes associated with DR risk.

6.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100031

RESUMO

Background: Recent efforts have identified genetic loci that are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection rates and disease outcome severity. Translating these genetic findings into druggable genes and readily available compounds that reduce COVID-19 host susceptibility is a critical next step. Methods: We integrate COVID-19 genetic susceptibility variants, multi-tissue genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) and perturbargen signatures to identify candidate genes and compounds that reverse the predicted gene expression dysregulation associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. The top candidate gene is validated by testing both its GReX and observed blood transcriptome association with COVID-19 severity, as well as by in vitro perturbation to quantify effects on viral load and molecular pathway dysregulation. We validate the in silico drug repositioning analysis by examining whether the top candidate compounds decrease COVID-19 incidence based on epidemiological evidence. Results: We identify IL10RB as the top key regulator of COVID-19 host susceptibility. Predicted GReX up-regulation of IL10RB and higher IL10RB expression in COVID-19 patient blood is associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. In vitro IL10RB overexpression is associated with increased viral load and activation of immune-related molecular pathways. Azathioprine and retinol are prioritized as candidate compounds to reduce the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19. Conclusions: We establish an integrative data-driven approach for gene target prioritization. We identify and validate IL10RB as a suitable molecular target for modulation of COVID-19 host susceptibility. Finally, we provide evidence for a few readily available medications that would warrant further investigation as drug repositioning candidates.

7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837377

RESUMO

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/fisiologia
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 519, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with heterogeneous communication and other comorbid manifestations. While previous studies have characterized speech deficits associated with CAS, few studies have examined variability in reading and language and/or other developmental comorbidities. We sought to identify comorbid subgroups within CAS that could be clinically relevant as well as genetically distinctive. METHODS: In a group of 31 children with CAS and 8 controls, we performed hierarchical cluster analysis utilizing measures of articulation, vocabulary, and reading. We also conducted a chart review of the children with CAS to examine other clinical characteristics in these children and their association with subgroup membership. RESULTS: We identified 3 comorbid subgroups within CAS of varying severity. The high severity subgroup was characterized by poor reading and vocabulary, and the moderate severity subgroup by poor reading and non-word repetition but average vocabulary, compared to the mild severity subgroup. Subgroups were indistinguishable with respect to speech sound production, the hallmark of CAS, all demonstrating poor articulation. Children in the most severe subgroup were more likely to have early problems feeding (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Children with CAS may potentially be classified into comorbidity groups based on performance on vocabulary and reading measures, providing additional insight into the heterogeneity within CAS with implications for educational interventions.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 28(4): 1582-1596, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604025

RESUMO

Purpose The goal of this study was to determine whether adolescent outcomes for individuals with histories of early speech sound disorders (SSD) could be differentiated by speech and language skills at earlier ages (preschool, 4-6 years, and school age, 7-10 years). Method The study used a retrospective longitudinal design. Participants with and without histories of early SSD were classified in adolescence as having no SSD, resolved SSD, low multisyllabic word (MSW; difficulty with MSW repetition but no errors in conversational speech), or persistent speech disorders (errors in both conversational speech and MSW repetition). Analysis of variance was employed to determine whether early speech, language, and literacy skills distinguished these adolescent outcome groups. Results Preschool and school-age skills differed for adolescents whose SSD had resolved from those who had persistent speech errors. Adolescents with errors solely in production of MSWs (Low MSW) did not differ in early speech and language skills from adolescents who had difficulty with both MSWs and persistent errors in conversation. Conclusions Speech and language assessments earlier in childhood can help establish risks for persistent SSD and other language and literacy difficulties in adolescence. Early identification of these clinically relevant subgroups of SSD may allow for early targeted interventions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.9932279.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtorno Fonológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Alfabetização , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Fonológico/psicologia
10.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 28(4): 1432-1447, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419159

