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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune disease is an emerging condition among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center (WTC). Components of the dust cloud resulting from the collapse of the WTC have been associated with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as has posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to determine whether dust exposure and PTSD were associated with an increased risk of SAID in a 9/11-exposed cohort. METHODS: Among 43,133 WTC Health Registry enrollees, 2,786 self-reported a post-9/11 SAID. We obtained consent to review medical records to validate SAID diagnoses for 1,041. SAIDs were confirmed by classification criteria, rheumatologist diagnosis, or having been prescribed SAID medication. Controls were enrollees who denied an autoimmune disease diagnosis (n=37,017). We used multivariable log-binomial regression to examine the association between multiple 9/11 exposures and risk of post-9/11 SAID, stratifying by responders and community members. RESULTS: We identified 118 persons with SAID. Rheumatoid arthritis was most frequent (n=71), followed by SjÓ§gren's syndrome (n=22), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=20), myositis (n=9), mixed connective tissue disease (n=7), and scleroderma (n=4). Among 9/11 responders, those with intense dust cloud exposure had almost twice the risk of SAID (adjusted risk ratio =1.86, 95% CI=1.02-3.40). Community members with PTSD had a nearly three-fold increased risk of SAID. CONCLUSION: Intense dust cloud exposure among responders and PTSD among community members were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of new-onset SAID. Clinicians treating 9/11 survivors should be aware of the potential increased risk of SAID in this population.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (NL) have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, there is minimal information on long-term outcomes of affected individuals. This study was initiated to evaluate the presence of and the risk factors associated with cardiac dysfunction in NL after birth in multiple age groups to improve counselling, to further understand pathogenesis and to provide potential preventative strategies. METHODS: Echocardiogram reports were evaluated in 239 individuals with cardiac NL: 143 from age 0-1 year, 176 from age >1-17 years and 64 from age >17 years. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of cardiac dysfunction at each age group with demographic, fetal and postnatal factors, using imputation to address missing data. RESULTS: Cardiac dysfunction was identified in 22.4% at age 0-1 year, 14.8% at age >1-17 years and 28.1% at age >17 years. Dysfunction in various age groups was significantly associated with male sex, black race, lower fetal heart rates, fetal extranodal cardiac disease and length of time paced. In 106 children with echocardiograms at ages 0-1 year and >1-17 years, 43.8% with dysfunction at age 0-1 year were also affected at age >1-17 years, while the others reverted to normal. Of children without dysfunction at age 0-1 year, 8.9% developed new dysfunction between ages >1 and 17 years. Among 34 with echocardiograms at ages >1-17 years and >17 years, 6.5% with normal function at age >1-17 years developed dysfunction in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors in fetal life can influence cardiac morbidity into adulthood.Although limited by a small number of cases, cardiac dysfunction in the first year often normalises by later childhood. New-onset dysfunction, although rare, can occur de novo after the first year.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(12): 1742-1749, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous neonatal lupus (cNL) occurs in possibly 5%-16% of anti-Ro±anti-La antibody-exposed infants. Data suggest in utero exposure to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent cardiac NL. The aim was to assess whether in utero exposure to HCQ decreases the risk of cNL and/or delays onset. METHODS: A multicentre case-control study was performed with 122 cNL cases and 434 controls born to women with a rheumatological disease who had documentation of maternal anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies at pregnancy and confirmation of medication use and the child's outcome. A secondary analysis was performed on 262 cNL cases, irrespective of maternal diagnosis, to determine if HCQ delayed time to cNL onset. RESULTS: Twenty (16%) cNL cases were exposed to HCQ compared with 146 (34%) controls (OR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6); p<0.01). Exposure to HCQ was associated with a reduced risk of cNL; exposure to anti-La antibody and female gender were associated with an increased risk of cNL. Exposure to HCQ remained significantly associated with a reduced cNL risk in the analyses limited to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus and those who developed rash ≤1 month. When analysing all 262 cNL cases, HCQ-exposed infants were older (6.0 (95% CI 5.7 to 6.3) weeks) at cNL onset versus HCQ-non-exposed infants (4.4 (95% CI 3.9 to 5.0) weeks), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.21). CONCLUSION: Exposure to HCQ was associated with a reduced risk of cNL. Among cNL cases, those exposed to HCQ tend to have later onset of rash. Both findings suggest a protective effect of HCQ on cNL.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(454)2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111646

