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1.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(10): e008686, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on inhibition of viral replication and limited reports on clinical efficacy, hydroxychloroquine is being considered as prophylaxis and treatment of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Although hydroxychloroquine is generally considered safe during pregnancy based on studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic conditions, there may still be reluctance to institute this antimalarial during pregnancy for the sole purpose of antiviral therapy. METHODS: To provide data regarding any potential fetal/neonatal cardiotoxicity, we leveraged a unique opportunity in which neonatal ECGs and hydroxychloroquine blood levels were available in a recently completed study evaluating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily to prevent the recurrence of congenital heart block associated with anti-SSA/Ro (anti-Sjögren's Syndrome A/Ro) antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-five ECGs were available for corrected QT interval (QTc) measurement, and levels of hydroxychloroquine were assessed during each trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood, providing unambiguous assurance of drug exposure. Overall, there was no correlation between cord blood levels of hydroxychloroquine and the neonatal QTc (R=0.02, P=0.86) or the mean of hydroxychloroquine values obtained throughout each individual pregnancy and the QTc (R=0.04, P=0.80). In total 5 (11% [95% CI, 4%-24%]) neonates had prolongation of the QTc >2 SD above historical healthy controls (2 markedly and 3 marginally) but ECGs were otherwise normal. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, these data provide reassurances that the maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a low incidence of infant QTc prolongation. However, if included in clinical COVID-19 studies, early postnatal ECGs should be considered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01379573.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Coração Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Coração Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1333-1339, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been validated with high sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the new criteria with regard to disease duration, sex and race/ethnicity, and compared its performance against the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria. METHODS: Twenty-one SLE centres from 16 countries submitted SLE cases and mimicking controls to form the validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the EULAR/ACR 2019, SLICC 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of female (n=1098), male (n=172), Asian (n=118), black (n=68), Hispanic (n=124) and white (n=941) patients; with an SLE duration of 1 to <3 years (n=196) and ≥5 years (n=879). Among patients with 1 to <3 years disease duration, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 81%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well in men (sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%) and women (sensitivity 97%, specificity 94%). Among women, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 82%). Among white patients, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (95% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 83%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well among black patients (sensitivity of 98%, specificity 100%), and had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria among Hispanic patients (100% vs 86%) and Asian patients (97% vs 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria perform well among patients with early disease, men, women, white, black, Hispanic and Asian patients. These criteria have superior sensitivity than the ACR criteria and/or superior specificity than the SLICC criteria across many subgroups.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 191, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ocular toxicity can result from accumulated exposure. As the longevity of patients with SLE improves, data are needed to balance the risk of ocular toxicity and the risk of disease flare, especially in older patients with quiescent disease. Accordingly, this study was initiated to examine the safety of HCQ withdrawal in older SLE patients. METHODS: Data were obtained by retrospective chart review at three major lupus centers in New York City. Twenty-six patients who discontinued HCQ and thirty-two patients on HCQ matched for gender, race/ethnicity, and age were included in this study. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a lupus flare classified by the revised version of the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) Flare composite index, within 1 year of HCQ withdrawal or matched time of continuation. RESULTS: Five patients (19.2%) in the HCQ withdrawal group compared to five (15.6%) in the HCQ continuation group experienced a flare of any severity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% CI 0.31, 5.30; p = 0.73). There were no severe flares in either group. The results were similar after adjusting for length of SLE, number of American College of Rheumatology criteria, low complement levels, and SELENA-SLEDAI score, and in a propensity score analysis (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.23, 6.16; p = 0.84). The analysis of time to any flare revealed a non-significant earlier time to flare in the HCQ withdrawal group (log-rank p = 0.67). Most flares were in the cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems, but one patient in the continuation group developed pericarditis. The most common reason for HCQ withdrawal was retinal toxicity (42.3%), followed by patient's preference (34.6%), other confirmed or suspected adverse effects (15.4%), ophthalmologist recommendation for macular degeneration (3.8%), and rheumatologist recommendation for quiescent SLE (3.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study of older stable patients with SLE on long-term HCQ, withdrawal did not significantly increase the risk of flares.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to analyze associations of comorbidities and medications on infection outcomes. METHODS: Patients with SLE and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 were identified through an established New York University lupus cohort, query of 2 hospital systems, and referrals from rheumatologists. Data were prospectively collected via a web-based questionnaire and review of medical records. Data on baseline characteristics were obtained for all patients with COVID-19 to analyze risk factors for hospitalization. Data were also collected on asymptomatic patients and those with COVID-19-like symptoms who tested negative or were not tested. Statistical analyses were limited to confirmed COVID-19-positive patients. RESULTS: A total of 226 SLE patients were included: 41 with confirmed COVID-19, 19 who tested negative for COVID-19, 42 with COVID-19-like symptoms who did not get tested, and 124 who remained asymptomatic without testing. Of the SLE patients with confirmed COVID-19, hospitalization was required in 24 (59%) and intensive care unit-level of care in 4, and 4 died. Hospitalized patients tended to be older, nonwhite, Hispanic, have higher body mas index (BMI), history of nephritis, and at least 1 comorbidity. An exploratory (due to limited sample size) logistic regression analysis identified race, presence of at least 1 comorbidity, and BMI as independent predictors of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: In general, the variables predictive of hospitalization in our SLE patients were similar to those identified in the general population. Further studies are needed to understand additional risk factors for poor COVID-19 outcomes in patients with SLE.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(2): 384-394, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029091

