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1.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357133

RESUMO

MicroRNA and DNA adduct biomarkers may be used to identify the contribution of environmental pollution to some types of cancers. The aim of this study was to use integrated DNA adducts and microRNAs analyses to study retrospectively the contribution of exposures to environmental carcinogens to lung cancer in 64 non-smokers living in Sicily and Catania city near to the Etna volcano. MicroRNAs were extracted from cancer lung biopsies, and from the surrounding lung normal tissue. The expression of 2549 human microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. Benzo(a)Pyrene-DNA adducts levels were analyzed in the patients' blood by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Correlations between tetrols and environmental exposures were calculated using Pearson coefficients and regression variable plots. Compared with the healthy tissue, 273 microRNAs were downregulated in lung cancer. Tetrols levels were inversely related both with the distance from Etna and years since smoking cessation, but they were not significantly correlated to environmental exposures. The analysis of the microRNA environmental signatures indicates the contribution of environmental factors to the analyzed lung cancers in the following decreasing rank: (a) car traffic, (b) passive smoke, (c) radon, and (d) volcano ashes. These results provide evidence that microRNA analysis can be used to retrospectively investigate the contribution of environmental factors in human lung cancer occurring in non-smokers.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360250

RESUMO

This study, conducted in a centralized cytotoxic drug preparation unit, analyzes the effectiveness of two closed system drug transfer devices (CSTDs) in reducing leakage during antineoplastic drug compounding. Wipe/pad samplings inside and outside the preparation area were taken during surveillance programs from 2016 to 2021. All samples were analyzed for gemcitabine (GEM) contamination. In 2016, the presence of GEM in some samples and the contamination of the operators' gloves in the absence of apparent drug spilling suggested unsealed preparation systems. In subsequent monitoring, GEM was also evaluated in the vial access device and in the access port system to the intravenous therapy bag of TexiumTM/SmartSiteTM and Equashield® II devices after the reconstitution and preparation steps of the drug. The next checks highlighted GEM dispersion after compounding using TexiumTM/SmartSiteTM, with positive samples ranging from 9 to 23%. In contrast, gemcitabine was not present at detectable levels in the Equashield® II system in all of the evaluated samples. The Equashield® II closed system seems effectively able to eliminate spills and leakage during gemcitabine compounding. Since drugs with different viscosities can have different effects on CSTDs, Equashield® II needs to be considered with other antineoplastic drugs during a structured surveillance program.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Exposição Ocupacional , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antineoplásicos/análise , Composição de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Equipamentos de Proteção
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(17): e2100629, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236760

