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1.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51937

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Mexico’s 2018 Report Card evaluates the opportunities available for Mexican children and youth to reach healthy levels of physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior. Methods. The Report Card is a surveillance system that gathers data from national surveys, censuses, government documents, websites, grey literature, and published studies to evaluate 16 indicators in four categories: Daily Behaviors; Physical Fitness; Settings and Sources of Influence; and Strategies and Investments. Data were compared to established benchmarks. Each indicator was assigned a grade from 1 – 10 (< 6 is a failing grade) or “incomplete” if data was insufficient/unavailable. Results. Daily Behavior grades were: Overall Physical Activity, 4; Organized Sport Participation, 5; Active Play, 3; Active Transportation, 5; Sleep, 7; and Sedentary Behavior, 3. Physical Fitness, received a 7. Settings and Sources of Influence grades were: Family and Peers, incomplete; School, 3; and Community and Environment, 4. Strategies and Investments were: Government Strategies, 6; and Non-Government Organizations, 2. Conclusion. Low grades in 11 of the 16 indicators indicate that schools, families, communities, and government need to work together to improve physical activity opportunities for children and youth in Mexico.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El boletín de notas de México correspondiente al 2018 evalúa las oportunidades a disposición de la población infantil y joven mexicana para que puedan desarrollar niveles adecuados de actividad física y sueño, y disminuyan el sedentarismo. Métodos. El boletín es un sistema de vigilancia que recopila los datos obtenidos en las encuestas nacionales, censos, documentos gubernamentales, sitios web, literatura gris y estudios publicados con respecto al análisis de 16 indicadores en 4 categorías: comportamientos diarios, estado físico, entornos y fuentes influyentes, y estrategias e inversión. Los datos fueron cotejados con los puntos de referencia establecidos. A cada indicador se le asignó una calificación entre 1 y 10 (< 6 significa reprobado) o fue marcado como “incompleto” si los datos eran nulos o insuficientes. Resultados. Las calificaciones obtenidas para los comportamientos diarios fueron: actividad física en general: 4; participación en actividades deportivas organizadas: 5; juego activo: 3; modalidades de transporte activas: 5; sueño: 7; y sedentarismo: 3. El estado físico obtuvo un 7. Las calificaciones para los entornos y fuentes influyentes fueron: familiares y pares: “incompleto”; escuela: 3; comunidad y entorno: 4. Para las estrategias e inversión: estrategias gubernamentales: 6; entidades no gubernamentales: 2. Conclusiones. Las bajas calificaciones obtenidas en 11 de los 16 indicadores demuestran que las escuelas, las familias, las comunidades y el gobierno tienen que aunar esfuerzos para mejorar las oportunidades que tiene la población infantil y joven en México para desarrollar niveles de actividad física satisfactorios.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. O Report Card de 2018 para o México avalia as oportunidades disponíveis para que crianças e jovens mexicanos atinjam níveis adequados de atividade física, sono e comportamento sedentário. Métodos. O Report Card é um sistema de vigilância que reúne dados de pesquisas nacionais, censos, documentos governamentais, websites, literatura cinzenta e estudos publicados para avaliar 16 indicadores em quatro categorias: Comportamentos Diários, Forma Física, Ambientes e Influências, e Estratégias e Investimentos. Os dados foram comparados com indicadores de referência estabelecidos. A cada indicador foi atribuída uma pontuação de 1 a 10 (pontuações abaixo de 6 indicam reprovação) ou "incompleta" se os dados fossem insuficientes/indisponíveis. Resultados. As pontuações para o Comportamento Diário foram as seguintes: atividade física geral: 4; participação em esportes organizados: 5; brincadeiras ativas: 3; transporte ativo: 5; sono: 7; comportamento sedentário: 3. A pontuação para a Forma Física foi de 7. As pontuações para Ambientes e Influências foram: família e amigos, incompleta; escola: 3; comunidade e ambiente: 4. As pontuações para Estratégias e Investimentos foram: estratégias governamentais: 6; organizações não-governamentais: 2. Conclusão. As pontuações baixas em 11 dos 16 indicadores indicam que as escolas, famílias, comunidades e o governo precisam trabalhar juntos para oferecer mais oportunidades de atividade física às crianças e jovens no México.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde
2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies assessing impact of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on mortality have shown conflicting results. We sought to assess the independent association of ARDS with in-hospital mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis. METHODS: We studied two prospective sepsis cohorts drawn from the Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury (EARLI; n = 474) and Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID; n = 337) cohorts. ARDS was defined by Berlin criteria. We used logistic regression to compare in-hospital mortality in patients with and without ARDS, controlling for baseline severity of illness. We also estimated attributable mortality, adjusted for illness severity by stratification. RESULTS: ARDS occurred in 195 EARLI patients (41%) and 99 VALID patients (29%). ARDS was independently associated with risk of hospital death in multivariate analysis, even after controlling for severity of illness, as measured by APACHE II (odds ratio [OR] 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.67), p = 0.04 in EARLI; OR 2.12 (CI 1.16, 3.92), p = 0.02 in VALID). Patients with severe ARDS (P/F < 100) primarily drove this relationship. The attributable mortality of ARDS was 27% (CI 14%, 37%) in EARLI and 37% (CI 10%, 51%) in VALID. ARDS was independently associated with ICU mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, and ventilator-free days. CONCLUSIONS: Development of ARDS among ICU patients with sepsis confers increased risk of ICU and in-hospital mortality in addition to other important outcomes. Clinical trials targeting patients with severe ARDS will be best poised to detect measurable differences in these outcomes.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032390