RESUMO

Photosensitivity, or skin sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is a feature of lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions, but the mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. We identify a Langerhans cell (LC)-keratinocyte axis that limits UVR-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin injury via keratinocyte epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. We show that the absence of LCs in Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) mice leads to photosensitivity and that, in vitro, mouse and human LCs can directly protect keratinocytes from UVR-induced apoptosis. LCs express EGFR ligands and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), the metalloprotease that activates EGFR ligands. Deletion of ADAM17 from LCs leads to photosensitivity, and UVR induces LC ADAM17 activation and generation of soluble active EGFR ligands, suggesting that LCs protect by providing activated EGFR ligands to keratinocytes. Photosensitive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models and human SLE skin show reduced epidermal EGFR phosphorylation and LC defects, and a topical EGFR ligand reduces photosensitivity. Together, our data establish a direct tissue-protective function for LCs, reveal a mechanistic basis for photosensitivity, and suggest EGFR stimulation as a treatment for photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus and potentially other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extant epidemiologic data of primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) remains limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the United States (US). The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP), a population-based retrospective registry of cases with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and related diseases including pSS in Manhattan, was used to provide estimates of the incidence and prevalence of pSS across major racial/ethnic populations. METHODS: MLSP cases were identified from hospitals, rheumatologists, and population databases. Three case definitions were used for pSS: physician diagnosis, rheumatologist diagnosis, and modified pSS criteria. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case under-ascertainment. RESULTS: By physician diagnosis, age-adjusted overall incidence and prevalence rates of pSS among adult Manhattan residents were 3.5 and 13.1 per 100,000 person-years. Capture-recapture adjustment increased incidence and prevalence rates (4.1 and 14.2). Based on physician diagnosis, incidence and prevalence rates were approximately 6 times higher among women than men (p<0.01). Incidence of pSS was statistically higher among non-Latina Asian (10.5) and non-Latina White women (6.2) compared with Latina women (3.2). Incidence was also higher among non-Latina Asian women compared with non-Latina Black women (3.3). Prevalence of pSS did not differ by race/ethnicity. Similar trends were observed when more restrictive case definitions were applied. CONCLUSION: Data from the MLSP revealed disparities in pSS incidence and prevalence by sex among Manhattan residents and differences in pSS incidence by race/ethnicity among women. These data also provided epidemiologic estimates for the major racial/ethnic populations in the US. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(10): 2006-2017, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based registry designed to determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2007 and the incidence from 2007 to 2009 among residents of New York County (Manhattan), New York, and to characterize cases by race/ethnicity, including Asians and Hispanics, for whom data are lacking. METHODS: We identified possible SLE cases from hospital records, rheumatologist records, and administrative databases. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, or the treating rheumatologist's diagnosis. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-standardized, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case underascertainment. RESULTS: By the ACR definition, the age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of SLE were 62.2 and 4.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Rates were ∼9 times higher in women than in men for prevalence (107.4 versus 12.5) and incidence (7.9 versus 1.0). Compared with non-Hispanic white women (64.3), prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic black (210.9), Hispanic (138.3), and non-Hispanic Asian (91.2) women. Incidence rates were higher among non-Hispanic black women (15.7) compared with non-Hispanic Asian (6.6), Hispanic (6.5), and non-Hispanic white (6.5) women. Capture-recapture adjustment increased the prevalence and incidence rates (75.9 and 6.0, respectively). Alternate SLE definitions without capture-recapture adjustment revealed higher age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates (73.8 and 6.2, respectively, by the SLICC definition and 72.6 and 5.0 by the rheumatologist definition) than the ACR definition, with similar patterns by sex and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The MLSP confirms findings from other registries on disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, provides new estimates among Asians and Hispanics, and provides estimates using the SLICC criteria.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 16(9): 980-983, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709760

RESUMO

While the relationship between maternal connective tissue diseases and neonatal rashes was described in the 1960s and congenital heart block in the 1970s, the "culprit" antibody reactivity to the SSA/Ro-SSB/La ribonucleoprotein complex was not identified until the 1980s. However, studies have shown that approximately 10-15% of cases of congenital heart block are not exposed to anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La. Whether those cases represent a different disease entity or whether another antibody is associated has yet to be determined. Moreover, the cutaneous manifestations of neonatal lupus have also been identified in infants exposed only to anti-U1RNP antibodies. In this review, we describe what we believe to be the first case of congenital heart block exposed to maternal anti-U1RNP antibodies absent anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of this fetus are compared to those typically seen associated with SSA/Ro and SSB/La. Current guidelines for fetal surveillance are reviewed and the potential impact conferred by this case is evaluated.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/sangue , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia
10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(5): 857-859, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598777

RESUMO

It is currently recommended that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) be maintained during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Recent data suggest that this Toll-like receptor inhibitor may also reduce the recurrence rate of anti-SSA/Ro associated congenital heart block (CHB). This case report describes a unique situation in which a CHB-afflicted, HCQ-exposed pregnancy was electively terminated. The heart did not reveal any characteristic features of cardiotoxicity, providing further evidence supporting the safety of foetal exposure to HCQ.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Autopsia , Cardiotoxicidade , Feminino , Coração Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração Fetal/patologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/patologia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 18(4): 21, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26984805

