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2.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598877

RESUMO

Lemierre's syndrome is a serious disease that typically causes oropharyngeal infection with internal jugular vein thrombosis, followed by distant infection focus, such as septic pulmonary embolism. The main causative organisms are anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity, namely Fusobacterium necrophorum. We encountered an extremely rare case of Lemierre's syndrome, where double vision was found to be the first symptom. The patient's blood culture results showed the presence of F. nucleatum, which spread from the sphenoid sinus to the skull base because of chronic sinusitis; the patient presented with longus colli abscess, clivus osteomyelitis, venous thrombosis, and hematogenous infection. Antibiotic treatment with sulbactam/ampicillin was continued for 14 weeks, and no recurrence has been observed so far. Lemierre's syndrome can be complicated with atypical symptoms such as double vision if the cranial nerves are involved. It might be important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis in the presence of cranial nerve symptoms of unknown origin with fever or inflammatory findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574555

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Real-time RT-PCR is the most commonly used method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, serological assays are urgently needed as complementary tools to RT-PCR. Hachim et al. 2020 and Burbelo et al. 2020 demonstrated that anti-nucleocapsid(N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher and appear earlier than the spike antibodies. Additionally, cross-reactive antibodies against N protein are more prevalent than those against spike protein. We developed a less cross-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect ELISA by using a truncated recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein as assay antigen. A highly conserved region of coronaviruses N protein was deleted and the protein was prepared using an E. coli protein expression system. A total of 177 samples collected from COVID-19 suspected cases and 155 negative control sera collected during the pre-COVID-19 period were applied to evaluate the assay's performance, with the plaque reduction neutralization test and the commercial SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG ELISA as gold standards. The SARS-CoV-2 N truncated protein-based ELISA showed similar sensitivity (91.1% vs. 91.9%) and specificity (93.8% vs. 93.8%) between the PRNT and spike IgG ELISA, as well as also higher specificity compared to the full-length N protein (93.8% vs. 89.9%). Our ELISA can be used for the diagnosis and surveillance of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Teste para COVID-19 , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A few studies on antibody testing have focused on asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with low initial anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-testing performance was evaluated using blood samples from asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 143 COVID-19 patients during an outbreak on a cruise ship 3 weeks after diagnosis. Simultaneously, a follow-up SARS-CoV-2 genetic test was performed. Samples stored before the COVID-19 pandemic were also used to evaluate the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm which antibodies were influenced on LFA- and ECLIA- false-negative result in crew-member samples. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive, and negative-predictive values of LFA-detected IgM antibodies were 0.231, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.613, respectively; those of LFA-detected IgG antibodies were 0.483, 0.989, 0.972, and 0.601, respectively; and those of ECLIA-detected total antibodies were 0.783, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.848, respectively. All antibody titers measured using ELISA were significantly lower in blood samples with negative results than in those with positive results in both LFA and ECLIA. In the patients with negative results from the follow-up genetic testing, IgM-, IgG-, and total-antibody positivity rates were 22.9%, 47.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has lower performance in asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients than required in the guidelines.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053325, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged worldwide. Although several medications have been approved for treating moderate-to-severe COVID-19, very few treatment strategy has been established for patients with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen administration. Clarithromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial agent that has been widely used for bacterial respiratory infectious diseases. Clarithromycin also acts an immunomodulating drug and suppresses cytokine storms in viral respiratory diseases, including influenza. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin in patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an exploratory, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. This study was initiated in May 2021 and will end in July 2022. Patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require oxygen administration will be enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to group A (administration of clarithromycin 800 mg/day), group B (administration of clarithromycin 400 mg/day) or group C (standard treatment without clarithromycin). The planned number of enrolled patients is 60 (20 patients × three groups). The primary endpoint is the number of days required to improve the clinical symptoms as measured by the severity score. Secondary endpoints include days for recovery of the body temperature, proportion of patients with oxygen administration, inflammatory cytokines, viral load, serum immunoglobulins, peripheral blood lymphocytes, blood biomarkers and pneumonia infiltrations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Review Board of Nagasaki University in accordance with the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Clinical Trials Act and other current legal regulations in Japan. Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The results of this study will be reported as journal publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: jRCTs071210011.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Claritromicina , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Oxigênio , Pandemias , Porfirinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Anaerobe ; 72: 102448, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To perform surveillance of cfiA-positive Bacteroides fragilis using new subtyping software module, MALDI Biotyper Subtyping Module (MBT Subtyping Module), on MALDI-TOF MS system, and to evaluate the detection ability of the module. METHODS: cfiA-positive strains were presumed using the module against B. fragilis isolated between 2006 and 2019. The cfiA gene was confirmed using PCR. In cfiA-positive B. fragilis, the insertion sequence (IS) elements were examined and the MBT STAR-BL assay was performed to examine meropenem hydrolysis activity. RESULTS: Of the 396 B. fragilis strains included, the MBT Subtyping Module detected 33 presumptive cfiA-positive strains (8.3%), of which 32 harbored the cfiA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of the MBT Subtyping Module for detecting cfiA-positive B. fragilis were 100.0% and 99.7%, respectively. Of the 32 strains harboring the cfiA gene, seven strains possessed IS elements, which were thought to induce high cfiA expression. Meropenem hydrolysis was detected in all seven strains that were positive for both cfiA and IS elements, and they exhibited resistance to meropenem and imipenem. The overall non-susceptibility rates to meropenem and imipenem were 84.8% and 36.4%, respectively, in the 33 presumptive cfiA-positive strains. CONCLUSION: The MBT Subtyping Module can detect cfiA-positive B. fragilis rapidly and accurately, supporting its use for surveillance of cfiA-positive B. fragilis in clinical settings.

