Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 420
Filtrar
1.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(4): 548-557, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most uterine cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient, with only a small fraction developing into cervical cancer. Family aggregation studies and heritability estimates suggest a significant inherited genetic component. Candidate gene studies and previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) report associations between the HLA region and cervical cancer. Adopting a genome-wide approach, we aimed to compare genetic variation in women with invasive cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 with that in healthy controls. METHODS: We did a GWAS in a cohort of unrelated European individuals using data from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort including 273 377 women aged 40-69 years at recruitment between March 13, 2006, and Oct 1, 2010. We used an additive univariate logistic regression model to analyse genetic variants associated with invasive cervical cancer or CIN3. We sought replication of candidate associations in FinnGen, a large independent dataset of 128 123 individuals. We also did a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach to explore the role of risk factors in the genetic risk of cervical cancer. FINDINGS: We included 4769 CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer case samples and 145 545 control samples in the GWAS. Of 9 600 464 assayed and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six independent variants were associated with CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer. These included novel loci rs10175462 (PAX8; odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84-0·91; p=1·07 × 10-9) and rs27069 (CLPTM1L; 0·88, 0·84-0·92; p=2·51 × 10-9), and previously reported signals at rs9272050 (HLA-DQA1; 1·27, 1·21-1·32; p=2·51 × 10-28), rs6938453 (MICA; 0·79, 0·75-0·83; p=1·97 × 10-17), rs55986091 (HLA-DQB1; 0·66, 0·60-0·72; p=6·42 × 10-28), and rs9266183 (HLA-B; 0·73, 0·64-0·83; p=1·53 × 10-6). Three SNPs were replicated in the independent Finnish dataset of 1648 invasive cervical cancer cases: PAX8 (rs10175462; p=0·015), CLPTM1L (rs27069; p=2·54 × 10-7), and HLA-DQA1 (rs9272050; p=7·90 × 10-8). Mendelian randomisation further supported the complementary role of smoking (OR 2·46, 95% CI 1·64-3·69), older age at first pregnancy (0·80, 0·68-0·95), and number of sexual partners (1·95, 1·44-2·63) in the risk of developing cervical cancer. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide new evidence for the genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer, specifically the PAX8, CLPTM1L, and HLA genes, suggesting disruption in apoptotic and immune function pathways. Future studies integrating host and viral, genetic, and epigenetic variation, could further elucidate complex host-viral interactions. FUNDING: NIHR Imperial BRC Wellcome 4i Clinician Scientist Training Programme.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801208

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) degrades low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) receptors, and thus regulates the LDL-C levels in the circulation. Type 2 diabetics often have elevated LDL-C levels. However, the functions of PCSK9 in patients with alterations of glu-cose metabolism and statin therapy are still unclear. METHOD: we investigated a large cohort of 608 subjects, born in 1945 in Oulu, Finland (Oulu Cohort 1945). We studied the effects of PSCK9 lev-els with different glucose tolerances (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes (PreDM) or type 2 diabetes (T2D)) with and without statin medication, and analyzed clinical data, NMR metabolomics and PCSK9 plasma levels. RESULTS: PCSK9 plasma levels did not significantly differ between the three groups. Statin therapy significantly increased the PCSK9 levels in NGT, PreDM and T2D groups compared with subjects with no statins. In the NGT group, negative associations between PCSK9 and LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol and LDL and IDL triglycerides were observed under statin medication. In contrast, in the PreDM and T2D groups, these associa-tions were lost. CONCLUSIONS: our data suggest that in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism and statin therapy, the significant PCSK9-mediated effects on the lipid metabolites are lost com-pared to NGT subjects, but statins reduced the LDL-C and VLDL-C levels.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574565