RESUMO

Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its treatments can contribute to increased mortality rates. The focus of this review is recent studies on mortality and comorbidities during the last 5 years from around the world. The authors conducted a literature review, using PUBMED, for articles relating to SLE mortality with a specific focus on literature published within the last 5 years. Our analysis found that while mortality in SLE patients continues to improve, there are differences in survival based on ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The most common cause of mortality is cardiovascular disease, followed closely by infection and severe disease activity. To conclude, while there have been significant advances in the treatment of SLE and its associated comorbidities, increased mortality remains a major concern in patient management.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(6): 1161-5, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extension of disease beyond the atrioventricular (AV) node is associated with increased mortality in cardiac neonatal lupus (NL). Treatment of isolated heart block with fluorinated steroids to prevent disease progression has been considered but published data are limited and discordant regarding efficacy. This study evaluated whether fluorinated steroids given to manage isolated advanced block prevented development of disease beyond the AV node and conferred a survival benefit. METHODS: In this retrospective study of cases enrolled in the Research Registry for NL, inclusion was restricted to anti-SSA/Ro-exposed cases presenting with isolated advanced heart block in utero who either received fluorinated steroids within 1 week of detection (N=71) or no treatment (N=85). Outcomes evaluated were: development of endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopathy and/or hydrops fetalis; mortality and pacemaker implantation. RESULTS: In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, fluorinated steroids did not significantly prevent development of disease beyond the AV node (adjusted HR=0.90; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.85; p=0.77), reduce mortality (HR=1.63; 95% CI 0.43 to 6.14; p=0.47) or forestall/prevent pacemaker implantation (HR=0.87; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.33; p=0.53). No risk factors for development of disease beyond the AV node were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not provide evidence to support the use of fluorinated steroids to prevent disease progression or death in cases presenting with isolated heart block.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Doenças Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides Fluorados/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Fetais/mortalidade , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/mortalidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 66(8): 930-9, 2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26293764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) include congenital heart block and cardiomyopathy. Several candidate biomarkers were evaluated in cases at risk for cardiac NL on the basis of potential roles in inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction: C-reactive protein (CRP); NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); troponin I; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2; urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA); urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR); plasminogen; and vitamin D. OBJECTIVES: Identification of maternal and fetal biomarkers associated with development and morbidity of cardiac NL should provide clues to pathogenesis with translational implications for management. METHODS: Cord (139) and maternal (135) blood samples collected during pregnancies at risk for cardiac NL were available for study. Levels of cord and maternal CRP, cord NT-proBNP, and cord troponin I were evaluated using multiplex assays. Cord and maternal vitamin D were assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MMP-2, uPA, uPAR, and plasminogen were evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: Cord CRP, NT-proBNP, MMP-2, uPA, uPAR, and plasminogen levels were higher in cardiac NL-affected fetuses than in unaffected cases, independent of maternal rheumatic disease, season at highest risk of cardiac NL development, and medications taken during pregnancy. These biomarkers were positively associated with a disease severity score derived from known risk factors for mortality in cardiac NL. Maternal CRP and cord troponin I levels did not differ between the groups. Cord and maternal vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with cardiac NL, but average maternal vitamin D level during pregnancy was positively associated with longer time to postnatal pacemaker placement. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the association of fetal reactive inflammatory and fibrotic components with development and morbidity of cardiac NL. Following CRP and NT-proBNP levels after birth can potentially monitor severity and progression of cardiac NL. MMP-2 and the uPA/uPAR/plasminogen cascade provide therapeutic targets to decrease fibrosis. Although decreased vitamin D did not confer increased risk, given the positive influence on postnatal outcomes, maternal levels should be optimized.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiopatias/congênito , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Anticorpos Antinucleares , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Gravidez , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 11(5): 301-12, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25800217

RESUMO

Autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) is an immune-mediated acquired disease that is associated with the placental transference of maternal antibodies specific for Ro and La autoantigens. The disease develops in a fetal heart without anatomical abnormalities that could otherwise explain the block, and which is usually diagnosed in utero, but also at birth or within the neonatal period. Autoantibody-mediated damage of fetal conduction tissues causes inflammation and fibrosis and leads to blockage of signal conduction at the atrioventricular (AV) node. Irreversible complete AV block is the principal cardiac manifestation of CHB, although some babies might develop other severe cardiac complications, such as endocardial fibroelastosis or valvular insufficiency, even in the absence of cardiac block. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, classification and management of women whose pregnancies are affected by autoimmune CHB, with a particular focus on the autoantibodies associated with autoimmune CHB and how we should test for these antibodies and diagnose this disease. Without confirmed effective preventive or therapeutic strategies and further research on the aetiopathogenic mechanisms, autoimmune CHB will remain a severe life-threatening disorder.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
17.
Surg Neurol Int ; 6: 9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25657862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. CONCLUSION: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms.

