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1.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence indicates that motor deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) impair both motor execution and planning. However, current rehabilitation efforts focus mainly on relieving impairments in motor execution. Motor imagery (MI) is a promising method for stimulating neural networks underlying the planning and control of movements. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of MI combined with physical practice in improving the function of the upper limbs in children with HCP. METHOD: Twenty-four participants, aged 7-14 years were divided into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The IG was subjected to MI training and physical practice twice a week for eight consecutive weeks, while the CG received conventional therapy. Participants were assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow up. RESULTS: The results showed improved motor functions in both groups. Analysis using the general linear model (analysis of covariance) and Bonferroni post hoc tests showed significant improvements from pre-intervention to post-intervention in the AHA for the IG. The CG showed non-significant improvement in AHA scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the MI training, combined with the physical practice program used in this study, was effective in improving upper limb function in children with HCP.

2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1013, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156495

RESUMO

Math anxiety (MA) is a phobic reaction to math activities, potentially impairing math achievement. Higher frequency of MA in females is explainable by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The molecular-genetic basis of MA has not been investigated. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which affects dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, has been associated with anxiety manifestations. The valine allele is associated with lower, and the methionine allele with higher, dopamine availability. In the present study, the effects of sex and COMT Val158Met genotypes on MA were investigated: 389 school children aged 7-12 years were assessed for intelligence, numerical estimation, arithmetic achievement and MA and genotyped for COMT Val158Met polymorphism. The Math Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess the cognitive and affective components of MA. All genotype groups of boys and girls were comparable regarding genotype frequency, age, school grade, numerical estimation, and arithmetic abilities. We compared the results of all possible genetic models: codominance (Val/Val vs. Val/Met vs. Met/Met), heterosis (Val/Met vs. Val/Val plus Met/Met), valine dominance (Val/Val plus Val/Met vs. Met/Met), and methionine dominance (Met/Met plus Val/Met vs. Val/Val). Models were compared using AIC and AIC weights. No significant differences between girls and boys and no effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on numerical estimation and arithmetic achievement were observed. Sex by genotype effects were significant for intelligence and MA. Intelligence scores were higher in Met/Met girls than in girls with at least one valine allele (valine dominance model). The best fitting model for MA was heterosis. In Anxiety Toward Mathematics, heterozygous individuals presented MA levels close to the grand average regardless of sex. Homozygous boys were significantly less and homozygous girls significantly more math anxious. Heterosis has been seldom explored, but in recent years has emerged as the best genetic model for some phenotypes associated with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. This is the first study to investigate the genetic-molecular basis of MA.

3.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; : 1-12, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884971

RESUMO

Word-level reading is strongly associated with phonological processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive and environmental variables on word reading performance. Our sample consisted of 185 fourth-grade students. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the role of the following variables as potential predictors of word reading accuracy and fluency: phonological processing (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and phonological memory); verbal fluency; working memory; socioeconomic status and an indicator of school quality (IDEB) in Brazil. Phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming were the best predictors of reading, supporting the role of phonological processing as a key contributor to the lexical aspects of reading, beyond the early years of literacy acquisition. Environmental variables were significant predictors of irregular word reading (socioeconomic status) and fluency (IDEB), corroborating multicomponent models of reading performance. The present findings demonstrate the complex interplay of factors underlying reading performance and highlight the importance of a multidimensional approach to the study of reading.

4.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2193, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524331

RESUMO

Although progress has been made, the cognitive, biological and, particularly, the genetic underpinnings of math learning difficulties (MD) remain largely unknown. This difficulty stems from the heterogeneity of MD and from the large contribution of environmental factors to its etiology. Understanding endophenotypes, e.g., the role of the Approximate Number System (ANS), may help understanding the nature of MD. MD associated with ANS impairments has been described in some genetic conditions, e.g., 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS or Velocardiofacial syndrome, VCFS). Recently, a girl with MD was identified in a school population screening. She has a new syndrome resulting from a microdeletion in 22q11.2 (LCR22-4 to LCR22-5), a region adjacent to but not overlapping with region 22q11.2 (LCR22-2 to LCR22-4), typically deleted in VCFS. Here, we describe her cognitive-neuropsychological and numerical-cognitive profiles. The girl was assessed twice, at 8 and 11 years. Her numerical-cognitive performance at both times was compared to demographically similar girls with normal intelligence in a single-case, quasi-experimental study. Neuropsychological assessment was normal, except for relatively minor impairments in executive functions. She presented severe and persistent difficulties in the simplest single-digit calculations. Difficulties in commutative operations improved from the first to the second assessment. Difficulties in subtraction persisted and were severe. No difficulties were observed in Arabic number writing. Difficulties in single-digit calculation co-occurred with basic numerical processing impairments in symbolic and non-symbolic (single-digit comparison, dot sets size comparison and estimation) tasks. Her difficulties suggest ANS impairment. No difficulties were detected in visuospatial/visuoconstructional and in phonological processing tasks. The main contributions of the present study are: (a) this is the first characterization of the neuropsychological phenotype in 22q11.2DS (LCR22-4 to LCR22.5) with normal intelligence; (b) mild forms of specific genetic conditions contribute to persistent MD in otherwise typical persons; (c) heterogeneity of neurogenetic underpinnings of MD is suggested by poor performance in non-symbolic numerical processing, dissociated from visuospatial/visuoconstructional and phonological impairments; (d) similar to what happens in 22q11.2DS (LCR22-2 to LCR22-4), ANS impairments may also characterize 22q11.2DS (LCR22-4 to LCR22-5).

