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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28024, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapy outcomes for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had substantially improved in the last decades, but variability across racial and ethnic groups was identified in some clinical studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether such a difference in outcome is found in the diverse ethnicities in Israel as well. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among 1154 patients (855 Jews, 195 Muslims, 52 Bedouins, 26 Druze, and 26 others) aged 1 to 21 years, who were diagnosed with ALL between 1989 and 2011 and were treated according to the same Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster-based Israel National Study protocols. RESULTS: Bedouins had a higher incidence of t(1;19) (16% vs 3% for non-Bedouins) and a lower incidence of high-hyperdiploidy (10% vs 25% for non-Bedouins) (P = 0.01). Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were poorer for the Bedouins (60.3% ± 7.2% and 63.1% ± 7.2%, respectively) compared with the Jews, Muslims, and Druze (80.4% ± 1.4%, 77.3% ± 3.2%, and 84% ± 7.3%, respectively, for EFS [P = 0.02], and 86.3% ± 1.2%, 82.3% ± 2.9%, and 88.3% ± 6.4%, respectively, for OS [P = 0.002]). Adherence to intensive chemotherapy was similar between the Muslims and the Bedouins. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the Bedouins, a highly inbred ethnic Arab people, may be considered a higher risk group that may need more intensive chemotherapy and/or supportive care in order to improve their outcome.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885080

RESUMO

Mucormycosis has emerged as an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, but contemporary data in children are lacking. We conducted a nationwide multicentre study to investigate the characteristics of mucormycosis in children with haematological malignancies. The cohort included 39 children with mucormycosis: 25 of 1136 children (incidence 2·2%) with acute leukaemias prospectively enrolled in a centralized clinical registry in 2004-2017, and an additional 14 children with haematological malignancies identified by retrospective search of the databases of seven paediatric haematology centres. Ninety-two percent of mucormycosis cases occurred in patients with acute leukaemias. Mucormycosis was significantly associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (OR 3·75; 95% CI 1·51-9·37; P = 0·004) and with increasing age (OR 3·58; 95% CI 1·24-9·77; P = 0·01). Fifteen patients (38%) died of mucormycosis. Rhinocerebral pattern was independently associated with improved 12-week survival (OR 9·43; 95% CI 1·47-60·66; P = 0·02) and relapsed underlying malignancy was associated with increased 12-week mortality (OR 6·42; 95% CI, 1·01-40·94; P = 0·05). In patients receiving frontline therapy for their malignancy (n = 24), one-year cumulative mucormycosis-related mortality was 21 ± 8% and five-year overall survival was 70 ± 8%. This largest paediatric population-based study of mucormycosis demonstrates that children receiving frontline therapy for their haematological malignancy are often salvageable.

3.
Blood ; 134(15): 1199-1200, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698416
4.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601692

RESUMO

ABL-class fusions other than BCR-ABL1 characterize about 2-3% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case series indicated that patients suffering from these subtypes have a dismal outcome and may benefit from the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed clinical characteristics and outcome of 46 ABL-class fusion positive cases other than BCR-ABL1 treated according to AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 and 2009 protocols; 13 of them received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor during different phases of treatment. ABL-class fusion positive cases had a poor early treatment response: minimal residual disease levels of >5x10-4 were observed in 71.4% of patients after induction treatment and in 51.2% after consolidation phase. For the entire cohort of 46 cases the 5-year probability of event-free survival was 49.1+8.9% and that of overall survival 69.6+7.8%; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 25.6+8.2% and treatment-related mortality 20.8+6.8%. One out of 13 cases with tyrosine kinase inhibitor added to chemotherapy relapsed while eight of 33 cases without tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment suffered from relapse, including six in 17 patients who had not received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation seems to be effective in preventing relapses (only three relapses in 25 patients), but was associated with a very high treatment-related mortality (6 patients). These data indicate a major need for an early identification of ABL-class fusion positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and to establish a properly designed, controlled study aimed at investigating the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the appropriate chemotherapy backbone and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NTC00430118, NCT00613457, NCT01117441).

5.
Cancer Cell ; 36(2): 115-117, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408616

RESUMO

Studies of the mechanisms of acute leukemia transformation from a preleukemic state in humans are hampered by the absence of clinical preleukemia syndromes. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Labuhn et al. provide a functional genomics view on the leukemic evolution from congenital preleukemia in children with Down syndrome.