RESUMO

Purpose The primary aims of this study were to examine the speech-language correlates of decoding difficulties in children with histories of suspected childhood apraxia of speech (sCAS) and to identify predictors of low-proficiency reading levels. Method Participants were school-age children and adolescents, 7-18 years of age, diagnosed with sCAS (n = 40) or speech sound disorder but no sCAS (SSD-no sCAS; n = 119). The sCAS and SSD-no sCAS reading groups were compared on measures of performance IQ, oral language, phonological awareness, rapid automatic naming, diadochokinetic rates, single word articulation, and multisyllable and nonsense word repetition. Logistic regression analyses were employed to identify predictors of low-proficiency reading in the sCAS and SSD-no sCAS groups. Results Sixty-five percent of the participants with sCAS compared to 24% of those with SSD-no sCAS were classified as low-proficiency readers based on nonsense and single word decoding. Analysis failed to reveal significant differences in reading, oral language, or phonological awareness between low-proficiency readers with sCAS and low-proficiency readers with SSD-no sCAS. Oral language and phonological awareness skills were the best predictors of reading level for all participants, followed by performance on multisyllabic word repetition and diadochokinetic rate. Conclusions The language and phonological awareness deficits of children with sCAS are related to their risks for reading failure. To a lesser degree, motor speech deficits and speech sound production also increase risks for reading difficulties. The findings justify early intervention for this subset of children.


Assuntos
Apraxias/psicologia , Leitura , Transtorno Fonológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico
11.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2019: 153-162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258967

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHRs) linked to extensive biorepositories and supplemented with lifestyle, behavioral, and environmental exposure data, have enormous potential to contribute to genomic discovery, a necessary step in the pathway towards translational or precision medicine. A major bottleneck in incorporating EHRs into genomic studies is the extraction of research-grade variables for analysis, particularly when gold-standard measurements are not available or accessible. Here we develop algorithms for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of blindness among the elderly, and controls free of AMD. These computable phenotypes were developed using billing codes (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and evaluated in two study sites of the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Program: Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center and the Providence VA Medical Center. After establishing a high overall positive and negative predictive values (93% and 95%, respectively) through manual chart review, the candidate algorithm was deployed in the full VA MVP dataset of >500,000 participants. The algorithm was then optimized in a data cube using a variety of approaches including adjusting inclusion age thresholds by examining previously-reported genetic associations for CFH (rs10801555, a proxy for rs1061170) and ARMS2 (rs10490924). The algorithm with the smallest p-values for the known genetic associations was selected for downstream and on-going AMD genomic discovery efforts. This two-phase approach to developing research-grade case/control variables for AMD genomic studies capitalizes on established genetic associations resulting in high precision and optimized sample sizes, an approach that can be applied to other large-scale biobanks linked to EHRs for precision medicine research.

12.
Eye Contact Lens ; 45(5): 331-339, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed microbiome adherent to contact lenses and defined the bacterial communities associated with use of lens care solutions. METHODS: Among 84 lenses screened for adherent ocular surface bacterial microbiome using 16S rRNA molecular amplification, 63 (75%) generated bacterial-specific amplicons processed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine workflow. Data were stratified by solution use (peroxide vs. polyhexamethylene biguanide [PHMB]-preserved multipurpose solution [MPS]). Diversity of lens-adherent microbiome was characterized using Shannon diversity index and richness index. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: We identified 19 phyla and 167 genera of bacteria adherent to the lenses. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The most abundant bacterial genera (>1% abundance) were Ralstonia, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Halomonas, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Shewanella, Rhodococcus, and Cobetia. Sixteen of 20 lenses (80%) negative for bacterial DNA were worn by participants using peroxide solutions while only 4 (20%) were MPS-treated lenses (P=0.004). Genera diversity of lens-adherent microbiome showed a significant increase in MPS-treated lenses compared with peroxide (P=0.038). Abundance of Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus were increased 4.3-, 12.3-, and 2.7-fold, respectively, in the MPS group compared with peroxide (P=0.014, 0.006, 0.047, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Commensal, environmental, and pathogenic bacteria known to be present in the conjunctival microbiome can be detected on worn contact lenses. Although most contact lenses worn by asymptomatic wearers harbor bacterial DNA, compared with peroxide, lenses stored in a PHMB-preserved MPS have more quantifiable, abundant, and diverse bacterial communities adherent to them.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Soluções para Lentes de Contato/farmacologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/microbiologia , Córnea/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polímeros/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Learn Individ Differ ; 65: 1-11, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555216

RESUMO

This study examined the spelling skills in middle childhood and adolescence in individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI). Youth without such histories were also included (No SSD/LI group). The heritability of spelling skills at each age level was estimated. Children with SSD were classified as SSD-only, SSD with LI but without childhood apraxia of speech (SSD + LI/ No CAS), and CAS and LI (CAS + LI). The SSD-only group did not differ in spelling from the No SSD/LI group, suggesting that SSD-only did not increase risk for poor spelling. The SSD + LI/No CAS and CAS + LI groups had poorer spelling skills than the SSD-only and No SSD/LI groups. Spelling was associated with phonological awareness in the middle childhood and adolescent samples and with rapid automatized naming in the adolescent sample. Heritability of spelling skills was stronger in adolescence than in middle childhood. Differences in the correlates of spelling and in heritability at the two ages suggest developmental changes in the factors contributing to spelling.