18.
Cardiol Rev ; 22(6): 263-7, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050975

RESUMO

Transplacental transfer of maternal anti-Ro and/or anti-La autoantibodies can result in fetal cardiac disease, including congenital heart block and cardiomyopathy, called cardiac neonatal lupus (NL). Thousands of women are faced with the risk of cardiac NL in their offspring, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are no known therapies to permanently reverse third-degree heart block in NL, although several treatments have shown some effectiveness in incomplete heart block and disease beyond the atrioventricular node. Fluorinated steroids taken during pregnancy have shown benefit in these situations, although adverse effects may be concerning. Published data are discordant on the efficacy of fluorinated steroids in the prevention of mortality in cardiac NL. ß-agonists have been used to increase fetal heart rates in utero. The endurance of ß-agonist effect and its impact on mortality are in question, but when used in combination with other therapies, they may provide benefit. No controlled experiments regarding the use of plasmapheresis in cardiac NL have been performed, despite its theoretical benefits. Intravenous immunoglobulin was not shown to prevent cardiac NL at a dose of 400 mg/kg, although it has shown effectiveness in the treatment of associated cardiomyopathy both in utero and after birth. Retrospective studies have shown that hydroxychloroquine may prevent the recurrence of cardiac NL in families with a previously affected child, and a prospective open-label trial is currently recruiting patients in order to fully evaluate this relationship.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/prevenção & controle , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Plasmaferese/métodos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevenção Secundária , Esteroides Fluorados/uso terapêutico
19.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 24(5): 466-72, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22832822

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus include anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La-mediated conduction system disease and endocardial/myocardial damage resulting in cardiomyopathy. This review will focus on recent data regarding updates on the proposed pathogenesis of disease, morbidity and mortality, and preventive and treatment therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from animal models suggests that reactivity to the p200 region of the Ro52 protein, as well as antibody targeting of L-type calcium channels may be important in the development of cardiac neonatal lupus. In-vitro studies support a protective role of ß-2 glycoprotein 1 (prevents anti-Ro binding to apoptotic cells) and pathologic roles of the urokinase-plasminogen activator/receptor system (leads to activation of TGF-ß), and endothelin-1 secretion by macrophages in mediating tissue injury. Genetic studies highlight the fetal major histocompatibility complex in the development of disease, and a multigenerational study demonstrates that mothers of neonatal lupus children accumulate genetic risk factors preferentially from the neonatal lupus child's grandparents. Retrospective studies identify demographic and echocardiographic risk factors for morbidity and mortality and address the role of fluorinated steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine for prevention and treatment of disease. SUMMARY: Animal studies, in-vitro experiments, genetic analysis and clinical-translational research in cardiac neonatal lupus reveal novel insights and targets for therapy in this often devastating disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/congênito , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/congênito , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ribonucleoproteínas/imunologia
20.
Circulation ; 126(1): 76-82, 2012 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22626746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent case-control study suggested a benefit of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in lowering the risk of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac-NL) in pregnancies of anti-SSA/Ro-positive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A historical cohort assembled from 3 international databases was used to evaluate whether HCQ reduces the nearly 10-fold increase in risk of recurrence of cardiac-NL independently of maternal health status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-seven pregnancies of anti-SSA/Ro-positive mothers (40 exposed and 217 unexposed to HCQ) subsequent to the birth of a child with cardiac-NL were identified from 3 databases (United States, England, and France). Exposure was defined as the sustained use of HCQ throughout pregnancy with initiation before 10 weeks of gestation. The recurrence rate of cardiac-NL in fetuses exposed to HCQ was 7.5% (3 of 40) compared with 21.2% (46 of 217) in the unexposed group (P=0.050). Although there were no deaths in the exposed group, the overall case fatality rate of the cardiac-NL fetuses in the unexposed group was 21.7%. In a multivariable analysis that adjusted for database source, maternal race/ethnicity, and anti-SSB/La status, HCQ use remained significantly associated with a decreased risk of cardiac-NL (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.92; P=0.037). Similar results were obtained with propensity score analysis, an alternative approach to adjust for possible confounding by indication. CONCLUSION: Aggregate data from a multinational effort show that in mothers at high risk of having a child with cardiac-NL, the use of HCQ may protect against recurrence of disease in a subsequent pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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