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes rates vary significantly across geographic regions. These differences are sometimes assumed to be entirely driven by differential distribution of environmental triggers, including obesity and insufficient physical activity (IPA). In this review, we discuss data which conflicts with this supposition. We carried out a secondary analysis of publicly available data to unravel the relative contribution of obesity and IPA towards diabetes risk across different populations. We used sex-specific, age-standardized estimates from Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) on diabetes (1980-2014) and obesity (1975-2016) rates, in 200 countries, and from WHO on IPA rates in 168 countries in the year 2016. NCD-RisC and WHO organized countries into nine super-regions. All analyses were region- and sex-specific. Although obesity has been increasing since 1975 in every part of the world, this was not reflected in a proportional increase in diabetes rates in several regions, including Central and Eastern Europe, and High-income western countries region. Similarly, the association of physical inactivity with diabetes is not homogeneous across regions. Countries from different regions across the world could have very similar rates of diabetes, despite falling on opposite ends of IPA rate spectrum. The combined effect of obesity and IPA on diabetes risk was analyzed at the worldwide and country level. The overall findings highlighted the larger impact of obesity on disease risk; low IPA rates do not seem to be protective of diabetes, when obesity rates are high. Despite that, some countries deviate from this overall observation. Sex differences were observed across all our analyses. Overall, data presented in this review indicate that different populations, while experiencing similar environmental shifts, are apparently differentially subject to diabetes risk. Sex-related differences observed suggest that males and females are either subject to different risk factor exposures or have different responses to them.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition causing chronic pain and infertility. Only limited data exist on body size during childhood and adolescence in affected women. A leaner body shape has been associated with endometriosis in adults. However, longitudinal follow-up data from birth to adulthood are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body size and endometriosis from birth to age 46 years. We also performed in-depth analysis of the endometriosis subtypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a population-based study including 96% of the children born in Northern Finland in 1966. Endometriosis case identification was based on (a) the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases code documentation from national hospital discharge registers and (b) self-reported diagnosis. A total of 348 women with endometriosis (203 in subtype analysis) and 3487 women without endometriosis were identified. Pregnancy, birth, and growth data up to adolescence were collected from welfare clinical records. Follow-up data of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were collected at ages 14, 31, and 46 years through postal questionnaires and clinical examinations and included height, weight, and waist and hip circumference measurements. The associations between endometriosis and body size were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Body sizes in childhood and adolescence were comparable between women developing endometriosis and those not developing endometriosis. On average, the risk for endometriosis was 2% lower for every kilogram of weight (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00) and 6% lower for every body mass index unit (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99) at age 31. By age 46, a lower risk for peritoneal endometriosis was observed with greater weight (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), weight gain from age 14 to age 46 years (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.00), body mass index (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98), waist circumference (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.99), and waist-hip ratio (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence of the associations between endometriosis and body size and adiposity, specifically in women with peritoneal endometriosis. The associations are evident in adulthood but not in childhood or adolescence.

5.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 1010-1019, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517680

