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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777924

RESUMO

The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an advanced tool for genetic engineering and a useful model to investigate cut-and-paste DNA transposition in vertebrate cells. Here, we identify novel SB transposase mutants that display efficient and canonical excision but practically unmeasurable genomic re-integration. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we establish compensating amino acid replacements that fully rescue the integration defect of these mutants, suggesting epistasis between these amino acid residues. We further show that the transposons excised by the exc+/int- transposase mutants form extrachromosomal circles that cannot undergo a further round of transposition, thereby representing dead-end products of the excision reaction. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the exc+/int- transposase in cassette removal for the generation of reprogramming factor-free induced pluripotent stem cells. Lack of genomic integration and formation of transposon circles following excision is reminiscent of signal sequence removal during V(D)J recombination, and implies that cut-and-paste DNA transposition can be converted to a unidirectional process by a single amino acid change.

2.
Elife ; 82019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074746

RESUMO

Loss of function of the active zone protein Piccolo has recently been linked to a disease, Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia type 3, which causes brain atrophy. Here, we address how Piccolo inactivation in rat neurons adversely affects synaptic function and thus may contribute to neuronal loss. Our analysis shows that Piccolo is critical for the recycling and maintenance of synaptic vesicles. We find that boutons lacking Piccolo have deficits in the Rab5/EEA1 dependent formation of early endosomes and thus the recycling of SVs. Mechanistically, impaired Rab5 function was caused by reduced synaptic recruitment of Pra1, known to interact selectively with the zinc finger domains of Piccolo. Importantly, over-expression of GTPase deficient Rab5 or the Znf1 domain of Piccolo restores the size and recycling of SV pools. These data provide a molecular link between the active zone and endosome sorting at synapses providing hints to how Piccolo contributes to developmental and psychiatric disorders.

3.
J Neurosci ; 39(14): 2606-2619, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696732

RESUMO

Active zones at chemical synapses are highly specialized sites for the regulated release of neurotransmitters. Despite a high degree of active zone protein conservation in vertebrates, every type of chemical synapse expresses a given set of protein isoforms and splice variants adapted to the demands on neurotransmitter release. So far, we know little about how specific active zone proteins contribute to the structural and functional diversity of active zones. In this study, we explored the nanodomain organization of ribbon-type active zones by addressing the significance of Piccolino, the ribbon synapse-specific splice variant of Piccolo, for shaping the ribbon structure. We followed up on previous results, which indicated that rod photoreceptor synaptic ribbons lose their structural integrity in a knockdown of Piccolino. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between Piccolino and the major ribbon component RIBEYE that supports plate-shaped synaptic ribbons in retinal neurons. In a detailed ultrastructural analysis of three different types of retinal ribbon synapses in Piccolo/Piccolino-deficient male and female rats, we show that the absence of Piccolino destabilizes the superstructure of plate-shaped synaptic ribbons, although with variable manifestation in the cell types examined. Our analysis illustrates how the expression of a specific active zone protein splice variant (e.g., Piccolino) contributes to structural diversity of vertebrate active zones.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Retinal ribbon synapses are a specialized type of chemical synapse adapted for the regulated fast and tonic release of neurotransmitter. The hallmark of retinal ribbon synapses is the plate-shaped synaptic ribbon, which extends from the release site into the terminals' cytoplasm and tethers hundreds of synaptic vesicles. Here, we show that Piccolino, the synaptic ribbon specific splice variant of Piccolo, interacts with RIBEYE, the main component of synaptic ribbons. This interaction occurs via several PxDLS-like motifs located at the C terminus of Piccolino, which can connect multiple RIBEYE molecules. Loss of Piccolino disrupts the characteristic plate-shaped structure of synaptic ribbons, indicating a role of Piccolino in synaptic ribbon assembly.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5398, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568248

RESUMO

This Article contains an error in the author affiliations. The correct affiliation for author Ruchi Shukla is 'MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK', and is not 'Mater Research Institute - University of Queensland, TRI Building, Woolloongabba QLD 4102, Australia'.

5.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 199, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454069

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of eukaryotic genomes. However, the extent of their impact on genome evolution, function, and disease remain a matter of intense interrogation. The rise of genomics and large-scale functional assays has shed new light on the multi-faceted activities of TEs and implies that they should no longer be marginalized. Here, we introduce the fundamental properties of TEs and their complex interactions with their cellular environment, which are crucial to understanding their impact and manifold consequences for organismal biology. While we draw examples primarily from mammalian systems, the core concepts outlined here are relevant to a broad range of organisms.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422819