15.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(11): 4755-4762, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267098

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine whether there is an association between polymorphisms of the AKR1B1 gene and cortical cataract in the presence of hyperglycemia. Methods: In the second cross section of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), 3508 participants (2334 at 5-year follow-up and 1174 newly recruited participants) were examined during 1997 to 2000. Cataract was graded from lens photographs using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured. Continuous imputed dosages of minor alleles of 17 AKR1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed for associations with prevalent cortical cataract. Gene-environment interactions between SNPs and FBG were examined. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prevalent cortical cataract were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, education, and myopia. A P value of 0.005 was considered statistically significant after correction for 10 independent tests. Replication of significant associations found in the BMES sample was conducted in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study (n = 10,033). Results: No polymorphism was associated with prevalent cortical cataract. A significant interaction was observed between rs9640883 and FBG (Pinteraction = 0.004), with increased cortical cataract prevalence associated with rs9640883 minor allele dosage in those with FBG >6.0 mM (strata-specific OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.09-2.72). No similar association was found in participants with normal FBG (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69-1.04). This interaction was not evident in the SEED study. Conclusions: The identified interaction between rs9640883 and FBG in relation to cortical cataract was not replicated but may warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Catarata/genética , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata/sangue , Catarata/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 25(3): 215-219, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nuclear cataract is the most common subtype of age-related cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It results from advanced nuclear sclerosis, or opacity in the center of the optic lens, and is affected by both genetic and environmental risk factors, including smoking. We sought to understand the genetic factors associated with nuclear sclerosis through interrogation of rare and low frequency coding variants using exome array data. METHODS: We analyzed Illumina Human Exome Array data for 1,488 participants of European ancestry in the Beaver Dam Eye Study who were without cataract surgery for association with nuclear sclerosis grade, controlling for age and sex. We performed single-variant regression analysis for 32,138 variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.003. In addition, gene-based analysis of 11,844 genes containing at least two variants with MAF < 0.05 was performed using a gene-based unified burden and non-burden sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Additionally, both single-variant and gene-based analyses were analyzed stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: No single-variant test was statistically significant after Bonferroni correction (p < 1.6 × 10-6; top single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): rs144458991, p = 2.83 × 10-5). Gene-based tests were suggestively associated with the gene RNF149 overall (p = 8.29 × 10-6) and among never smokers (N = 790, p = 2.67 × 10-6). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find a significant genetic association with nuclear sclerosis, the possible association with the RNF149 gene highlights a potential candidate gene for future studies that aim to understand the genetic architecture of nuclear sclerosis.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2(7): 684-693, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess joint effects of genetic and modifiable factors on the 10-year progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Individual and pooled data analyses of 2 population-based cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS) participants (n = 835). METHODS: Participants of the BMES and RS were followed up over 10 years or more. At baseline and follow-up visits, interviews using questionnaires and eye examinations with retinal photography were performed. Age-related macular degeneration was assessed by trained photographic graders and verified by retinal specialists. Genetic susceptibility to AMD meant carrying 2 or more risk alleles of the CFH or ARMS2 SNPs, or both (rs1061170 and rs10490924), relative to 0 or 1 risk allele. Discrete logistic regression models were used to investigate the joint associations of genetic susceptibility and either smoking, fish consumption, dietary intake of lutein-zeaxanthin, or combined environmental risk scores from the 3 modifiable factors with the risk of AMD progression. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and synergy indexes are reported. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ten-year progression of AMD, categorized as any (≥1 step) or 2-step (≥2 steps) progression on the Three Continent AMD Consortium 5-step severity scale. RESULTS: Older age, the presence of AMD genetic susceptibility, and baseline AMD status were associated strongly with AMD progression (P < 0.0001). In analyses of pooled data, each additional score from the combined environmental risk scores was associated with an increased risk of 2-step progression over 10 years (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.02-1.56). The copresence of AMD genetic susceptibility and combined risk score of 3 or more was associated with a substantially higher risk of 2-step progression compared with the presence of either factor alone. There was a significant synergistic effect (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.07-15.95) and interaction (P = 0.025) between genetic susceptibility and environmental risk score of 3 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons with AMD genetic susceptibility and pre-existing early AMD lesions, presenting with high environmental risk scores from 3 modifiable factors (smoking, infrequent consumption of fish, low lutein-zeaxanthin intake) were associated with an increased risk of 2-step progression over 10 years.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14898, 2017 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358029