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are potential candidates for lung cancer prevention and therapy. A major limitation is the lack of an efficient delivery system to directly deliver miRNA to cancer cells while limiting systemic exposure. The delivery of miRNA via inhalation is a potential strategy for lung cancer prevention in high-risk individuals. In this study, the authors investigate the efficacy of aerosolized let-7b miRNA treatment in lung cancer prevention. Let-7b shows significant inhibition of B[a]P-induced lung adenoma with no detectable side effects. Single-cell RNA sequencing of tumor-infiltrating T cells from primary tumors reveals that Let-7b post-transcriptionally suppresses PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting that let-7b miRNAs may promote antitumor immunity in vivo. Let-7b treatment decreases the expression of PD-1 in CD8+ T cells and reduces PD-L1 expression in lung tumor cells. The results suggest that this aerosolized let-7b mimic is a promising approach for lung cancer prevention, and that the in vivo tumor inhibitory effects of let-7b are mediated, at least in part, by immune-promoting effects via downregulating PD-L1 in tumors and/or PD-1 on CD8+ T cells. These changes potentiate antitumor CD8+ T cell immune responses, and ultimately lead to tumor inhibition.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In space, the reduction or loss of the gravity vector greatly affects the interaction between cells. Since the beginning of the space age, microgravity has been identified as an informative tool in biomedicine, including cancer research. The A549 cell line is a hypotriploid human alveolar basal epithelial cell line widely used as a model for lung adenocarcinoma. Microgravity has been reported to interfere with mitochondrial activity, energy metabolism, cell vitality and proliferation, chemosensitivity, invasion and morphology of cells and organelles in various biological systems. Concerning lung cancer, several studies have reported the ability of microgravity to modulate the carcinogenic and metastatic process. To investigate these processes, A549 cells were exposed to simulated microgravity (µG) for different time points. METHODS: We performed cell cycle and proliferation assays, ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria architecture, as well as a global analysis of miRNA modulated under µG conditions. RESULTS: The exposure of A549 cells to microgravity is accompanied by the generation of polynucleated cells, cell cycle imbalance, growth inhibition, and gross morphological abnormalities, the most evident are highly damaged mitochondria. Global miRNA analysis defined a pool of miRNAs associated with µG solicitation mainly involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and stress response. To our knowledge, this is the first global miRNA analysis of A549 exposed to microgravity reported. Despite these results, it is not possible to draw any conclusion concerning the ability of µG to interfere with the cancerogenic or the metastatic processes in A549 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that mitochondria are strongly sensitive to µG. We suggest that mitochondria damage might in turn trigger miRNA modulation related to cell cycle imbalance.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel are frequently exposed to environmental pollutants that can cause a variety of diseases. METHODS: This review analyzed publications regarding epidemiological and biomonitoring studies on occupationally-exposed military personnel. RESULTS: The exposures include sulfur mustard, organ chlorines, combustion products, fuel vapors, and ionizing and exciting radiations. Important factors to be considered are the lengths and intensities of exposures, its proximity to the sources of environmental pollutants, as well as confounding factors (cigarette smoke, diet, photo-type, healthy warrior effect, etc.). Assessment of environmental and individual exposures to pollutants is crucial, although often omitted, because soldiers have often been evaluated based on reported health problems rather than on excessive exposure to pollutants. Biomarkers of exposures and effects are tools to explore relationships between exposures and diseases in military personnel. Another observation from this review is a major problem from the lack of suitable control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that only studies which analyzed epidemiological and molecular biomarkers in both exposed and control groups would provide evidence-based conclusions on exposure and disease risk in military personnel.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fumaça
6.
Microrna ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchial Asthma (BA) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are chronic airway inflammation diseases. In recent years, patients with signs of both BA and COPD have been assigned to a separate group as Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS). Free-circulating plasma microRNAs are considered as potential biomarkers of pulmonary diseases, including BA, COPD and ACOS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression level of free-circulating plasma microRNAs hsa-miR-19b-3p, hsa-miR-125b-5p and hsa-miR-320c in patients with BA, COPD and ACOS for the detection and validation of new microRNAs as biomarkers for chronic lung diseases. METHODS: The relative expression levels of 720 microRNAs were evaluated by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in patients with COPD and BA. Three upregulated microRNAs (hsa-miR-19b-3p, hsa-miR-125b-5p and hsa-miR-320c) were selected for further study. The obtained data was analyzed using the microRNA PCR Array Data Analysis tool. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (ROC). RESULTS: The expression level of free-circulating hsa-miR-19b-3p was decreased in the blood plasma of patients with BA and ACOS, and increased in patients with COPD. hsa-miR-125b-5p was downregulated in the blood plasma of patients with COPD, and upregulated in patients with BA and ACOS. hsa-miR-320c was downregulated in the blood plasma of patients with BA, and upregulated in patients with COPD and ACOS. The ROC curves of patients with BA for hsa-miR-19b-3p, patients with ACOS for hsa-miR-125b-5p and patients with COPD for hsa-miR-320c revealed the probability of them as valuable biomarkers with AUCs of 0.824, 0.825, and 0.855, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed three promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of COPD, BA and ACOS.