RESUMO

Latin Americans engage in physical activity (PA) in unique ways and use a wider range of places for PA than those commonly studied in high-income settings. We examined the contribution of a variety of places and domains of PA to meeting PA recommendations among a sample of adults (18-65 y) from all over Mexico. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 (n = 3 686). Overall and domain-specific PA was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Use of places for PA was self-reported. Places were classified as private or public. In 2018, associations between specific places and meeting PA recommendations (≥150 mins/week) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. In total 72.1% met PA recommendations. The proportion meeting recommendations through domain-specific PA was highest for leisure-time PA (50.0%), followed by travel-related (39.1%) and work-related (24.9%) PA. The most commonly reported places for PA were home (43%), parks (40.7%) and streets (39.4%) (public). Use of most public places was positively associated with meeting PA recommendations, mainly through travel-related PA (Streets OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.71-2.45]; Cycling paths OR 1.91 [1.37-2.68]). Using private places was more strongly associated with PA, mainly leisure-time PA (Gyms OR 9.66 [7.34-12.70]); Sports facilities OR 5.03 [3.27-7.74]). In conclusion, public and private places were important contributors to PA. While public places may be a powerful setting for PA promotion, increasing the equitable access for all to private places may also represent an effective strategy to increase PA among Mexican adults.

4.
Clin Obes ; 10(1): e12346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696670

RESUMO

We examined the independent associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) with cardiometabolic indicators in Mexican children (4-6 years of age). We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 400) using the measures of MVPA and ST (7-day accelerometry) and the following indicators: % body fat, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, glycated haemoglobin, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and resting blood pressure. We examined the independent associations of MVPA and ST with cardiometabolic indicators through confounder-adjusted and mutually adjusted (including both MVPA and ST) linear regression models. Confounder-adjusted models showed that MVPA was associated with higher BMI z-scores and lower adiponectin levels in girls and lower body fat among boys. ST was associated with higher body fat, in the full sample, and lower LDL cholesterol among boys. After mutually adjusting for MVPA and ST, MVPA (10-minute increase) remained significantly associated with BMI z-score in girls (ß = 0.187, 95% CI: 0.019, 0.356) and ST (60-minute increase) remained significantly associated with higher body fat (ß = 1.11%, 95% CI: 0.019, 2.203) among boys and higher glycated haemoglobin (ß = 0.047% points, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.094) in the full sample. In preschool-aged children, the objective measures of ST and MVPA were associated with small differences in cardiometabolic health indicators. ST was unfavourably associated with some cardiometabolic indicators even after adjusting for MVPA, and thus appeared to have a more significant role than MVPA, especially in boys. Future longitudinal studies should confirm these results.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619475