RESUMO

The purpose of this prospective, population-based cohort study was to evaluate the roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, weight gain, and hyperandrogenemia in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) through fertile age both in PCOS and in non-PCOS women. The study population-NFBC1966 (Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966)-allowed a long-term follow-up of women from age 14 until 46 years who developed HDP (n=408) or did not (n=3373). HDP diagnosis was confirmed by combining hospital discharge records, data from Finnish Medical Birth Registers, and the questionnaire data at age 46. Women with self-reported PCOS (srPCOS; n=279), defined by both oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism at age 31 or with PCOS diagnosis by age 46, were compared with women without reported PCOS (n=1577). Women with srPCOS had an increased HDP risk (odds ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.03-2.37]), but the association disappeared after adjustment for body mass index. In women with srPCOS and HDP, body mass index increased from age 14 to 46 significantly more than in srPCOS women without HDP (median [interquartile range], 9.82 [6.23-14.6] and 7.21 [4.16-10.5] kg/m2, respectively; P<0.001). Also, in non-PCOS women, the increase was higher in women with (7.54 [5.32-11.62] kg/m2; P<0.001) than without HDP (6.33 [3.90-9.33] kg/m2; P<0.001). Increase in waist circumference between ages 31 and 46 years was associated with HDP but not with PCOS. Hyperandrogenemia at 31 or 46 years did not associate with HDP (1.44 [0.98-2.11]). In conclusion, obesity, especially abdominal obesity, and weight gain from adolescence to age 46, but not srPCOS or hyperandrogenemia, were associated with an increased risk of HDP.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of robust and trans-ethnically replicated DNA methylation markers of metabolic phenotypes, has hinted at a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in lipid metabolism. However, DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of lipoprotein sizes have been scarcely studied. Here, we present an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) (N = 5414 total) of mostly lipid-related metabolic measures, including a fine profiling of lipoproteins. As lipoproteins are the main players in the different stages of lipid metabolism, examination of epigenetic markers of detailed lipoprotein features might improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of metabolic disturbances. RESULTS: We conducted an EWAS of leukocyte DNA methylation and 226 metabolic measurements determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the population-based KORA F4 study (N = 1662) and replicated the results in the LOLIPOP, NFBC1966, and YFS cohorts (N = 3752). Follow-up analyses in the discovery cohort included investigations into gene transcripts, metabolic-measure ratios for pathway analysis, and disease endpoints. We identified 161 associations (p value < 4.7 × 10-10), covering 16 CpG sites at 11 loci and 57 metabolic measures. Identified metabolic measures were primarily medium and small lipoproteins, and fatty acids. For apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, the associations mainly involved triglyceride composition and concentrations of cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free cholesterol, and phospholipids. All associations for HDL lipoproteins involved triglyceride measures only. Associated metabolic measure ratios, proxies of enzymatic activity, highlight amino acid, glucose, and lipid pathways as being potentially epigenetically implicated. Five CpG sites in four genes were associated with differential expression of transcripts in blood or adipose tissue. CpG sites in ABCG1 and PHGDH showed associations with metabolic measures, gene transcription, and metabolic measure ratios and were additionally linked to obesity or previous myocardial infarction, extending previously reported observations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of a link between DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein size subclasses, thus offering in-depth insights into well-known associations of DNA methylation with total serum lipids. The results support detailed profiling of lipid metabolism to improve the molecular understanding of dyslipidemia and related disease mechanisms.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474652

RESUMO

The Roadmap for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research in Europe (ROAMER) identified child and adolescent mental illness as a priority area for research. CAPICE (Childhood and Adolescence Psychopathology: unravelling the complex etiology by a large Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Europe) is a European Union (EU) funded training network aimed at investigating the causes of individual differences in common childhood and adolescent psychopathology, especially depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CAPICE brings together eight birth and childhood cohorts as well as other cohorts from the EArly Genetics and Life course Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, including twin cohorts, with unique longitudinal data on environmental exposures and mental health problems, and genetic data on participants. Here we describe the objectives, summarize the methodological approaches and initial results, and present the dissemination strategy of the CAPICE network. Besides identifying genetic and epigenetic variants associated with these phenotypes, analyses have been performed to shed light on the role of genetic factors and the interplay with the environment in influencing the persistence of symptoms across the lifespan. Data harmonization and building an advanced data catalogue are also part of the work plan. Findings will be disseminated to non-academic parties, in close collaboration with the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks-Europe (GAMIAN-Europe).