RESUMO

The structure of the cornea is vital to its transparency, and dystrophies that disrupt corneal organization are highly heritable. To understand the genetic aetiology of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), the most prevalent corneal disorder requiring transplantation, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 1,404 FECD cases and 2,564 controls of European ancestry, followed by replication and meta-analysis, for a total of 2,075 cases and 3,342 controls. We identify three novel loci meeting genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10-8): KANK4 rs79742895, LAMC1 rs3768617 and LINC00970/ATP1B1 rs1200114. We also observe an overwhelming effect of the established TCF4 locus. Interestingly, we detect differential sex-specific association at LAMC1, with greater risk in women, and TCF4, with greater risk in men. Combining GWAS results with biological evidence we expand the knowledge of common FECD loci from one to four, and provide a deeper understanding of the underlying pathogenic basis of FECD.


Assuntos
Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 101(9): 1185-1192, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the 5-year progression from unilateral to bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. DESIGN: Pooled data analyses of three prospective population-based cohorts, the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Beaver Dam Eye Study and Rotterdam Study. METHODS: Retinal photography and interview with comprehensive questionnaires were conducted at each visit of three studies. AMD was assessed following the modified Wisconsin AMD grading protocol. Progression to bilateral any (early and late) or late AMD was assessed among participants with unilateral involvement only. Factors associated with the progression were assessed using logistic regression models while simultaneously adjusting for other significant risk factors. RESULTS: In any 5-year duration, 19-28% of unilateral any AMD cases became bilateral and 27-68% of unilateral late AMD became bilateral. Factors associated with the progression to bilateral involvement of any AMD were age (per year increase, adjusted OR 1.07), carrying risk alleles of the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes (compared with none, OR 1.76 for 1 risk allele and OR 3.34 for 2+ risk alleles), smoking (compared with non-smokers, OR 1.64 for past and OR 1.67 for current smokers), and the presence of large drusen area or retinal pigmentary abnormalities in the first eye. CONCLUSION: One in four to one in five unilateral any AMD cases, and up to one in two unilateral late AMD cases, progressed to bilateral in 5 years. Known AMD risk factors, including smoking, are significantly associated with the progression to bilateral involvement.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Incidência , Degeneração Macular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Mol Vis ; 22: 783-96, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440996

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ocular refraction is measured in spherical equivalent as the power of the external lens required to focus images on the retina. Myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness) are the most common refractive errors, and the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the world. The goal of this study is to identify rare and low-frequency variants that influence spherical equivalent. METHODS: We conducted variant-level and gene-level quantitative trait association analyses for mean spherical equivalent, using data from 1,560 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Genotyping was conducted using the Illumina exome array. We analyzed 34,976 single nucleotide variants and 11,571 autosomal genes across the genome, using single-variant tests as well as gene-based tests. RESULTS: Spherical equivalent was significantly associated with five genes in gene-based analysis: PTCHD2 at 1p36.22 (p = 3.6 × 10(-7)), CRISP3 at 6p12.3 (p = 4.3 × 10(-6)), NAP1L4 at 11p15.5 (p = 3.6 × 10(-6)), FSCB at 14q21.2 (p = 1.5 × 10(-7)), and AP3B2 at 15q25.2 (p = 1.6 × 10(-7)). The variant-based tests identified evidence suggestive of association with two novel variants in linkage disequilibrium (pairwise r(2) = 0.80) in the TCTE1 gene region at 6p21.1 (rs2297336, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 14.1%, ß = -0.62 p = 3.7 × 10(-6); rs324146, MAF = 16.9%, ß = -0.55, p = 1.4 × 10(-5)). In addition to these novel findings, we successfully replicated a previously reported association with rs634990 near GJD2 at 15q14 (MAF = 47%, ß = -0.29, p=1.8 × 10(-3)). We also found evidence of association with spherical equivalent on 2q37.1 in PRSS56 at rs1550094 (MAF = 31%, ß = -0.33, p = 1.7 × 10(-3)), a region previously associated with myopia. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several novel candidate genes that may play a role in the control of spherical equivalent. However, further studies are needed to replicate these findings. In addition, our results contribute to the increasing evidence that variation in the GJD2 and PRSS56 genes influence the development of refractive errors. Identifying that variation in these genes is associated with spherical equivalent may provide further insight into the etiology of myopia and consequent vision loss.


Assuntos
Complexo 3 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades beta do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Miopia/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exoma/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
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