RESUMO

Shorter peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length (TL) has been associated with poor outcomes in various chronic lung diseases. Whether PBL-TL is associated with survival from critical illness was tested in this study.We analysed data from a prospective observational cohort study of 937 critically ill patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). PBL-TL was measured using quantitative PCR of DNA isolated from PBLs. Findings were validated in an independent cohort of 394 critically ill patients with sepsis admitted to the University of California San Francisco (UCSF).In the VUMC cohort, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.004); in subgroup analyses, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival for patients with sepsis (aHR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.001), but not trauma. Although not associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), among ARDS subjects, shorter PBL-TL was associated with more severe ARDS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.006). The associations of PBL-TL with survival (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.003) and risk for developing severe ARDS (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-6.3 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.044) were validated in the UCSF cohort.Short PBL-TL is strongly associated with worse survival and more severe ARDS in critically ill patients, especially patients with sepsis. These findings suggest that telomere dysfunction may contribute to outcomes from critical illness.

6.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 400, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enrichment strategies improve therapeutic targeting and trial efficiency, but enrichment factors for sepsis trials are lacking. We determined whether concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1), interleukin-8 (IL8), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) could identify sepsis patients at higher mortality risk and serve as prognostic enrichment factors. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective cohort study of 400 critically ill septic patients, we derived and validated thresholds for each marker and expressed prognostic enrichment using risk differences (RD) of 30-day mortality as predictive values. We then used decision curve analysis to simulate the prognostic enrichment of each marker and compare different prognostic enrichment strategies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An admission sTNFR1 concentration > 8861 pg/ml identified patients with increased mortality in both the derivation (RD 21.6%) and validation (RD 17.8%) populations. Among immunocompetent patients, an IL8 concentration > 94 pg/ml identified patients with increased mortality in both the derivation (RD 17.7%) and validation (RD 27.0%) populations. An Ang2 level > 9761 pg/ml identified patients at 21.3% and 12.3% increased risk of mortality in the derivation and validation populations, respectively. Using sTNFR1 or IL8 to select high-risk patients improved clinical trial power and efficiency compared to selecting patients with septic shock. Ang2 did not outperform septic shock as an enrichment factor. CONCLUSIONS: Thresholds for sTNFR1 and IL8 consistently identified sepsis patients with higher mortality risk and may have utility for prognostic enrichment in sepsis trials.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225268, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738782

RESUMO

Front-of-pack labeling is a cost-effective strategy to decrease population consumption of sodium, sugar, saturated fat, total fat, and trans-fatty acids, considered critical nutrients for chronic disease. Our main objective was to explore the subjective understanding of labels that are currently used internationally among low- and middle-income Mexican consumers. We performed two phases of 10 focus groups with adolescents (13-15 y), young adults (21-23 y), mothers of children 3-12 y, fathers of children 3-12 y and older adults (55-70 y). Seven FOPL were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts, Multiple Traffic Light, Chilean Warning labels, Warning labels in Red, 5-Color Nutrition Label, Health Star Rating, and Healthy Choice label. Data was analyzed with a triangulation of researchers using a content analysis, based on three codes: 1) awareness and use of the Guideline Daily Amounts, 2) acceptability, and 3) subjective understanding of labels. Most participants were aware of the Guideline Daily Amounts, however they rarely used it because interpreting the information displayed on the label was too complicated. Health Star Rating, Warning labels, Multiple Traffic Light and the Healthy Choice logo labels were the most understandable, however the acceptability of the The Healthy Choice logo decreased as it did not provide information on specific ingredients. The Warning labels was the only label able to warn about critical nutrients that could represent a health risk. The Warning labels in red was more accepted compared to Warning labels in black. Results show that directive and semi-directive labels, such as Warning labels, Health Star Rating or Multiple Traffic Light, may be better at helping population of low- and middle income make healthier food choices, than non-directive FOPL such as the Guideline Daily Amounts implemented in México. The study results highlight the potential of Warning labels to support decreases in the consumption of critical ingredients in low- and middle-income Mexican consumers.