RESUMO

Current thalassemia gene therapy protocols require the collection of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), in vitro culture, lentivirus vector transduction, and retransplantation into myelo-ablated patients. Because of cost and technical complexity, it is unlikely that such protocols will be applicable in developing countries where the greatest demand for a beta-thalassemia therapy lies. We have developed a simple in vivo HSPC gene therapy approach that involved HSPC mobilization and an intravenous injection of integrating HDAd5/35++ vectors. Transduced HSPCs homed back to the bone marrow where they persisted long-term. HDAd5/35++ vectors for in vivo gene therapy of thalassemia had a unique capsid that targeted primitive HSPCs through human CD46, a relatively safe SB100X transposase-based integration machinery, a micro-LCR driven gamma-globin gene and, a MGMT(P140K) system that allowed for increasing the therapeutic effect by short-term treatment with low-dose O6BG/BCNU. We showed in "healthy" human CD46 transgenic mice and in a mouse model of thalassemia intermedia that our in vivo approach resulted in stable gamma-globin expression in the majority of circulating red blood cells. The high marking frequency was maintained in secondary recipients. In the thalassemia model, a near complete phenotypic correction was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated. This cost-efficient and "portable" approach could permit a broader clinical application of thalassemia gene therapy.

7.
Nat Protoc ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374153

RESUMO

In the published version of this paper, the authors omitted a funding source. L.D.H. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (Advanced Grant ERC-2014-ADG 669207). The original article has not been corrected.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339711

RESUMO

shRNA expression is an established technique to transiently or permanently deplete cells of a particular mRNA/protein. In functional analyses of oncogenic pathways it can thus be used as an alternative to pharmacologic inhibitors, or as a means to address otherwise undruggable targets. Here we describe and functionally validate a simple reiterative cloning system to generate concatenated multi-shRNA expression plasmids. The multi-shRNA expression cassette can eventually be subcloned into any suitably designed vector for the stable transfection of cells, here tested with derivatives of the Sleeping Beauty transposon vector for stable transfection of multiple myeloma cell lines at the lowest biosafety level. We finally test inducible versions of such multi-cassette knockdown vectors and show their efficacy for the induced concerted knockdown of all four components of the MEK/MAPK-module in the Ras/MAPK pathway. The described vector system(s) should be useful for functional knockdown analyses in a wide array of cell line models.

9.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 11: 57-67, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858090

RESUMO

The anti-angiogenic and neurogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) demonstrated a potency to control choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. The goal of the present study was the development of an efficient and safe technique to integrate, ex vivo, the PEDF gene into retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells for later transplantation to the subretinal space of AMD patients to allow continuous PEDF secretion in the vicinity of the affected macula. Because successful gene therapy approaches require efficient gene delivery and stable gene expression, we used the antibiotic-free pFAR4 mini-plasmid vector to deliver the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, which mediates transgene integration into the genome of host cells. In an initial study, lipofection-mediated co-transfection of HeLa cells with the SB100X transposase gene and a reporter marker delivered by pFAR4 showed a 2-fold higher level of genetically modified cells than when using the pT2 vectors. Similarly, with the pFAR4 constructs, electroporation-mediated transfection of primary human RPE cells led to 2.4-fold higher secretion of recombinant PEDF protein, which was still maintained 8 months after transfection. Thus, our results show that the pFAR4 plasmid is a superior vector for the delivery and integration of transgenes into eukaryotic cells.

10.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 9: 142-152, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766024

RESUMO

We generated an integrating, CD46-targeted, helper-dependent adenovirus HDAd5/35++ vector system for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. The ∼12-kb transgene cassette included a ß-globin locus control region (LCR)/promoter driven human γ-globin gene and an elongation factor alpha-1 (EF1α)-mgmtP140K expression cassette, which allows for drug-controlled increase of γ-globin-expressing erythrocytes. We transduced bone marrow lineage-depleted cells from human CD46-transgenic mice and transplanted them into lethally irradiated recipients. The percentage of γ-globin-positive cells in peripheral blood erythrocytes in primary and secondary transplant recipients was stable and greater than 90%. The γ-globin level was 10%-20% of adult mouse globin. Transgene integration, mediated by a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty SB100x transposase, was random, without a preference for genes. A second set of studies was performed with peripheral blood CD34+ cells from mobilized donors. 10 weeks after transplantation of transduced cells, human cells were harvested from the bone marrow and differentiated ex vivo into erythroid cells. Erythroid cells expressed γ-globin at a level of 20% of adult α-globin. Our studies suggest that HDAd35++ vectors allow for efficient transduction of long-term repopulating HSCs and high-level, almost pancellular γ-globin expression in erythrocytes. Furthermore, our HDAd5/35++ vectors have a larger insert capacity and a safer integration pattern than currently used lentivirus vectors.