9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are among the major non-communicable diseases, leading to significant disability and mortality worldwide. These diseases may share environmental and genetic determinants associated with multimorbid patterns. Stressful early-life events are among the primary factors associated with the development of mental and physical diseases. However, possible causative mechanisms linking early life stress (ELS) with psycho-cardio-metabolic (PCM) multi-morbidity are not well understood. This prevents a full understanding of causal pathways towards the shared risk of these diseases and the development of coordinated preventive and therapeutic interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This paper describes the study protocol for EarlyCause, a large-scale and inter-disciplinary research project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The project takes advantage of human longitudinal birth cohort data, animal studies and cellular models to test the hypothesis of shared mechanisms and molecular pathways by which ELS shapes an individual's physical and mental health in adulthood. The study will research in detail how ELS converts into biological signals embedded simultaneously or sequentially in the brain, the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The research will mainly focus on four biological processes including possible alterations of the epigenome, neuroendocrine system, inflammatome, and the gut microbiome. Life-course models will integrate the role of modifying factors as sex, socioeconomics, and lifestyle with the goal to better identify groups at risk as well as inform promising strategies to reverse the possible mechanisms and/or reduce the impact of ELS on multi-morbidity development in high-risk individuals. These strategies will help better manage the impact of multi-morbidity on human health and the associated risk.

10.
Epigenetics ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331245

RESUMO

Altered maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy are associated with pre-clinical and clinical conditions affecting the fetus. Evidence from animal models suggests that these associations may be partially explained by differential DNA methylation in the newborn with possible long-term consequences. To test this in humans, we meta-analyzed the epigenome-wide associations of maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy with offspring DNA methylation in 3,967 newborn cord blood and 1,534 children and 1,962 adolescent whole-blood samples derived from 10 cohorts. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina Infinium Methylation 450K or MethylationEPIC arrays covering 450,000 and 850,000 methylation sites, respectively. There was no statistical support for the association of maternal haemoglobin levels with offspring DNA methylation either at individual methylation sites or clustered in regions. For most participants, maternal haemoglobin levels were within the normal range in the current study, whereas adverse perinatal outcomes often arise at the extremes. Thus, this study does not rule out the possibility that associations with offspring DNA methylation might be seen in studies with more extreme maternal haemoglobin levels.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(12): 1160-1169, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351885

RESUMO

AIMS : Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement. METHODS AND RESULTS : Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS : Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009191, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284794

RESUMO

Babies born clinically Small- or Large-for-Gestational-Age (SGA or LGA; sex- and gestational age-adjusted birth weight (BW) <10th or >90th percentile, respectively), are at higher risks of complications. SGA and LGA include babies who have experienced environment-related growth-restriction or overgrowth, respectively, and babies who are heritably small or large. However, the relative proportions within each group are unclear. We assessed the extent to which common genetic variants underlying variation in birth weight influence the probability of being SGA or LGA. We calculated independent fetal and maternal genetic scores (GS) for BW in 11,951 babies and 5,182 mothers. These scores capture the direct fetal and indirect maternal (via intrauterine environment) genetic contributions to BW, respectively. We also calculated maternal fasting glucose (FG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) GS. We tested associations between each GS and probability of SGA or LGA. For the BW GS, we used simulations to assess evidence of deviation from an expected polygenic model. Higher BW GS were strongly associated with lower odds of SGA and higher odds of LGA (ORfetal = 0.75 (0.71,0.80) and 1.32 (1.26,1.39); ORmaternal = 0.81 (0.75,0.88) and 1.17 (1.09,1.25), respectively per 1 decile higher GS). We found evidence that the smallest 3% of babies had a higher BW GS, on average, than expected from their observed birth weight (assuming an additive polygenic model: Pfetal = 0.014, Pmaternal = 0.062). Higher maternal SBP GS was associated with higher odds of SGA P = 0.005. We conclude that common genetic variants contribute to risk of SGA and LGA, but that additional factors become more important for risk of SGA in the smallest 3% of babies.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socio-economic position (SEP) is a risk factor for multiple health outcomes, but its molecular imprints in the body remain unclear. METHODS: We examined SEP as a determinant of serum nuclear magnetic resonance metabolic profiles in ∼30 000 adults and 4000 children across 10 UK and Finnish cohort studies. RESULTS: In risk-factor-adjusted analysis of 233 metabolic measures, low educational attainment was associated with 37 measures including higher levels of triglycerides in small high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), omega-3 fatty acids, apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles (including levels of their respective lipid constituents) and cholesterol measures across different density lipoproteins. Among adults whose father worked in manual occupations, associations with apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles and HDL-2 cholesterol remained after adjustment for SEP in later life. Among manual workers, levels of glutamine were higher compared with non-manual workers. All three indicators of low SEP were associated with lower DHA, omega-3 fatty acids and HDL diameter. At all ages, children of manual workers had lower levels of DHA as a proportion of total fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Our work indicates that social and economic factors have a measurable impact on human physiology. Lower SEP was independently associated with a generally unfavourable metabolic profile, consistent across ages and cohorts. The metabolites we found to be associated with SEP, including DHA, are known to predict cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in later life and may contribute to health inequalities.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20567, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239708