7.
Microrna ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970853

RESUMO

Specific microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been reported to be predictive of specific clinical outcomes of dental implants and might be used as biomarkers in implant dentistry with diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The aim of the present narrative review was to summarize current knowledge regarding the use of miRNAs in implant dentistry. The authors attempted to identify all available evidence on the topic and critically appraise it in order to lay the foundation for the development of further research oriented towards the clinical application of miRNAs in implant dentistry.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807865

RESUMO

Oncogene mutations may be drivers of the carcinogenesis process. MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations may be adaptive or pathogenic and can have consequences only when mutation in the controlled oncogenes occurs. The aim of this research was to analyze the interplay between miRNA expression and oncogene mutation. A total of 2549 miRNAs were analyzed in cancer tissue-in surrounding normal lung tissue collected from 64 non-smoking patients and in blood plasma. Mutations in 92 hotspots of 22 oncogenes were tested in the lung cancer tissue. MicroRNA alterations were related to the mutations occurring in cancer patients. Conversely, the frequency of mutation occurrence was variable and spanned from the k-ras and p53 mutation detected in 30% of patients to 20% of patients in which no mutation was detected. The prediction of survival at a 3-year follow up did not occur for mutation analysis but was, conversely, well evident for miRNA analysis highlighting a pattern of miRNA distinguishing between survivors and death in patients 3 years before this clinical onset. A signature of six lung cancer specific miRNAs occurring both in the lungs and blood was identified. The obtained results provide evidence that the analysis of both miRNA and oncogene mutations was more informative than the oncogene mutation analysis currently performed in clinical practice.

9.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the human population; therefore, multiple prevention and intervention protocols are being rapidly developed. The aim of our study was to develop a new chemo-prophylactic/-therapeutic strategy that effectively prevents COVID-19 and related complications. METHODS: In in vitro studies, COVID-19 infection-sensitive cells were incubated with human oropharyngeal fluids containing high SARS-CoV-2 loads. Levels of infection were determined via intra-cellular virus loads using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Efficacies for infection prevention were determined using several antiviral treatments: lipid-encapsulated ozonized oil (HOO), water-soluble HOO (HOOws), UV, and hydrogen peroxide. In in vivo studies, safety and efficacy of HOO in fighting COVID-19 infection was evaluated in human subjects. RESULTS: HOO in combination with HOOws was the only treatment able to fully neutralize SARS-CoV-2 as well as its capacity to penetrate and reproduce inside sensitive cells. Accordingly, the feasibility of using HOO/HOOws was tested in vivo. Analysis of expired gas in healthy subjects indicates that HOO administration increases oxygen availability in the lung. For our human studies, HOO/HOOws was administered to 52 cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects at high risk for COVID-19 infection, and all of them showed clinical safety. None of them developed COVID-19 infection, although an incidence of at least 11 cases was expected. Efficacy of HOO/HOOws was tested in four COVID-19 patients obtaining recovery and qPCR negativization in less than 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience, the HOO/HOOws treatment can be administered at standard doses (three pills per day) for chemo-prophylactic purposes to healthy subjects for COVID-19 prevention and at high doses (up to eight pills per day) for therapeutic purposes to infected patients. This combined prevention strategy can provide a novel protocol to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806848

RESUMO

The awareness of citizens concerning the health risks caused by environmental pollution is growing, but studies on determinants of pro-environmental behaviors have rarely examined health-related aspects. In this study, we investigated these determinants using data from a large survey among Italian university students (15 Universities: 4778 filled questionnaires). Besides the health-related aspects, represented by environmental health risk perception and functional health literacy, we considered social and demographic characteristics (gender, area of residence, sources of information, trust in institutional and non-institutional subjects, and students' capacity of positive actions, indicated as internal locus of control). The attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors were positive for more than 70% of students and positively related with health risk perception, internal locus of control, and health literacy. The correspondence between the positive attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors and the real adoption of such behaviors was approximately 20% for most behaviors, except for the separate collection of waste (60%). Such a discrepancy can be attributable to external obstacles (i.e., lack of time, costs, lack of support). The health-related aspects were linked to the pro-environmental attitudes, but to a lesser extent to pro-environmental behaviors, owing to the complexity of their determinants. However, they should be taken in account in planning education interventions.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Atitude , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Pers Med ; 11(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669364