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multiorgan, systemic autoimmune disease that is more common in women than men and is typically diagnosed during reproductive age, necessitating sex-specific considerations in care. In women there is no substantive evidence to suggest that SLE reduces fertility, but subfertility may occur as a result of active disease, immunosuppressive drugs, and age-related declines in fertility related to delays in childbearing. Although pregnancy outcomes have improved, SLE still poses risks in pregnancy that contribute to poorer maternal and fetal outcomes. Cyclophosphamide, an important agent for the treatment of severe or life-threatening lupus, may adversely affect fertility, particularly with increases in dose and patient age. Fertility preservation techniques are therefore an important consideration for women and men before cytotoxic treatment. There is mixed evidence as to whether exogenous estrogen in the form of oral contraceptive pills or hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk for the development of SLE, but among women with SLE already diagnosed, combined oral contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy do not confer risk for severe flare and remain important in reproductive care. The higher incidence of SLE in women may nonetheless be attributable to effects of endogenous estrogen, as well as failures in X chromosome inactivation, increased Toll-like receptor gene products, and changes in microRNA function. A greater appreciation of the biological underpinnings and consequences of sex differences in SLE may lead to more targeted treatments and improved outcomes for patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(5): 849-859, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune disease is an emerging condition among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC). Components of the dust cloud resulting from the collapse of the WTC have been associated with development of a systemic autoimmune disease, as has posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We undertook this study to determine whether dust exposure and PTSD were associated with an increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease in a 9/11-exposed cohort. METHODS: Among 43,133 WTC Health Registry enrollees, 2,786 self-reported having a post-9/11 systemic autoimmune disease. We obtained informed consent to review medical records to validate systemic autoimmune disease diagnoses for 1,041 enrollees. Diagnoses of systemic autoimmune diseases were confirmed by classification criteria, rheumatologist diagnosis, or having been prescribed systemic autoimmune disease medication. Controls were enrollees who denied having an autoimmune disease diagnosis (n = 37,017). We used multivariable log-binomial regression to examine the association between multiple 9/11 exposures and risk of post-9/11 systemic autoimmune disease, stratifying by responders (rescue, recovery, and clean-up workers) and community members (e.g., residents, area workers). RESULTS: We identified 118 persons with systemic autoimmune disease. Rheumatoid arthritis was most frequent (n = 71), followed by SjÓ§gren's syndrome (n = 22), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 20), myositis (n = 9), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 7), and scleroderma (n = 4). Among 9/11 responders, those with intense dust cloud exposure had almost twice the risk of systemic autoimmune disease (adjusted risk ratio 1.86 [95% confidence interval 1.02-3.40]). Community members with PTSD had a nearly 3-fold increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION: Intense dust cloud exposure among responders and PTSD among community members were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of new-onset systemic autoimmune disease. Clinicians treating 9/11 survivors should be aware of the potential increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease in this population.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 217-224, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (NL) have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, there is minimal information on long-term outcomes of affected individuals. This study was initiated to evaluate the presence of and the risk factors associated with cardiac dysfunction in NL after birth in multiple age groups to improve counselling, to further understand pathogenesis and to provide potential preventative strategies. METHODS: Echocardiogram reports were evaluated in 239 individuals with cardiac NL: 143 from age 0-1 year, 176 from age >1-17 years and 64 from age >17 years. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of cardiac dysfunction at each age group with demographic, fetal and postnatal factors, using imputation to address missing data. RESULTS: Cardiac dysfunction was identified in 22.4% at age 0-1 year, 14.8% at age >1-17 years and 28.1% at age >17 years. Dysfunction in various age groups was significantly associated with male sex, black race, lower fetal heart rates, fetal extranodal cardiac disease and length of time paced. In 106 children with echocardiograms at ages 0-1 year and >1-17 years, 43.8% with dysfunction at age 0-1 year were also affected at age >1-17 years, while the others reverted to normal. Of children without dysfunction at age 0-1 year, 8.9% developed new dysfunction between ages >1 and 17 years. Among 34 with echocardiograms at ages >1-17 years and >17 years, 6.5% with normal function at age >1-17 years developed dysfunction in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors in fetal life can influence cardiac morbidity into adulthood.Although limited by a small number of cases, cardiac dysfunction in the first year often normalises by later childhood. New-onset dysfunction, although rare, can occur de novo after the first year.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias/congênito , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Doenças Reumáticas , Reumatologia , Sociedades Médicas , Humanos
9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Reumatologia/normas , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/análise , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Técnica Delfos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
10.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(7): 949-960, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extant epidemiologic data of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the US. The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based retrospective registry of cases of systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, including primary SS in Manhattan, New York. The MLSP was used to provide estimates of the incidence and prevalence of primary SS across major racial/ethnic populations. METHODS: MLSP cases were identified from hospitals, rheumatologists, and population databases. Three case definitions were used for primary SS, including physician diagnosis, rheumatologist diagnosis, and modified primary SS criteria. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess underascertainment of cases. RESULTS: By physician diagnosis, age-adjusted overall incidence and prevalence rates of primary SS among adult Manhattan residents were 3.5 and 13.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Capture-recapture adjustment increased incidence and prevalence rates (4.1 and 14.2 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Based on physician diagnosis, incidence and prevalence rates were approximately 6 times higher among women than men (P < 0.001). Incidence of primary SS was statistically higher among non-Latina Asian women (10.5) and non-Latina white women (6.2) compared with Latina women (3.2). Incidence was also higher among non-Latina Asian women compared with non-Latina black women (3.3). Prevalence of primary SS did not differ by race/ethnicity. Similar trends were observed when more restrictive case definitions were applied. CONCLUSION: Data from the MLSP revealed disparities among Manhattan residents in primary SS incidence and prevalence by sex and differences in primary SS incidence by race/ethnicity among women. These data also provided epidemiologic estimates for the major racial/ethnic populations in the US.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(12): 1742-1749, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous neonatal lupus (cNL) occurs in possibly 5%-16% of anti-Ro±anti-La antibody-exposed infants. Data suggest in utero exposure to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent cardiac NL. The aim was to assess whether in utero exposure to HCQ decreases the risk of cNL and/or delays onset. METHODS: A multicentre case-control study was performed with 122 cNL cases and 434 controls born to women with a rheumatological disease who had documentation of maternal anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies at pregnancy and confirmation of medication use and the child's outcome. A secondary analysis was performed on 262 cNL cases, irrespective of maternal diagnosis, to determine if HCQ delayed time to cNL onset. RESULTS: Twenty (16%) cNL cases were exposed to HCQ compared with 146 (34%) controls (OR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6); p<0.01). Exposure to HCQ was associated with a reduced risk of cNL; exposure to anti-La antibody and female gender were associated with an increased risk of cNL. Exposure to HCQ remained significantly associated with a reduced cNL risk in the analyses limited to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus and those who developed rash ≤1 month. When analysing all 262 cNL cases, HCQ-exposed infants were older (6.0 (95% CI 5.7 to 6.3) weeks) at cNL onset versus HCQ-non-exposed infants (4.4 (95% CI 3.9 to 5.0) weeks), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.21). CONCLUSION: Exposure to HCQ was associated with a reduced risk of cNL. Among cNL cases, those exposed to HCQ tend to have later onset of rash. Both findings suggest a protective effect of HCQ on cNL.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(454)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111646