7.
Respir Investig ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify the involvement of anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), which are metabolites of anaerobic bacteria in the mouth. METHODS: This study included 84 older adult patients (mean age, 82.5 ± 7.34 years) who had dementia and were hospitalized for more than 6 months. We measured the VSCs in the patient's mouth with Oral Chroma and obtained the data of pneumonia development in the past 6 months. We also evaluated the association or correlation of VSCs and some factors which might be the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia. RESULTS: The development of pneumonia had no significant association with the VSCs in the patient's mouth. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study suggests that anaerobes might not be the main causative pathogens of aspiration pneumonia in older adult patients.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2251-2260, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423761

RESUMO

In April 2020, a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak occurred on the cruise ship Costa Atlantica in Nagasaki, Japan. Our outbreak investigation included 623 multinational crewmembers onboard on April 20. Median age was 31 years; 84% were men. Each crewmember was isolated or quarantined in a single room inside the ship, and monitoring of health status was supported by a remote health monitoring system. Crewmembers with more severe illness were hospitalized. The investigation found that the outbreak started in late March and peaked in late April, resulting in 149 laboratory-confirmed and 107 probable cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Six case-patients were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 1 in severe condition and 2 who required oxygen administration, but no deaths occurred. Although the virus can spread rapidly on a cruise ship, we describe how prompt isolation and quarantine combined with a sensitive syndromic surveillance system can control a COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aspergillus is often detected in respiratory samples from patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that it can easily colonize the airways. To determine the role of Aspergillus colonization in pulmonary fibrosis, we cultured human lung epithelial A549 cells or murine embryo fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells with Aspergillus conidia in 3D floating culture representing the microenvironment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were cultured in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional floating (3DF) culture with heat-inactivated Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) 293 conidia at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 1:10 (early-phase model) and 1:100 (colonization model), and RNA-sequencing and Western blots (WB) were performed. RESULTS: AF293 conidia reduced A549 cell growth in 2D and 3DF cultures and induced apoptosis in A549 spheroids in 3DF culture. RNA-sequencing revealed the increased expression of genes associated with interferon-mediated antiviral responses including MX dymamin-like GTPase 1 (MX1). Interestingly, the decreased expression of genes associated with the cell cycle was observed with a high concentration of AF293 conidia. WB revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition was not involved. Notably, AF293 conidia increased NIH/3T3 growth only in 3DF culture without inducing an apoptotic reaction. RNA-sequencing revealed the increased expression of genes associated with interferon signalling, including MX2; however, the decreased expression of genes associated with the cell cycle was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: AF affects both apoptosis of epithelial cells and the growth of fibroblasts. A deeper understanding of the detailed mechanisms underlying Aspergillus-mediated signaling pathway in epithelial cells and fibroblasts will help us to understand the lung microenvironment.