RESUMO

The development of high-throughput omics technologies represents an unmissable opportunity for evidence-based prevention of adverse effects on human health. However, the applicability and access to multi-omics tests are limited. In Italy, this is due to the rapid increase of knowledge and the high levels of skill and economic investment initially necessary. The fields of human genetics and public health have highlighted the relevance of an implementation strategy at a national level in Italy, including integration in sanitary regulations and governance instruments. In this review, the emerging field of public health genomics is discussed, including the polygenic scores approach, epigenetic modulation, nutrigenomics, and microbiomes implications. Moreover, the Italian state of implementation is presented. The omics sciences have important implications for the prevention of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, especially because they can be used to assess the health status during the whole course of life. An effective population health gain is possible if omics tools are implemented for each person after a preliminary assessment of effectiveness in the medium to long term.

12.
Microrna ; 9(5): 322-335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297928

RESUMO

The chemoresistance of cancer cells is a multifactorial mechanism in which de-regulated apoptotic pathways, the oxidative response and cancer cell migration play a crucial role. A key player in the control of such pathways is the tumor suppressor gene TP53, also defined as the "guardian of the genome", encoding the P53 tetrameric transcription factor. P53, following cell injuries, can activate the transcription of several target genes crucial for the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, modulation of senescence, DNA repair, autophagy and metabolism. Importantly, TP53 gene is mutated in nearly 50% of human cancers, implying an altered expression of target genes in cancer cells. The presence of TP53 mutations can also affect the expression of several small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs or miRNAs) involved in the same regulation of the apoptotic signaling, cell cycle regulation and cell migration. In mutant P53 expressing tumors, some miRNAs resulted in being down-regulated, while others appeared to be up-regulated as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Thus, the expression level of specific P53 responsive miRNAs could be used as a marker of cancer progression and therapy performance. In the present review, we will summarize the role of P53-related miRNAs and their clinical relevance in monitoring therapy outcome and progression of cancers with mutant P53.

13.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res ; 786: 108323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339584

RESUMO

Neurodegeneration can be defined as progressive cell damage to nervous system cells, and more specifically to neurons, which involves morphologic alterations and progressive loss of function until cell death. Glaucoma exhibits many aspects of neurodegenerative disease. This review examines the pathogenesis of glaucoma, comparing it with that of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), highlighting their common features. Indeed, in all three diseases there are not only the same types of pathogenic events, but also similarities of temporal cadences that determine neuronal damage. All three age-related illnesses have oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction as the first pathogenic steps. The consequence of these alterations is the death of visual neurons in glaucoma, cognitive neurons in AD and regulatory motor neurons (substantia nigra) in PD. The study of these common pathogenic events (oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein degradation, apoptosis and autophagy) leads us to consider common therapeutic strategies for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. Also, examination of the genetic aspects of the pathways involved in neurodegenerative processes plays a key role in shedding light on the details of pathogenesis and can suggest new treatments. This review discusses the common molecular aspects involved in these three oxidative-stress and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Glaucoma/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Fatores Etários , Apoptose , Autofagia , Encéfalo/patologia , Morte Celular , Humanos , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172106