RESUMO

The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a preceding metabolic state for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is widely recognised. To accumulate knowledge of the pathological mechanisms behind the condition at the methylation level, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of MetS and its components, testing 1187 individuals of European ancestry for approximately 470 000 methylation sites throughout the genome. Methylation site cg19693031 in gene TXNIP -previously associated with type 2 diabetes, glucose and lipid metabolism, associated with fasting glucose level (P = 1.80 × 10-8). Cg06500161 in gene ABCG1 associated both with serum triglycerides (P = 5.36 × 10-9) and waist circumference (P = 5.21 × 10-9). The previously identified type 2 diabetes-associated locus cg08309687 in chromosome 21 associated with waist circumference for the first time (P = 2.24 × 10-7). Furthermore, a novel HDL association with cg17901584 in chromosome 1 was identified (P = 7.81 × 10-8). Our study supports previous genetic studies of MetS, finding that lipid metabolism plays a key role in pathology of the syndrome. We provide evidence regarding a close interplay with glucose metabolism. Finally, we suggest that in attempts to identify methylation loci linking separate MetS components, cg19693031 appears to represent a strong candidate.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children BMI is a longitudinal phenotype, developing through interplays between genetic and environmental factors. Whilst childhood obesity is escalating, we require a better understanding of its early origins and variation across generations to prevent it. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We designed a cross-cohort study including 12,040 Finnish children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986 (NFBC1966 and NFBC1986) born before or at the start of the obesity epidemic. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BMI trajectories from 2 to 20 years. We subsequently tested their associations with early determinants (mother and child) and the possible difference between generations, adjusted for relevant biological and socioeconomic confounders. RESULTS: We identified four BMI trajectories, 'stable-low' (34.8%), 'normal' (44.0%), 'stable-high' (17.5%) and 'early-increase' (3.7%). The 'early-increase' trajectory represented the highest risk for obesity. We analysed a dose-response association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking with BMI trajectories. The directions of effect were consistent across generations and the effect sizes tended to increase from earlier generation to later. Respectively for NFBC1966 and NFBC1986, the adjusted risk ratios of being in the early-increase group were 1.08 (1.06-1.10) and 1.12 (1.09-1.15) per unit of pre-pregnancy BMI and 1.44 (1.05-1.96) and 1.48 (1.17-1.87) in offspring of smoking mothers compared to non-smokers. We observed similar relations with infant factors including birthweight for gestational age and peak weight velocity. In contrast, the age at adiposity peak in infancy was associated with the BMI trajectories in NFBC1966 but did not replicate in NFBC1986. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to adverse maternal predictors were associated with a higher risk obesity trajectory and were consistent across generations. However, we found a discordant association for the timing of adiposity peak over a 20-year period. This suggests the role of residual environmental factors, such as nutrition, and warrants additional research to understand the underlying gene-environment interplay.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2289-2299, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for multiple cancer types. Lower microbial richness has been linked to obesity, but human studies are inconsistent, and associations of early-life body mass index (BMI) with the fecal microbiome and metabolome are unknown. METHODS: We characterized the fecal microbiome (n = 563) and metabolome (n = 340) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. We estimated associations of adult BMI and BMI history with microbial features and metabolites using linear regression and Spearman correlations (rs ) and computed correlations between bacterial sequence variants and metabolites overall and by BMI category. RESULTS: Microbial richness, including the number of sequence variants (rs = -0.21, P < 0.0001), decreased with increasing adult BMI but was not independently associated with BMI history. Adult BMI was associated with 56 metabolites but no bacterial genera. Significant correlations were observed between microbes in 5 bacterial phyla, including 18 bacterial genera, and metabolites in 49 of the 62 metabolic pathways evaluated. The genera with the strongest correlations with relative metabolite levels (positively and negatively) were Blautia, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in the Firmicutes phylum, but associations varied by adult BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: BMI is strongly related to fecal metabolite levels, and numerous associations between fecal microbial features and metabolite levels underscore the dynamic role of the gut microbiota in metabolism. IMPACT: Characterizing the associations between the fecal microbiome, the fecal metabolome, and BMI, both recent and early-life exposures, provides critical background information for future research on cancer prevention and etiology.