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accurate prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses (ADIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has not been well investigated. Hence, a longitudinal nationwide surveillance study analyzing the current status and national trend of opportunistic complications in HIV-infected patients in Japan is warranted. METHODS: A nationwide surveillance of opportunistic complications in HIV-infected patients from 1995 to 2017 in Japan was conducted. An annual questionnaire was sent to 383 HIV/AIDS referral hospitals across Japan to collect information (CD4+ lymphocyte count, time of onset, outcome, and antiretroviral therapy [ART] status) of patients diagnosed with any of 23 ADIs between 1995 and 2017. RESULTS: The response and case capture rates of the questionnaires in 2017 were 53% and 76%, respectively. The number of reported cases of opportunistic complications peaked in 2011 and subsequently declined. Pneumocystis pneumonia (38.7%), cytomegalovirus infection (13.6%), and candidiasis (12.8%) were associated with the cumulative incidence of ADIs between 1995 and 2017. The mortality rate in HIV-infected patients with opportunistic complications substantially decreased to 3.6% in 2017. The mortality rate was significantly higher in HIV patients who received ART within 14 days of diagnosis of complications than in those who received ART 15 days after diagnosis (13.0% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a 23-year trend of a newly diagnosed AIDS status in Japan with high accuracy. The current data reveal the importance of Pneumocystis pneumonia as a first-onset illness and that early initiation of ART results in poor outcomes in HIV patients in Japan.

11.
Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393162

RESUMO

A 68-year-old woman developed systemic blisters while receiving treatment for nephrotic syndrome. As she also developed marked liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation, she was admitted to our hospital. She was diagnosed with varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Treatment was administered in the intensive-care unit, but the patient died on day 24 post-admission after severe VZV infection. A post-mortem examination showed micro-abscesses and necrosis caused by varicella zoster infection in multiple organs, including the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Because VZV infection can become severe in immunocompromised patients, careful consideration is needed for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14146, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238999

RESUMO

Septic shock is characterized by dysregulated vascular permeability. We hypothesized that the vascular permeability of endothelial cells (ECs) would be regulated by serotonin via serotonin-Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signaling. We aimed to determine the impact of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) on septic shock as a novel biomarker. Plasma 5-HIAA levels and disease severity indices were obtained from 47 patients with sepsis. The association between 5-HIAA levels and severity indices was analyzed. Permeability upon serotonin stimulation was determined using human pulmonary microvascular ECs. 5-HIAA were significantly higher in septic shock patients than in patients without shock or healthy controls (p = 0.004). These elevated levels were correlated with severity indexes (SOFA score [p < 0.001], APACHE II [p < 0.001], and PaO2:FiO2 [p = 0.02]), and longitudinally associated with worse clinical outcomes (mechanical ventilation duration [p = 0.009] and ICU duration [p = 0.01]). In the experiment, serotonin increased the permeability of ECs, which was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor (p < 0.001). Serotonin increases vascular permeability of ECs via ROCK signaling. This suggests a novel mechanism by which serotonin disrupts endothelial barriers via ROCK signaling and causes the pathogenesis of septic shock with a vascular leak. Serotonin serves as a novel biomarker of vascular permeability.