RESUMO

Polyphenols, with anti-oxidant properties, counteract oxidative stress effects. Increasing evidence has found oxidative stressto be the main risk factor for trabecular meshwork (TM) damage, leading to high-tension glaucoma. Topical anti-oxidants could represent a new target for glaucoma treatment. Our aim is to investigate the protective mechanisms on a human TM culture of a patented polyphenol and fatty acid (iTRAB®)formulation in response to oxidative stress using an advanced invitromodel consisting of 3D-human TM cells, embedded in a natural hydrogel, and a milli-scaled multi-organ device model for constantdynamic conditions. The 3D-human TM cells(3D-HTMCs) were treated daily with 500 µM H2O2or 500 µM H2O2and 0.15% iTRAB®(m/v) for 72 h, and molecular differences in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), state of the cells, activation of the apoptosis pathway and NF-kB and the expression ofinflammatory and fibrotic markers wereanalyzed at different time-points.Concomitant exposure significantly reduced iROS and restored TM viability, iTRAB® having a significant inhibitory effect on the apoptotic pathway, activation of NF-κB, induction of pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1ß and TNFα) and pro-fibrotic (TGFß) cytokines and the matrix metalloproteinase expressions. It is clear that this specific anti-oxidant provides a valid TM protection, suggesting iTRAB® could be an adjuvant therapy in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).

15.
Prog Brain Res ; 256(1): 151-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958211

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss. Although significant advances in ophthalmologic knowledge and practice have been made, some glaucoma mechanisms are not yet understood, therefore, up to now there is no effective treatment able to ensure healing. Indeed, either pharmacological or surgical approaches to this disease aim in lowering intraocular pressure, which is considered the only modifiable risk factor. However, it is well known that several factors and metabolites are equally (if not more) involved in glaucoma. Oxidative stress, for instance, plays a pivotal role in both glaucoma onset and progression because it is responsible for the trabecular meshwork cell damage and, consequently, for intraocular pressure increase as well as for glaucomatous damage cascade. This review at first shows accurately the molecular-derived dysfunctions in antioxidant system and in mitochondria homeostasis which due to both oxidative stress and aging, lead to a chronic inflammation state, the trabecular meshwork damage as well as the glaucoma neurodegeneration. Therefore, the main molecular events triggered by oxidative stress up to the proapoptotic signals that promote the ganglion cell death have been highlighted. The second part of this review, instead, describes some of neuroprotective agents such as polyphenols or polyunsaturated fatty acids as possible therapeutic source against the propagation of glaucomatous damage.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992730

RESUMO

The exposure of living organisms to environmental stress triggers defensive responses resulting in the activation of protective processes. Whenever the exposure occurs at low doses, defensive effects overwhelm the adverse effects of the exposure; this adaptive situation is referred to as "hormesis". Environmental, physical, and nutritional hormetins lead to the stimulation and strengthening of the maintenance and repair systems in cells and tissues. Exercise, heat, and irradiation are examples of physical hormetins, which activate heat shock-, DNA repair-, and anti-oxidative-stress responses. The health promoting effect of many bio-actives in fruits and vegetables can be seen as the effect of mildly toxic compounds triggering this adaptive stimulus. Numerous studies indicate that living organisms possess the ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions, as exemplified by the fact that DNA damage and gene expression profiling in populations living in the environment with high levels of air pollution do not correspond to the concentrations of pollutants. The molecular mechanisms of the hormetic response include modulation of (a) transcription factor Nrf2 activating the synthesis of glutathione and the subsequent protection of the cell; (b) DNA methylation; and (c) microRNA. These findings provide evidence that hormesis is a toxicological event, occurring at low exposure doses to environmental stressors, having the benefit for the maintenance of a healthy status.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Epigênese Genética , Hormese , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580435

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer patients' responses to neoadjuvant therapy undergo broad inter-individual variations. The aim of this systematic review is to identify a molecular signature that is predictive of colon cancer downstaging and/or downgrading after neoadjuvant therapy. Among the hundreds analysed in the available studies, only 19 messenger-RNAs (mRNAs) and six micro-RNAs (miRNAs) were differentially expressed in responders versus non-responders in two or more independent studies. Therefore, a mRNA/miRNA signature can be designed accordingly, with limitations caused by the retrospective nature of these studies, the heterogeneity in study designs and the downgrading/downstaging assessment criteria. This signature can be proposed to tailor neoadjuvant therapy regimens on an individual basis.