11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(11): 723-728, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704684

RESUMO

Many rare monogenic diseases are treated by protein replacement therapy, in which the missing protein is repetitively administered to the patient. However, in several cases, the missing protein is required at a high and sustained level, which renders protein therapy far from being adequate. As an alternative, a gene therapy treatment ensuring a sustained effectiveness would be particularly valuable. Liver is an optimal organ for the secretion and systemic distribution of a therapeutic transgene product. Cutting edge non-viral gene therapy tools were tested in order to produce a high and sustained level of therapeutic protein secretion by the liver using the hydrodynamic delivery technique. The use of S/MAR matrix attachment region provided a slight, however not statistically significant, increase in the expression of a reporter gene in the liver. We have selected the von Willebrand Factor (vWF) gene as a particularly challenging large gene (8.4 kb) for liver delivery and expression, and also because a high vWF blood concentration is required for disease correction. By using the optimized miniplasmid pFAR free of antibiotic resistance gene together with the Sleeping Beauty transposon and the hyperactive SB100X transposase, we have obtained a sustainable level of vWFblood secretion by the liver, at 65% of physiological level. Our results point to the general use of this plasmid platform using the liver as a protein factory to treat numerous rare disorders by gene therapy.

12.
Hum Gene Ther ; 29(5): 569-584, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562762

RESUMO

Transposon-based vectors have entered clinical trials as an alternative to viral vectors for genetic engineering of T cells. However, transposon vectors require DNA transfection into T cells, which were found to cause adverse effects. T-cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, and DNA-transfected T cells showed a delayed response upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with regard to blast formation, proliferation, and surface expression of CD25 and CD28. Gene expression analysis demonstrated a DNA-dependent induction of a type I interferon response and interferon-ß upregulation. By combining Sleeping Beauty transposon minicircle vectors with SB100X transposase-encoding RNA, it was possible to reduce the amount of total DNA required, and stable expression of therapeutic TCRs was achieved in >50% of human T cells without enrichment. The TCR-engineered T cells mediated effective tumor cell killing and cytokine secretion upon antigen-specific stimulation. Additionally, the Sleeping Beauty transposon system was further improved by miRNAs silencing the endogenous TCR chains. These miRNAs increased the surface expression of the transgenic TCR, diminished mispairing with endogenous TCR chains, and enhanced antigen-specific T-cell functionality. This approach facilitates the rapid non-viral generation of highly functional, engineered T cells for immunotherapy.

13.
Mol Ther ; 26(4): 1137-1153, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503198

RESUMO

The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is a non-viral gene delivery platform that combines simplicity, inexpensive manufacture, and favorable safety features in the context of human applications. However, efficient correction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with non-viral vector systems, including SB, demands further refinement of gene delivery techniques. We set out to improve SB gene transfer into hard-to-transfect human CD34+ cells by vectorizing the SB system components in the form of minicircles that are devoid of plasmid backbone sequences and are, therefore, significantly reduced in size. As compared to conventional plasmids, delivery of the SB transposon system as minicircle DNA is ∼20 times more efficient, and it is associated with up to a 50% reduction in cellular toxicity in human CD34+ cells. Moreover, providing the SB transposase in the form of synthetic mRNA enabled us to further increase the efficacy and biosafety of stable gene delivery into hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo. Genome-wide insertion site profiling revealed a close-to-random distribution of SB transposon integrants, which is characteristically different from gammaretroviral and lentiviral integrations in HSPCs. Transplantation of gene-marked CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice resulted in long-term engraftment and hematopoietic reconstitution, which was most efficient when the SB transposase was supplied as mRNA and nucleofected cells were maintained for 4-8 days in culture before transplantation. Collectively, implementation of minicircle and mRNA technologies allowed us to further refine the SB transposon system in the context of HSPC gene delivery to ultimately meet clinical demands of an efficient and safe non-viral gene therapy protocol.

14.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 8: 52-64, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255741

RESUMO

We recently reported on an in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy approach. It involves the subcutaneous injections of G-CSF/AMD3100 to mobilize HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating helper-dependent adenovirus vector system. HSCs transduced in the periphery homed back to the bone marrow, where they persisted long-term. However, high transgene marking rates found in primitive bone marrow HSCs were not reflected in peripheral blood cells. Here, we tested small-molecule drugs to achieve selective mobilization and transduction of HSCs. We found more efficient GFP marking in bone marrow HSCs but no increased marking in the peripheral blood cells. We then used an in vivo HSC chemo-selection based on a mutant of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (mgmtP140K) gene that confers resistance to O6-BG/BCNU and should give stably transduced HSCs a proliferation stimulus and allow for the selective survival and expansion of progeny cells. Short-term exposure of G-CSF/AMD3100-mobilized, in vivo-transduced mice to relatively low selection drug doses resulted in stable GFP expression in up to 80% of peripheral blood cells. Overall, the further improvement of our in vivo HSC transduction approach creates the basis for a simpler HSC gene therapy.