5.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 12(3): 256-263, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425789

RESUMO

Math learning disability (MLD) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by severe and persistent difficulties in learning math, including difficulties in learning multiplication facts. Objective: In this article, we compared the responses of two MLD children to multiplication facts training. Methods: One of the children was a 9 year-old girl (HV) who presented mild math difficulties associated with lower accuracy of the Approximate Number System (ANS). The other was an 11 year-old boy (GA) who presented severe math difficulties related to impaired phonological processing due to developmental dyslexia. Both children underwent an intervention for multiplication, comprising conceptual instructions and retrieval practice of the times table. Results: HV's accuracy and response speed improved consistently on both training tasks, while GA's accuracy improved on the Simple Calculation Task only. Error analyses indicated that, after training, HV produced fewer errors of the type "close miss", and GA produced less omission but more operand errors. Conclusion: We argue that these differences between their responses to the training tasks were caused by differences in the mechanisms underlying their math difficulties. These results support the notion that individual specificities regarding math disabilities should be taken into account during preparation of training interventions.

6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(3): 256-263, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-952968

RESUMO

Abstract Math learning disability (MLD) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by severe and persistent difficulties in learning math, including difficulties in learning multiplication facts. Objective: In this article, we compared the responses of two MLD children to multiplication facts training. Methods: One of the children was a 9 year-old girl (HV) who presented mild math difficulties associated with lower accuracy of the Approximate Number System (ANS). The other was an 11 year-old boy (GA) who presented severe math difficulties related to impaired phonological processing due to developmental dyslexia. Both children underwent an intervention for multiplication, comprising conceptual instructions and retrieval practice of the times table. Results: HV's accuracy and response speed improved consistently on both training tasks, while GA's accuracy improved on the Simple Calculation Task only. Error analyses indicated that, after training, HV produced fewer errors of the type "close miss", and GA produced less omission but more operand errors. Conclusion: We argue that these differences between their responses to the training tasks were caused by differences in the mechanisms underlying their math difficulties. These results support the notion that individual specificities regarding math disabilities should be taken into account during preparation of training interventions.


Resumo O transtorno de aprendizagem da matemática (MLD) é uma condição heterogênea caracterizada por dificuldades acentuadas e persistentes na aprendizagem da matemática, incluindo déficits na aprendizagem dos fatos de multiplicação. Objetivo: No presente artigo, nos comparamos a resposta de duas crianças com MLD em uma intervenção da multiplicação. Métodos: Uma das crianças, HV, sexo feminino, 9 anos de idade, apresentava dificuldades menos acentuadas na matemática, associadas a um déficit no Sistema Numérico Aproximado (ANS). A outra criança, GA, sexo masculino, 11 anos de idade, apresentava dificuldades na matemática mais acentuadas associadas a um comprometimento no processamento fonológico devido a um quadro de Dislexia do Desenvolvimento. Ambas as crianças passaram por um programa de intervenção para a multiplicação, o qual se consistia em instruções conceituais e práticas de memorização da tabuada. Resultados: HV apresentou uma melhora consistente na acurácia e tempo de resposta nas duas medidas de desfecho, enquanto, GA apresentou uma melhora apenas na Tarefa de Cálculos Simples. Análises nos tipos de erros evidenciam que, após a intervenção, HV cometeu menos "erros de aproximação", ao passo que, GA cometeu menos erros por omissão, mas mais erros de operando. Conclusão: Nossa hipótese é de que as diferenças na resposta a intervenção dos participantes estão relacionadas a mecanismos subjacentes distintos à aprendizagem da matemática. Esses resultados reforçam a necessidade de que as especificidades nas dificuldades na matemática de cada paciente sejam levadas em consideração durante o planejamento das intervenções.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Criança , Dislexia , Matemática
7.
Front Psychol ; 7: 22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869946

RESUMO

Reading and spelling performance have a significant correlation with number transcoding, which is the ability to establish a relationship between the verbal and Arabic representations of numbers, when a conversion of numerical symbols from one notation to the other is necessary. The aim of the present study is to reveal shared and non-shared mechanisms involved in reading and writing of words and Arabic numerals in Brazilian school-aged children. One hundred and seventy-two children from second to fourth grades were evaluated. All of them had normal intelligence. We conducted a series of hierarchical regression models using scores on word spelling and reading single words and Arabic numerals, as dependent variables. As predictor variables we investigated intelligence, the phonological and visuospatial components of working memory (WM) and phonemic awareness. All of the writing and reading tasks (single word spelling and reading as well as number reading and number writing) were significantly correlated to each other. In the regression models, phonological WM was specifically associated to word reading. Phonemic awareness was the only cognitive variable that systematically predicted all of the school skills investigated, both numerical and word tasks. This suggests that phonemic awareness is a modular cognitive ability shared by several school tasks and might be an important factor associated to the comorbidity between dyslexia and dyscalculia.