18.
Oncotarget ; 11(22): 2106-2119, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547708

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies provide evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of cancer, particularly of breast cancer. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms as related to microRNAs. The goal of the herein presented study is to explore the involvement of miRNAs in beneficial effects exerted by physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Thirty subjects (mean age: 57.1 ± 14.7 years) underwent 45 minutes of treadmill walking under standardized conditions. The levels of extracellular miRNAs were evaluated in blood plasma before and after structured exercise by means of microarray analysis of 1,900 miRNAs identifying mostly modulated miRNAs. Structured exercise has been found to modulate the expression of 14 miRNAs involved in pathways relevant to cancer. The different expression of two miRNAs involved in breast cancer progression, i. e. up-regulation of miR-206 and down-regulation of anti-miR-30c, were the most striking effects induced by exercise. The biological effects of these miRNAs were investigated in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. miR-206 transfection and anti-miR-30c silencing, inhibited cell growth and increased apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the combined use of the two miRNAs further enhanced apoptosis and induced growth arrest in the G1/S phase of cell cycle. Our results support that physical activity effectively change the expression of extracellular miRNAs. Specifically, miR-206 up-regulation and anti-miR-30c down-regulation act as suppressors in breast cancer cells. The evaluation of these miRNAs in blood can be used as non-invasive biomarkers for breast cancer prevention.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8581, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444646

RESUMO

Inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause lung and pleural diseases in humans and constitutes a severe public health threat worldwide. The aim of the present study was to assess the biological effects induced in both pulmonary cells (A549) and monocyte/macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell lines by combustion slags obtained from asbestos through a self-sustained high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction. The SHS reaction involves rapid thermal treatment and displays great ability to neutralise asbestos. Cytotoxicity, redox status imbalance, lipid peroxide production, DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and chromosomal aberrations (cytokinesis block micronucleus test) were evaluated in cells exposed either to untreated asbestos fibres or to grinded SHS-generated slags of different granulometry, tested in cultured cells at varying doses and for varying exposure times. Our results show that asbestos fibres cause redox status imbalance, especially in monocyte/macrophage cell lines. Moreover, they promote lipid peroxidation and trigger genomic alterations. When the cells were exposed to slag powders, which are the products of SHS asbestos treatment, generation of lipid peroxides and induction of DNA strand breaks still persisted, due to the high content in iron and other metals detected in these samples. However, there was an attenuation of redox status imbalance and an absence of chromosomal aberrations, which probably reflects the loss of the asbestos fibrous structure following SHS reaction, as demonstrated by electron microscopy analyses. In conclusions, SHS-treated asbestos wastes can potentially have deleterious health effects due to the oxidative stress induced by inhaled powders but they loose the asbestos ability to induce chromosomal alterations.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245099

RESUMO

Radon is the number one cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. microRNA expression in human bronchial epithelium cells is altered by radon, with particular reference to upregulation of miR-16, miR-15, miR-23, miR-19, miR-125, and downregulation of let-7, miR-194, miR-373, miR-124, miR-146, miR-369, and miR-652. These alterations alter cell cycle, oxidative stress, inflammation, oncogene suppression, and malignant transformation. Also DNA methylation is altered as a consequence of miR-29 modification induced by radon. Indeed miR-29 targets DNA methyltransferases causing inhibition of CpG sites methylation. Massive microRNA dysregulation occurs in the lung due to radon expose and is functionally related with the resulting lung damage. However, in humans this massive lung microRNA alterations only barely reflect onto blood microRNAs. Indeed, blood miR-19 was not found altered in radon-exposed subjects. Thus, microRNAs are massively dysregulated in experimental models of radon lung carcinogenesis. In humans these events are initially adaptive being aimed at inhibiting neoplastic transformation. Only in case of long-term exposure to radon, microRNA alterations lead towards cancer development. Accordingly, it is difficult in human to establish a microRNA signature reflecting radon exposure. Additional studies are required to understand the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of radon-induced lung cancer.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Radônio/metabolismo , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos
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