15.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 9: 1-11, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246287

RESUMO

Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective molecule that is the endogenous inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina. An ex vivo gene therapy approach based on transgenic overexpression of PEDF in the eye is assumed to rebalance the angiogenic-antiangiogenic milieu of the retina, resulting in growth regression of choroidal blood vessels, the hallmark of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here, we show that rat pigment epithelial cells can be efficiently transfected with the PEDF-expressing non-viral hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in a form free of antibiotic resistance marker miniplasmids. The engineered retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells secrete high (141 ± 13 and 222 ± 14 ng) PEDF levels in 72 hr in vitro. In vivo studies showed cell survival and insert expression during at least 4 months. Transplantation of the engineered cells to the subretinal space of a rat model of choroidal neovascularization reduces almost 50% of the development of new vessels.

16.
Trends Genet ; 33(11): 852-870, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964527

RESUMO

The widespread clinical implementation of gene therapy requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective, and economical manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient nonviral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing clinical trials. The SB system enables high-level stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, thereby representing a highly attractive gene transfer strategy for clinical use. Here, we review the most important aspects of using SB for gene therapy, including vectorization as well as genomic integration features. We also illustrate the path to successful clinical implementation by highlighting the application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Terapia Genética , Animais , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Transgenes
17.
Hum Gene Ther ; 28(10): 842-855, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870121

RESUMO

Gene therapies will only become a widespread tool in the clinical treatment of human diseases with the advent of gene transfer vectors that integrate genetic information stably, safely, effectively, and economically. Two decades after the discovery of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, it has been transformed into a vector system that is fulfilling these requirements. SB may well overcome some of the limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are being used in the majority of ongoing clinical trials. The SB system has achieved a high level of stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, representing crucial steps that may permit its clinical use in the near future. This article reviews the most important aspects of SB as a tool for gene therapy, including aspects of its vectorization and genomic integration. As an illustration, the clinical development of the SB system toward gene therapy of age-related macular degeneration and cancer immunotherapy is highlighted.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Modelos Animais , Transgenes
18.
Circulation ; 136(19): 1824-1839, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. METHODS: We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. RESULTS: We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in trophoblasts in vitro. The transcriptional profile of such cells mimics the transcriptome of preeclamptic placentas. Pan-mammalian comparative analysis identified DLX5 as part of the human-specific regulatory network of trophoblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides evidence of a true association among disturbed imprinting, gene expression, and preeclampsia. As a result of disturbed imprinting, the upregulated DLX5 affects trophoblast proliferation. Our in vitro model might fill a vital niche in preeclampsia research. Human-specific regulatory circuitry of DLX5 might help explain certain aspects of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Impressão Genômica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca , Camundongos , Filogenia , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trofoblastos/patologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185498, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949988

RESUMO

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose. Diabetic patients should normalize these levels in order to avoid short and long term clinical complications. Presently, blood glucose monitoring is dependent on frequent finger pricking and enzyme based systems that analyze the drawn blood. Continuous blood glucose monitors are already on market but suffer from technical problems, inaccuracy and short operation time. A novel approach for continuous glucose monitoring is the development of implantable cell-based biosensors that emit light signals corresponding to glucose concentrations. Such devices use genetically modified cells expressing chimeric genes with glucose binding properties. MSCs are good candidates as carrier cells, as they can be genetically engineered and expanded into large numbers. They also possess immunomodulatory properties that, by reducing local inflammation, may assist long operation time. Here, we generated a novel immortalized human MSC line co-expressing hTERT and a secreted glucose biosensor transgene using the Sleeping Beauty transposon technology. Genetically modified hMSCs retained their mesenchymal characteristics. Stable transgene expression was validated biochemically. Increased activity of hTERT was accompanied by elevated and constant level of stem cell pluripotency markers and subsequently, by MSC immortalization. Furthermore, these cells efficiently suppressed PBMC proliferation in MLR transwell assays, indicating that they possess immunomodulatory properties. Finally, biosensor protein produced by MSCs was used to quantify glucose in cell-free assays. Our results indicate that our immortalized MSCs are suitable for measuring glucose concentrations in a physiological range. Thus, they are appropriate for incorporation into a cell-based, immune-privileged, glucose-monitoring medical device.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
20.
Curr Opin Virol ; 25: 49-58, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750248

RESUMO

HERVH is one of the most successful endogenous retrovirus in the human genome. Relative to other endogenous retroviruses, slower degradation of HERVH internal sequences indicates their potential relevance for the host. HERVH is transcriptionally active during human preimplantation embryogenesis. In this review, we focus on the role of HERVH in regulating human pluripotency. The HERVH-mediated pluripotency network has been evolved recently in primates. Nevertheless, it became an essential feature of human pluripotency. We discuss how HERVH modulates the human pluripotency network by providing alternative transcription factor binding sites, functioning as a long-range enhancer, and as being a major source for pluripotency specific long non-coding RNAs and chimeric transcripts.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/virologia , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Primatas/virologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
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