6.
Blood ; 134(19): 1619-1631, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409672

RESUMO

Mutations in GATA1, which lead to expression of the GATA1s isoform that lacks the GATA1 N terminus, are seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). In our efforts to better understand the connection between GATA1s and DBA, we comprehensively studied erythropoiesis in Gata1s mice. Defects in yolks sac and fetal liver hematopoiesis included impaired terminal maturation and reduced numbers of erythroid progenitors. RNA-sequencing revealed that both erythroid and megakaryocytic gene expression patterns were altered by the loss of the N terminus, including aberrant upregulation of Gata2 and Runx1. Dysregulation of global H3K27 methylation was found in the erythroid progenitors upon loss of N terminus of GATA1. Chromatin-binding assays revealed that, despite similar occupancy of GATA1 and GATA1s, there was a striking reduction of H3K27me3 at regulatory elements of the Gata2 and Runx1 genes. Consistent with the observation that overexpression of GATA2 has been reported to impair erythropoiesis, we found that haploinsufficiency of Gata2 rescued the erythroid defects of Gata1s fetuses. Together, our integrated genomic analysis of transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures reveals that, Gata1 mice provide novel insights into the role of the N terminus of GATA1 in transcriptional regulation and red blood cell maturation which may potentially be useful for DBA patients.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(10): e27898, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264788

RESUMO

Tremendous progress in the therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been achieved through combination cytotoxic chemotherapy, leading to high cure rates, at the cost of significant life-threatening toxicity. The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab, recently approved for relapsed/refractory ALL, has a unique nonmyelotoxic toxicity profile. As blinatumomab causes B-cell depletion, the safety of its use during severe chemotherapy-induced toxicity is unclear. We report 11 pediatric patients with ALL, treated with blinatumomab following overwhelming chemotherapy-associated toxicity, with recovery of all patients and successful bridging to further antileukemia therapy. Blinatumomab can be considered for rare patients who cannot tolerate cytotoxic therapy.

9.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3862-3876, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175119

RESUMO

Acute leukemia is a rapidly progressing blood cancer with low survival rates. Unfavorable prognosis is attributed to insufficiently characterized subpopulations of leukemia stem cells (LSC) that drive chemoresistance and leukemia relapse. Here we utilized a genetic reporter that assesses stemness to enrich and functionally characterize LSCs. We observed heterogeneous activity of the ERG+85 enhancer-based fluorescent reporter in human leukemias. Cells with high reporter activity (tagBFPHigh) exhibited elevated expression of stemness and chemoresistance genes and demonstrated increased clonogenicity and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy as compared with their tagBFPNeg counterparts. The tagBFPHigh fraction was capable of regenerating the original cellular heterogeneity and demonstrated increased invasive ability. Moreover, the tagBFPHigh fraction was enriched for leukemia-initiating cells in a xenograft assay. We identified the ubiquitin hydrolase USP9X as a novel ERG transcriptional target that sustains ERG+85-positive cells by controlling ERG ubiquitination. Therapeutic targeting of USP9X led to preferential inhibition of the ERG-dependent leukemias. Collectively, these results characterize human leukemia cell functional heterogeneity and suggest that targeting ERG via USP9X inhibition may be a potential treatment strategy in patients with leukemia. SIGNIFICANCE: This study couples a novel experimental tool with state-of-the-art approaches to delineate molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell-related characteristics in leukemia cells.

11.
Leukemia ; 33(8): 2061-2077, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705411

RESUMO

Acute leukemia is an aggressive blood malignancy with low survival rates. A high expression of stem-like programs in leukemias predicts poor prognosis and is assumed to act in an aberrant fashion in the phenotypically heterogeneous leukemia stem cell (LSC) population. A lack of suitable genome engineering tools that can isolate LSCs based on their stemness precludes their comprehensive examination and full characterization. We hypothesized that tagging endogenous stemness-regulatory regions could generate a genome reporter for the putative leukemia stemness-state. Our analysis revealed that the ERG + 85 enhancer region can serve as a marker for stemness-state and a fluorescent lentiviral reporter was developed that can accurately recapitulate the endogenous activity. Using our novel reporter, we revealed cellular heterogeneity in several leukemia cell lines and patient-derived samples. Alterations in reporter activity were associated with transcriptomic and functional changes that were closely related to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) identity. Notably, the differentiation potential was skewed towards the erythro-megakaryocytic lineage. Moreover, an ERG + 85High fraction of AML cells could regenerate the original cellular heterogeneity and was enriched for LSCs. RNA-seq analysis coupled with in silico drug-screen analysis identified 4HPR as an effective inhibitor of ERG + 85High leukemia growth. We propose that further utilization of our novel molecular tool will identify crucial determinants of LSCs, thus providing a rationale for their therapeutic targeting.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/fisiologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
13.
Br J Haematol ; 184(6): 994-998, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632137

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia, risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and benefit of low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis in 476 Israeli children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated between 2004 and 2016. Thrombophilia was found in 15·5%. Arab children had a higher prevalence of F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) than Jewish children (19·4% vs. 2·9%, P < 0·01). Patients with thrombophilia had higher VTE rates VTE (26·5% vs. 5·6%, P < 0·001). None of the thrombophilic children given prophylaxis had severe VTE. Routine evaluation for inherited thrombophilia followed by thromboprophylaxis when findings are positive may benefit at-risk patients with ALL.