RESUMO

Photosensitivity, or skin sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is a feature of lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions, but the mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. We identify a Langerhans cell (LC)-keratinocyte axis that limits UVR-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin injury via keratinocyte epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. We show that the absence of LCs in Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) mice leads to photosensitivity and that, in vitro, mouse and human LCs can directly protect keratinocytes from UVR-induced apoptosis. LCs express EGFR ligands and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), the metalloprotease that activates EGFR ligands. Deletion of ADAM17 from LCs leads to photosensitivity, and UVR induces LC ADAM17 activation and generation of soluble active EGFR ligands, suggesting that LCs protect by providing activated EGFR ligands to keratinocytes. Photosensitive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models and human SLE skin show reduced epidermal EGFR phosphorylation and LC defects, and a topical EGFR ligand reduces photosensitivity. Together, our data establish a direct tissue-protective function for LCs, reveal a mechanistic basis for photosensitivity, and suggest EGFR stimulation as a treatment for photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus and potentially other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos da radiação , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Células de Langerhans/citologia , Células de Langerhans/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(10): 2006-2017, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based registry designed to determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2007 and the incidence from 2007 to 2009 among residents of New York County (Manhattan), New York, and to characterize cases by race/ethnicity, including Asians and Hispanics, for whom data are lacking. METHODS: We identified possible SLE cases from hospital records, rheumatologist records, and administrative databases. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, or the treating rheumatologist's diagnosis. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-standardized, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case underascertainment. RESULTS: By the ACR definition, the age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of SLE were 62.2 and 4.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Rates were ∼9 times higher in women than in men for prevalence (107.4 versus 12.5) and incidence (7.9 versus 1.0). Compared with non-Hispanic white women (64.3), prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic black (210.9), Hispanic (138.3), and non-Hispanic Asian (91.2) women. Incidence rates were higher among non-Hispanic black women (15.7) compared with non-Hispanic Asian (6.6), Hispanic (6.5), and non-Hispanic white (6.5) women. Capture-recapture adjustment increased the prevalence and incidence rates (75.9 and 6.0, respectively). Alternate SLE definitions without capture-recapture adjustment revealed higher age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates (73.8 and 6.2, respectively, by the SLICC definition and 72.6 and 5.0 by the rheumatologist definition) than the ACR definition, with similar patterns by sex and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The MLSP confirms findings from other registries on disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, provides new estimates among Asians and Hispanics, and provides estimates using the SLICC criteria.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 16(9): 980-983, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709760

RESUMO

While the relationship between maternal connective tissue diseases and neonatal rashes was described in the 1960s and congenital heart block in the 1970s, the "culprit" antibody reactivity to the SSA/Ro-SSB/La ribonucleoprotein complex was not identified until the 1980s. However, studies have shown that approximately 10-15% of cases of congenital heart block are not exposed to anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La. Whether those cases represent a different disease entity or whether another antibody is associated has yet to be determined. Moreover, the cutaneous manifestations of neonatal lupus have also been identified in infants exposed only to anti-U1RNP antibodies. In this review, we describe what we believe to be the first case of congenital heart block exposed to maternal anti-U1RNP antibodies absent anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of this fetus are compared to those typically seen associated with SSA/Ro and SSB/La. Current guidelines for fetal surveillance are reviewed and the potential impact conferred by this case is evaluated.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/sangue , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia
15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(5): 857-859, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598777