9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 87, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic diseases could be prevented through improved diet. Most governments require at least one type of food labeling system on packaged foods to communicate nutrition information and promote healthy eating. This study evaluated adult consumer understanding and use of nutrition labeling systems in the US and Mexico, the most obese countries in the world. METHODS: Adults from online consumer panels in the US (Whites n = 2959; Latinos n = 667) and in Mexico (n = 3533) were shown five food labeling systems: 1. Nutrition Facts Table (NFT) that shows nutrients of concern per serving; 2. Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA) that shows levels of nutrients of concern; 3. Multiple Traffic-Light (MTL) that color codes each GDA nutrient (green = healthy; yellow = moderately unhealthy; red = unhealthy); 4. Health Star Rating System (HSR) that rates foods on a single dimension of healthiness; 5. Warning Label (WL) with a stop sign for nutrients present in unhealthy levels. Participants rated each label on understanding ("easy"/"very easy to understand" vs "difficult"/"very difficult to understand"), and, for NFTs and GDAs, frequency of use ("sometimes"/"often" vs "never"). Mixed logistic models regressed understanding and frequency of use on indicators of labeling systems (NFT = ref), testing for interactions by ethnicity (US Latinos, US Whites, Mexicans), while controlling for sociodemographic and obesity-related factors. RESULTS: Compared to the NFT, participants reported greater understanding of the WL (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 4.4-5.3) and lower understanding of the HSR (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.31-0.37) and the MTL (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.52-0.61), with similar patterns across ethnic subgroups. Participants used GDAs less often than NFTs (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.41-0.55), with the greatest difference among US Whites (OR = 0.10; 95%CI = 0.07-0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and use of the GDA was similar to that of the NFT. Whites, Latinos, and Mexicans consistently reported the best understanding for WLs, a FOPL that highlights unhealthfulness of a product. Therefore, a FOPL summary indicator, such as WLs, may be more effective in both the US and Mexico for guiding consumers towards informed food choices.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Hispano-Americanos , Política Nutricional , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
10.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 316(3): L578-L584, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652494

RESUMO

Accurate and informative microbiological testing is essential for guiding diagnosis and management of pneumonia in patients who are critically ill. Sampling of tracheal aspirate (TA) is less invasive compared with mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) and is now recommended as a frontline diagnostic approach in patients who are mechanically ventilated, despite the historical belief that TA was suboptimal due to contamination from oral microbes. Advancements in metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) now permit assessment of airway microbiota without a need for culture and, as such, provide an opportunity to examine differences between mBAL and TA at a resolution previously unachievable. Here, we engaged shotgun mNGS to assess quantitatively the airway microbiome in matched mBAL and TA specimens from a prospective cohort of critically ill adults. We observed moderate differences between sample types across all subjects; however, we found significant compositional similarity in subjects with bacterial pneumonia, whose microbial communities were characterized by dominant pathogens. In contrast, in patients with noninfectious acute respiratory illnesses, significant differences were observed between sample types. Our findings suggest that TA sampling provides a similar assessment of airway microbiota as more invasive testing by mBAL in patients with pneumonia.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto , Idoso , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1751, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Front-of-package labelling is a cost-effective strategy to help consumers make healthier choices and informed food purchases. The effect of labels is mediated by consumer understanding and acceptability of the label. We compared the acceptability and understanding of labels used in Latin-America among low- and middle-income Mexican adults. METHODS: Participants (n = 2105) were randomly assigned to one of three labels: Mexican Guideline Daily Allowances (GDA), Ecuador's Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), or Chile's Warning Labels (WL) in red. Label acceptability was evaluated through items regarding likeability, attractiveness and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was evaluated by asking participants to select the product with the lowest nutritional quality among three products. We measured the time participants took to choose the product. Differences in label acceptability, understanding and time required to choose a product across labels were tested. RESULTS: Compared to the GDA, a higher proportion of participants liked the MTL and WL, considered them attractive, and with a lower perceived cognitive workload (p < 0.05). Participants had 4.00 (2.86-5.59) times the odds of correctly identifying the product with the lowest nutritional quality when using the MTL label and 4.52 (3.24-6.29) times the odds when using the WL, in comparison to the GDA. Time required to choose the product was lower for the MTL (Median: 11.25 s; IQR = 8.00-16.09) and the WL (Median = 11.94 s, IQR = 8.56-16.52) compared to the GDA (Median: 15.31 s; IQR = 10.81-20.21; p < 0.05). No differences were observed between the MTL and the WL. CONCLUSIONS: GDA had the lowest acceptability and understanding among the labels tested. The MTL and the WL were more accepted and understood, and allowed low- and middle-income consumers to make nutrition-quality related decisions more quickly. WL or MTL may foster healthier food choices in the most vulnerable groups in Mexico compared to the current labelling format.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Status Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(52): E12353-E12362, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482864