13.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 240, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) occur in patients administered liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a wide-spectrum anti-fungicidal drug. However, the association between potassium supplementation and the occurrence of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB is not well understood. METHODS: Using nationwide claims data and laboratory data, the occurrence of AKI during L-AMB treatment was retrospectively compared between patients with hypokalemia who were or were not supplemented with potassium and between those adequately or inadequately supplemented with potassium (serum potassium levels corrected to ≥3.5 mEq/L or remained < 3.5 mEq/L, respectively) before or after L-AMB treatment initiation. RESULTS: We identified 118 patients who developed hypokalemia before L-AMB treatment initiation (43 received potassium supplementation [25 adequate and 18 inadequate supplementation] and 75 did not receive potassium supplementation), and 117 patients who developed hypokalemia after L-AMB initiation (79 received potassium supplementation [including 23 adequate and 15 inadequate supplementation] and 38 did not receive potassium supplementation). The occurrence of any stage of AKI was similar between patients with hypokalemia, regardless of potassium supplementation (i.e., before L-AMB treatment initiation [supplementation, 51%; non-supplementation, 45%; P = 0.570] or after L-AMB initiation [supplementation, 28%; non-supplementation, 32%; P = 0.671]). After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that the occurrence of any stage of AKI was not associated with potassium supplementation before L-AMB initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.291, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.584-2.852, P = 0.528) or after L-AMB initiation (OR: 0.954, 95% CI: 0.400-2.275, P = 0.915). The occurrence of any stage of AKI tended to decline in patients with hypokalemia who were adequately supplemented with potassium (44%) before, but not after, L-AMB initiation relative to that in patients inadequately supplemented with potassium (61%), however this result was not significant (P = 0.358). CONCLUSION: Potassium supplementation was not associated with any stage of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB.

14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198717

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) infection in cats in Nagasaki, Japan. In total, 44 of 133 (33.1%) cats with suspected SFTS were confirmed to be infected with SFTSV. Phylogenetic analyses of SFTSV isolates from cats indicated that the main genotype in Nagasaki was J1 and that unique reassortant strains with J2 (S segment) and unclassified genotypes (M and L segments) were also present. There were no significant differences in virus growth in cell cultures or fatality in SFTSV-infected mice between the SFTSV strains that were isolated from recovered and fatal cat cases. Remarkably, SFTSV RNAs were detected in the swabs from cats, indicating that the body fluids contain SFTSV. To evaluate the risk of SFTSV infection when providing animal care, we further examined the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection in veterinarian staff members; 3 of 71 (4.2%) were seropositive for SFTSV-specific antibodies. Our results provide useful information on the possibility of using cats as sentinel animals and raised concerns of the zoonotic risk of catching SFTSV from animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/classificação , Phlebovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/virologia
15.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1525-1528, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294531