17.
Blood ; 132(3): 264-276, 2018 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720486

RESUMO

Despite attempts to improve the definitions of ambiguous lineage leukemia (ALAL) during the last 2 decades, general therapy recommendations are missing. Herein, we report a large cohort of children with ALAL and propose a treatment strategy. A retrospective multinational study (International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study of Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage [iBFM-AMBI2012]) of 233 cases of pediatric ALAL patients is presented. Survival statistics were used to compare the prognosis of subsets and types of treatment. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type primary therapy (80% ± 4%) was superior to that of children who received acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-type or combined-type treatment (36% ± 7.2% and 50% ± 12%, respectively). When ALL- or AML-specific gene fusions were excluded, 5-year EFS of CD19+ leukemia was 83% ± 5.3% on ALL-type primary treatment compared with 0% ± 0% and 28% ± 14% on AML-type and combined-type primary treatment, respectively. Superiority of ALL-type treatment was documented in single-population mixed phenotype ALAL (using World Health Organization and/or European Group for Immunophenotyping of Leukemia definitions) and bilineal ALAL. Treatment with ALL-type protocols is recommended for the majority of pediatric patients with ALAL, including cases with CD19+ ALAL. AML-type treatment is preferred in a minority of ALAL cases with CD19- and no other lymphoid features. No overall benefit of transplantation was documented, and it could be introduced in some patients with a poor response to treatment. As no clear indicator was found for a change in treatment type, this is to be considered only in cases with ≥5% blasts after remission induction. The results provide a basis for a prospective trial.


Assuntos
Leucemia Aguda Bifenotípica/diagnóstico , Leucemia Aguda Bifenotípica/terapia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Aguda Bifenotípica/etiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(12): 1240-1249, 2018 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498923

RESUMO

Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus group comprised 6% of patients with BCP ALL, with a 5-year event-free survival of 53 ± 6% compared with 79 ± 5% in patients with IKZF1 deletion who did not fulfill the IKZF1plus definition and 87 ± 1% in patients who lacked an IKZF1 deletion ( P ≤ .001). Respective 5-year cumulative relapse incidence rates were 44 ± 6%, 11 ± 4%, and 10 ± 1% ( P ≤ .001). Results were confirmed in the replication cohort, and multivariable analyses demonstrated independence of IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus prognostic effect differed dramatically in analyses stratified by minimal residual disease (MRD) levels after induction treatment: 5-year event-free survival for MRD standard-risk IKZF1plus patients was 94 ± 5% versus 40 ± 10% in MRD intermediate- and 30 ± 14% in high-risk IKZF1plus patients ( P ≤ .001). Corresponding 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse rates were 6 ± 6%, 60 ± 10%, and 60 ± 17% ( P ≤ .001). Conclusion IKZF1plus describes a new MRD-dependent very-poor prognostic profile in BCP ALL. Because current AIEOP-BFM treatment is largely ineffective for MRD-positive IKZF1plus patients, new experimental treatment approaches will be evaluated in our upcoming trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2017.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Criança , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptor PAR-1/genética
19.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 34(6-7): 355-364, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190164

RESUMO

During the 2016 Therapeutic Advances for Childhood Leukemia & Lymphoma (TACL) Consortium investigators' meeting (Los Angeles, CA), a Biology Working Group was established to support the consortium's mission of developing innovative therapies for currently incurable childhood leukemias and lymphomas. The charge of the Biology Working Group was to address how TACL could advance biological investigations of pediatric relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies while undertaking forward-looking therapeutic trials. To this end, the TACL Biology Committee was established to provide the scientific platform needed to further develop preclinical and translational studies that will advance the understanding and treatment of relapsed and refractory disease. The Biology Committee will focus on ensuring state-of-the-art studies that address biological components of early phase clinical trials, and developing a central biology bank of materials from these early phase trials for interrogations into the mechanisms of disease resistance.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Linfoma , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Congressos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia/genética , Leucemia/metabolismo , Leucemia/patologia , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Recidiva
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