RESUMO

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) lead to more deaths each year than any other infectious disease category. Despite this, etiologic LRTI pathogens are infrequently identified due to limitations of existing microbiologic tests. In critically ill patients, noninfectious inflammatory syndromes resembling LRTIs further complicate diagnosis. To address the need for improved LRTI diagnostics, we performed metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) on tracheal aspirates from 92 adults with acute respiratory failure and simultaneously assessed pathogens, the airway microbiome, and the host transcriptome. To differentiate pathogens from respiratory commensals, we developed a rules-based model (RBM) and logistic regression model (LRM) in a derivation cohort of 20 patients with LRTIs or noninfectious acute respiratory illnesses. When tested in an independent validation cohort of 24 patients, both models achieved accuracies of 95.5%. We next developed pathogen, microbiome diversity, and host gene expression metrics to identify LRTI-positive patients and differentiate them from critically ill controls with noninfectious acute respiratory illnesses. When tested in the validation cohort, the pathogen metric performed with an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.86-1.00), the diversity metric with an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.63-0.98), and the host transcriptional classifier with an AUC of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.75-1.00). Combining these achieved a negative predictive value of 100%. This study suggests that a single streamlined protocol offering an integrated genomic portrait of pathogen, microbiome, and host transcriptome may hold promise as a tool for LRTI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(4): 479-486, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137950

RESUMO

The Mexican Ministry of Health requested the National Institute of Public Health to constitute a group of independent, free of conflict-of-interest academic experts on front-of-pack labelling (FOP). This group was instructed to created a positioning paper to contribute to the development of a FOP system for industrialized products that offers useful information for purchase decision making. This position paper uses the best available scientific evidence, and recommendations from experts of international organizations. The FOP proposal focuses on the contents of energy, nutrients, ingredients and components that if consumed in excess on the diet, can be harmful to people's health, such as added sugars, sodium, total fat, saturated fat and energy. The academic expert group recommends the implementation of a FOP that provides an easy way to quickly assess the quality of a product. It is essential that this FOP provides direct, simple, visible and easily understandable information.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Comportamento de Escolha , Conflito de Interesses , Comportamento do Consumidor , Tomada de Decisões , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , México , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
16.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 315(5): L638-L644, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024307