RESUMO

It is currently recommended that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) be maintained during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Recent data suggest that this Toll-like receptor inhibitor may also reduce the recurrence rate of anti-SSA/Ro associated congenital heart block (CHB). This case report describes a unique situation in which a CHB-afflicted, HCQ-exposed pregnancy was electively terminated. The heart did not reveal any characteristic features of cardiotoxicity, providing further evidence supporting the safety of foetal exposure to HCQ.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Autopsia , Cardiotoxicidade , Feminino , Coração Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração Fetal/patologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/patologia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 18(4): 21, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26984805

RESUMO

Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its treatments can contribute to increased mortality rates. The focus of this review is recent studies on mortality and comorbidities during the last 5 years from around the world. The authors conducted a literature review, using PUBMED, for articles relating to SLE mortality with a specific focus on literature published within the last 5 years. Our analysis found that while mortality in SLE patients continues to improve, there are differences in survival based on ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The most common cause of mortality is cardiovascular disease, followed closely by infection and severe disease activity. To conclude, while there have been significant advances in the treatment of SLE and its associated comorbidities, increased mortality remains a major concern in patient management.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(6): 1161-5, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extension of disease beyond the atrioventricular (AV) node is associated with increased mortality in cardiac neonatal lupus (NL). Treatment of isolated heart block with fluorinated steroids to prevent disease progression has been considered but published data are limited and discordant regarding efficacy. This study evaluated whether fluorinated steroids given to manage isolated advanced block prevented development of disease beyond the AV node and conferred a survival benefit. METHODS: In this retrospective study of cases enrolled in the Research Registry for NL, inclusion was restricted to anti-SSA/Ro-exposed cases presenting with isolated advanced heart block in utero who either received fluorinated steroids within 1 week of detection (N=71) or no treatment (N=85). Outcomes evaluated were: development of endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopathy and/or hydrops fetalis; mortality and pacemaker implantation. RESULTS: In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, fluorinated steroids did not significantly prevent development of disease beyond the AV node (adjusted HR=0.90; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.85; p=0.77), reduce mortality (HR=1.63; 95% CI 0.43 to 6.14; p=0.47) or forestall/prevent pacemaker implantation (HR=0.87; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.33; p=0.53). No risk factors for development of disease beyond the AV node were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not provide evidence to support the use of fluorinated steroids to prevent disease progression or death in cases presenting with isolated heart block.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Doenças Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides Fluorados/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Fetais/mortalidade , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/mortalidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 66(8): 930-9, 2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26293764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) include congenital heart block and cardiomyopathy. Several candidate biomarkers were evaluated in cases at risk for cardiac NL on the basis of potential roles in inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction: C-reactive protein (CRP); NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); troponin I; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2; urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA); urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR); plasminogen; and vitamin D. OBJECTIVES: Identification of maternal and fetal biomarkers associated with development and morbidity of cardiac NL should provide clues to pathogenesis with translational implications for management. METHODS: Cord (139) and maternal (135) blood samples collected during pregnancies at risk for cardiac NL were available for study. Levels of cord and maternal CRP, cord NT-proBNP, and cord troponin I were evaluated using multiplex assays. Cord and maternal vitamin D were assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MMP-2, uPA, uPAR, and plasminogen were evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: Cord CRP, NT-proBNP, MMP-2, uPA, uPAR, and plasminogen levels were higher in cardiac NL-affected fetuses than in unaffected cases, independent of maternal rheumatic disease, season at highest risk of cardiac NL development, and medications taken during pregnancy. These biomarkers were positively associated with a disease severity score derived from known risk factors for mortality in cardiac NL. Maternal CRP and cord troponin I levels did not differ between the groups. Cord and maternal vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with cardiac NL, but average maternal vitamin D level during pregnancy was positively associated with longer time to postnatal pacemaker placement. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the association of fetal reactive inflammatory and fibrotic components with development and morbidity of cardiac NL. Following CRP and NT-proBNP levels after birth can potentially monitor severity and progression of cardiac NL. MMP-2 and the uPA/uPAR/plasminogen cascade provide therapeutic targets to decrease fibrosis. Although decreased vitamin D did not confer increased risk, given the positive influence on postnatal outcomes, maternal levels should be optimized.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiopatias/congênito , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/congênito , Anticorpos Antinucleares , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Gravidez , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
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