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is necessary for confirming a diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we present a COVID-19 case of an elderly woman whose SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests showed false negative repeatedly by evaluating with different sampling sites and procedures. Nasopharyngeal swabs, suctioned sputum, and tongue swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2-PCR. As for tongue swabs, we compared between two different sample conditions; one obtained with dry condition and the other obtained with moistened condition inside the oral cavity. SARS-CoV-2-PCR showed positive for an extended period with suctioned sputum samples compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and tongue swabs. No SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained on day 46 after symptoms onset was isolated despite high viral load (183740.5 copies/5µL). An adequate production of neutralizing antibody in a serum sample on day 46 was also confirmed. The number of RNA copies of the tongue swab samples was higher with moistened condition than with dry condition. The present case suggests that the difference of sampling site or sample condition can affect PCR results. High loads viral RNA detection does not always correlate with infectivity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Manejo de Espécimes
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment in patients with aspergillosis and involves various cyp51A point mutations or non-cyp51A mutations. The prognosis of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) with patient-derived ARAf infection remains unclear. In this study, we reported the case of a patient with ARAf due to HapE mutation, as well as the virulence of the isolate. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male was presented with productive cough and low-grade fever. The patient was diagnosed with CPA based on the chronic course, presence of a fungus ball in the upper left lobe on chest computed tomography (CT), positivity for Aspergillus-precipitating antibody and denial of other diseases. The patient underwent left upper lobe and left S6 segment resection surgery because of repeated haemoptysis during voriconazole (VRC) treatment. The patient was postoperatively treated with VRC for 6 months. Since then, the patient was followed up without antifungal treatment but relapsed 4 years later, and VRC treatment was reinitiated. Although an azole-resistant isolate was isolated after VRC treatment, the patient did not show any disease progression in either respiratory symptoms or radiological findings. The ARAf isolated from this patient showed slow growth, decreased biomass and biofilm formation in vitro, and decreased virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model compared with its parental strain. These phenotypes could be caused by the HapE splice site mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first to report a case demonstrating the clinical manifestation of a CPA patient infected with ARAf with a HapE splice site mutation, which was consistent with the in vitro and in vivo attenuated virulence of the ARAf isolate. These results imply that not all the ARAf infections in immunocompetent patients require antifungal treatment. Further studies on the virulence of non-cyp51A mutations in ARAf are warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Azóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Aspergilose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Fenótipo , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Virulência/genética , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1471-1476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad spectrum anti-fungicidal drug, is often administered to treat invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, the most suitable time to initiate treatment in septic shock patients with IFI is unknown. METHODS: Patients with septic shock treated with L-AMB were identified from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national database and were stratified according to L-AMB treatment initiation either at septic shock onset (early L-AMB group) or after the onset (delayed L-AMB group) to determine their survival rates following septic shock onset and the shock cessation period. RESULTS: We identified 141 patients administered L-AMB on the day of or after septic shock onset: 60 patients received early treatment, whereas 81 patients received delayed treatment. Survival rates after septic shock onset were higher in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (4 weeks: 68.4% vs 57.9%, P = 0.197; 6 weeks: 62.2% vs 44.5%, P = 0.061; 12 weeks: 43.4% vs 35.0%, P = 0.168, respectively). The septic shock cessation period was shorter in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (7.0 ± 7.0 days vs 16.5 ± 15.4 days, P < 0.001), with a significant difference confirmed after adjusting for confounding factors with propensity score matching (7.1 ± 7.2 days vs 16.7 ± 14.0 days, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early L-AMB administration at septic shock onset may be associated with early shock cessation.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the quantitative RT-PCR results between nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens. METHODS: A COVID-19 outbreak occurred on a cruise ship at Nagasaki port, Japan. We obtained 123 nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva each from asymptomatic or mild patients in the late phase of infection. RESULTS: The intervals from the diagnosis to the sampling were 25.5 days for nasopharyngeal swabs and 28.9 days for saliva. The positive rate was 19.5% (24/123) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 38.2% (47/123) for saliva (P = 0.48). The quantified viral copies (mean ± SEM copies/5 µl) were 9.3±2.6 in nasopharyngeal swabs and 920±850 in saliva (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of saliva specimens include positive rate improvement and accurate viral load detection. Saliva may be used as a reliable sample for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(8): 1258-1260, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049793

RESUMO

Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a type of invasive candidiasis. CDC commonly appears in the neutrophil recovery phase after chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is thought to play a major role in CDC development. This report describes the case of a 33-year-old man with CDC as a complication of acute myeloid leukemia. We describe the clinical course, body temperature, therapy, and (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) levels over the course of 22 months. He was initially treated with antifungals, but corticosteroids were added because of a persistently elevated body temperature, which we attributed to IRIS. After starting corticosteroids, his clinical condition improved, but his BDG levels became markedly elevated. We hypothesize that the suppression of the excessive immune response by corticosteroids lead to granuloma collapse, fungal release, and hematogenous dissemination, resulting in elevated BDG levels. The patient's condition gradually improved over the course of follow-up.