18.
Nutr Diabetes ; 10(1): 26, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls; n = 537). RESULTS: Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.

19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 709-724, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705500

RESUMO

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30 years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new biological insights and important impact for health from early life onwards. The impact of these cohorts and their data could be further increased by combining data from different cohorts. Combining data will lead to the possibility of identifying smaller effect estimates, and the opportunity to better identify risk groups and risk factors leading to disease across the lifecycle across countries. Also, it enables research on better causal understanding and modelling of life course health trajectories. The EU Child Cohort Network, established by the Horizon2020-funded LifeCycle Project, brings together nineteen pregnancy and childhood cohorts, together including more than 250,000 children and their parents. A large set of variables has been harmonised and standardized across these cohorts. The harmonized data are kept within each institution and can be accessed by external researchers through a shared federated data analysis platform using the R-based platform DataSHIELD, which takes relevant national and international data regulations into account. The EU Child Cohort Network has an open character. All protocols for data harmonization and setting up the data analysis platform are available online. The EU Child Cohort Network creates great opportunities for researchers to use data from different cohorts, during and beyond the LifeCycle Project duration. It also provides a novel model for collaborative research in large research infrastructures with individual-level data. The LifeCycle Project will translate results from research using the EU Child Cohort Network into recommendations for targeted prevention strategies to improve health trajectories for current and future generations by optimizing their earliest phases of life.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Ambiental , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pais , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(11): 933-941, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are various maternal prenatal biopsychosocial (BPS) predictors of birth weight, making it difficult to quantify their cumulative relationship. METHODS: We studied two birth cohorts: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) born in 1985-1986 and the Generation R Study (from the Netherlands) born in 2002-2006. In NFBC1986, we selected variables depicting BPS exposure in association with birth weight and performed factor analysis to derive latent constructs representing the relationship between these variables. In Generation R, the same factors were generated weighted by loadings of NFBC1986. Factor scores from each factor were then allocated into tertiles and added together to calculate a cumulative BPS score. In all cases, we used regression analyses to explore the relationship with birth weight corrected for sex and gestational age and additionally adjusted for other factors. RESULTS: Factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, labelled closely to represent their characteristics as 'Factor1-BMI' (body mass index), 'Factor2-DBP' (diastolic blood pressure), 'Factor3-Socioeconomic-Obstetric-Profile' and 'Factor4-Parental-Lifestyle'. In both cohorts, 'Factor1-BMI' was positively associated with birth weight, whereas other factors showed negative association. 'Factor3-Socioeconomic-Obstetric-Profile' and 'Factor4-Parental-Lifestyle' had the greatest effect size, explaining 30% of the variation in birth weight. Associations of the factors with birth weight were largely driven by 'Factor1-BMI'. Graded decrease in birth weight was observed with increasing cumulative BPS score, jointly evaluating four factors in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our study is a proof of concept for maternal prenatal BPS hypothesis, highlighting the components snowball effect on birth weight in two different European birth cohorts.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...