RESUMO

Systemic immune activation is the hallmark of sepsis, which can result in endothelial injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in sepsis-mediated endothelial permeability using primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) and the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) platform. After plasma removal, cellular component of whole blood from 35 intensive care unit (ICU) patients with early sepsis was diluted with media and stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or control media. Resulting supernatants were cocultured with HPMECs seeded on ECIS plates, and resistance was continually measured. A decrease in resistance signified increased permeability. After incubation, HPMECs were detached and cell adhesion proteins were quantified using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, and gene expression was analyzed with quantitative PCR. Significant heterogeneity in endothelial permeability after exposure to supernatants of LPS-stimulated leukocytes was identified. ICU patients with sepsis stratified into one of the following three groups: minimal (9/35, 26%), intermediate (18/35, 51%), and maximal (8/35, 23%) permeability. Maximal permeability was associated with increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 protein and mRNA expression and decreased vascular endothelial-cadherin mRNA expression. These findings indicate that substantial heterogeneity in pulmonary endothelial permeability is induced by supernatants of LPS-stimulated leukocytes derived from patients with early sepsis and provide insights into some of the mechanisms that induce lung vascular injury. In addition, this in vitro model of lung endothelial permeability from LPS-stimulated leukocytes may be a useful method for testing therapeutic agents that could mitigate endothelial injury in early sepsis.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Microvasos/patologia , Sepse/patologia , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvasos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880737

RESUMO

Nutrient profiling systems (NPS) are used around the world. In some countries, the food industry participates in the design of these systems. We aimed to compare the ability of various NPS to identify processed and ultra-processed Mexican products containing excessive amounts of critical nutrients. A sample of 2544 foods and beverages available in the Mexican market were classified as compliant and non-compliant according to seven NPS: the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) model, which served as our reference, the Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC), the Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE), the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Mexican Nutritional Seal (MNS), the Chilean Warning Octagons (CWO) 2016, 2018 and 2019 criteria, and Ecuador's Multiple Traffic Light (MTL). Overall, the proportion of foods classified as compliant by the HSR, MTL and MCNE models was similar to the PAHO model. In contrast, the NPSC, the MNS and the CWO-2016 classified a higher amount of foods as compliant. Larger differences between NPS classification were observed across food categories. Results support the notion that models developed with the involvement of food manufacturers are more permissive than those based on scientific evidence. Results highlight the importance of thoroughly evaluating the underlying criteria of a model.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/classificação , Alimentos/classificação , Rotulagem de Alimentos/classificação , Humanos , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(3): 263-271, may.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979133

RESUMO

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia y tendencias de actividad física (AF) en niños y adolescentes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 y Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino (Ensanut MC) 2016. Material y métodos: Se recolectó información sobre AF a partir del cuestionario de comportamientos en salud para niños en edad escolar (HBSC) en niños y el Cuestionamiento Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ) en adolescentes. Resultados: Más de 80% de los niños y 35% de los adolescentes en México no cumple con las recomendaciones de AF. En el periodo 2012-2016, las niñas y escolares de la zona rural mostraron un aumento en la participación en actividades organizadas y deportes. Conclusión: La prevalencia de AF es baja en niños y adolescentes y la tendencia no ha mejorado en los últimos seis años.


Abstract: Objective: To describe the prevalence and trends of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents from Ensanut 2012 and Ensanut MC 2016. Materials and methods: Physical activity levels were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) and the nternational Physical ActivityI (IPAQ) questionnaires for children and adolescents respectively. Results: More than 80% of the children and 35% of the adolescents in Mexico do not meet the PA recommendations. From 2012-2016, girls and schoolchildren in the rural area showed an increase in participation in organized activities and sports. Conclusion: The prevalence of PA is low in children and adolescents and the trend has not improved in the last six years.

19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(3): 263-271, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and trends of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents from Ensanut 2012 and Ensanut MC 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physical activity levels were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) and the International Physical Activity (IPAQ) questionnaires for children and adolescents respectively. RESULTS: More than 80% of the children and 35% of the adolescents in Mexico do not meet the PA recom¬mendations. From 2012-2016, girls and schoolchildren in the rural area showed an increase in participation in organized activities and sports. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PA is low in children and adolescents and the trend has not improved in the last six years.


Assuntos
Exercício , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , México , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Obes Rev ; 18 Suppl 2: 39-46, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. METHODS: We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. RESULTS: Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. CONCLUSION: For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Criança , Exercício , Humanos , América Latina
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