Assuntos
Candidíase Invasiva , beta-Glucanas , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Proteoglicanas
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 309, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, clinical efficacy, and safety of nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multicenter, open-label, blinded outcome assessment, parallel group, investigator-initiated, exploratory, randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients will be enrolled in 10 university and teaching hospitals in Japan. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are as follows: Inclusion criteria: (1) Japanese male or female patients aged ≥ 20 years (2) SARS-CoV-2 detected from a respiratory tract specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal swab or saliva) using PCR, LAMP, or an antigen test within 3 days before obtaining the informed consent (3) Provide informed consent Exclusion criteria: (1) Symptoms developed ≥ 8 days prior to enrolment (2) SpO2 < 96 % (room air) (3) Any of the following screening criteria: a) ALT or AST ≥ 5 × upper limit of the reference range b) Child-Pugh class B or C c) Serum creatinine ≥ 2 × upper limit of the reference range and creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min (4) Poorly controlled diabetes (random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, despite treatment) (5) Unsuitable serious complications based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator (6) Hemophiliac or patients with a marked hemorrhagic tendency (7) Severe diarrhea (8) Hypersensitivity to the investigational drug (9) Breastfeeding or pregnancy (10) With childbearing potential and rejecting contraceptive methods during the study period from the initial administration of the investigational drug (11) Receiving rifampicin within the previous 2 weeks (12) Participated in other clinical trials and received drugs within the previous 12 weeks (13) Undergoing treatment for HIV infection (14) History of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or wishes to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (15) Deemed inappropriate (for miscellaneous reasons) based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients who meet the inclusion criteria and do not meet any of the exclusion criteria will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group. The nelfinavir group will be administered 750 mg of nelfinavir orally, three times daily for 14 days (treatment period). However, if a participant tests negative on two consecutive PCR tests of saliva samples, administration of the investigational drug for that participant can be discontinued at the discretion of the investigators. The symptomatic treatment group will not be administered the investigational drug, but all other study procedures and conditions will be the same for both groups for the duration of the treatment period. After the treatment period of 14 days, each group will be followed up for 14 days (observational period). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2. During the study period from Day 1 to Day 28, two consecutive negative PCR results of saliva samples will be considered as the negative conversion of the virus. The secondary efficacy endpoints are as follows: For patients with both asymptomatic and mild disease: area under the curve of viral load, half decay period of viral load, body temperature at each time point, all-cause mortality, incidence rate of pneumonia, percentage of patients with newly developed pneumonia, rate of oxygen administration, and the percentage of patients who require oxygen administration. For asymptomatic patients: incidence of symptomatic COVID-19, incidence of fever (≥ 37.0 °C for two consecutive days), incidence of cough For patients with mild disease: incidence of defervescence (< 37.0 °C), incidence of recovery from clinical symptoms, incidence of improvement of each symptom The secondary safety endpoints are adverse events and clinical examinations. RANDOMIZATION: Patients will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group using the electric data capture system (1:1 ratio, dynamic allocation based on severity [asymptomatic], and age [< 60 years]). BLINDING (MASKING): Only the assessors of the primary outcome will be blinded (blinded outcome assessment). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was determined based on our power analysis to reject the null hypothesis, S (t | z =1) = S (t | z = 0) where S is a survival function, t is time to negative conversion, and z denotes randomization group, by the log-rank test with a two-sided p value of 0.05. We estimated viral dynamic parameters by fitting a nonlinear mixed-effects model to reported viral load data, and simulated our primary endpoint from viral-load time-courses that were realized from sets of viral dynamics parameters sampled from the estimated probability distribution of the parameters (sample size: 2000; 1000 each for randomization group). From this estimation of the hazard ratio between the randomization groups for the event of negative conversion using this simulation dataset, the required number of events for rejecting our null hypothesis with a power of 0.80 felled 97.345 by plugging the estimated hazard ratio, 1.79, in Freedman's equation. Therefore, we decided the required number of randomizations to be 120 after consideration of the frequency of censoring and the anticipated rate of withdrawal caused by factors such as withdrawal of consent. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 of February 12, 2021. Recruitment started on July 22, 2020 and is anticipated to be completed by March 31, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCT2071200023 ) on 21 July 21, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Nelfinavir/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
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