8.
Gerais ; 8(2): 348-358, dez. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-882890

RESUMO

A Síndrome de Turner é uma condição genética que resulta da deleção do segundo cromossomo sexual (45, X). Todavia, alguns indivíduos apresentam uma mistura de linhagens celulares, que é conhecida como mosaicismo. Nas mulheres com a deleção completa existe uma discrepância cognitiva entre habilidades verbais e não-verbais, sendo estas últimas as mais afetadas. Entretanto, acredita-se que a heterogeneidade genética é uma das responsáveis por variações no fenótipo cognitivo desses indivíduos. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar diferenças nas habilidades verbais e não-verbais, avaliadas pelas Escalas de Inteligência Wechsler, em 5 mulheres com Síndrome de Turner e diferentes cariótipos. O estudo revelou que a variação cariotípica refletiu em diferenças no perfil cognitivo das participantes. Tais resultados são importantes, uma vez que influenciam diretamente os métodos de avaliação e intervenção de uma população específica, além de indicar como tal variação genética atua sobre a cognição.


Turner syndrome is a genetic condition that results from deletion of the second sex chromosome (45, X). However some individuals exhibit a mixture of cells, which is known as mosaicism. In women with complete deletion there is a cognitive discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal skills, the latter being the most affected. Nevertheless, it is believed that genetic heterogeneity is one of the points responsible for variations in the individuals' cognitive phenotype. Thus, this study aimed to investigate differences in verbal and non-verbal abilities, evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence scales, in 5 Turner syndrome women with different karyotypes. The study revealed that karyotype variation reflected in differences in the participants' cognitive profile. Such results are important since they directly influence the methods of assessment and intervention of a specific population, as well as indicating how such genetic variation impacts on cognition.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Síndrome de Turner/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Mosaicismo
9.
Gerais ; 8(2): 348-358, dez. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-68498

RESUMO

A Síndrome de Turner é uma condição genética que resulta da deleção do segundo cromossomo sexual (45, X). Todavia, alguns indivíduos apresentam uma mistura de linhagens celulares, que é conhecida como mosaicismo. Nas mulheres com a deleção completa existe uma discrepância cognitiva entre habilidades verbais e não-verbais, sendo estas últimas as mais afetadas. Entretanto, acredita-se que a heterogeneidade genética é uma das responsáveis por variações no fenótipo cognitivo desses indivíduos. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar diferenças nas habilidades verbais e não-verbais, avaliadas pelas Escalas de Inteligência Wechsler, em 5 mulheres com Síndrome de Turner e diferentes cariótipos. O estudo revelou que a variação cariotípica refletiu em diferenças no perfil cognitivo das participantes. Tais resultados são importantes, uma vez que influenciam diretamente os métodos de avaliação e intervenção de uma população específica, além de indicar como tal variação genética atua sobre a cognição.(AU)


Turner syndrome is a genetic condition that results from deletion of the second sex chromosome (45, X). However some individuals exhibit a mixture of cells, which is known as mosaicism. In women with complete deletion there is a cognitive discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal skills, the latter being the most affected. Nevertheless, it is believed that genetic heterogeneity is one of the points responsible for variations in the individuals' cognitive phenotype. Thus, this study aimed to investigate differences in verbal and non-verbal abilities, evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence scales, in 5 Turner syndrome women with different karyotypes. The study revealed that karyotype variation reflected in differences in the participants' cognitive profile. Such results are important since they directly influence the methods of assessment and intervention of a specific population, as well as indicating how such genetic variation impacts on cognition.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Síndrome de Turner/psicologia , Mosaicismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia
10.
Psych J ; 4(4): 218-25, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459122

RESUMO

Math learning disability (MLD) or developmental dyscalculia is a highly prevalent and persistent difficulty in learning arithmetic that may be explained by different cognitive mechanisms. The accuracy of the number sense has been implicated by some evidence as a core deficit in MLD. However, research on this topic has been mainly conducted in demographically selected samples, using arbitrary cut-off scores to characterize MLD. The clinical relevance of the association between number sense and MLD remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed at assessing the stability of a number sense accuracy measure (w) across five experimental sessions, in two clinically defined cases of MLD. Stable measures of number sense accuracy estimate are required to clinically characterize subtypes of MLD and to make theoretical inferences regarding the underlying cognitive mechanisms. G. A. was a 10-year-old boy with MLD in the context of dyslexia and phonological processing impairment and his performance remained steadily in the typical scores range. The performance of H. V., a 9-year-old girl with MLD associated with number sense inaccuracy, remained consistently impaired across measurements, with a nonsignificant tendency to worsen. Qualitatively, H. V.'s performance was also characterized by greater variability across sessions. Concomitant clinical observations suggested that H. V.'s difficulties could be aggravated by developing symptoms of mathematics anxiety. Results in these two cases are in line with the hypotheses that at least two reliable patterns of cognitive impairment may underlie math learning difficulties in MLD, one related to number sense inaccuracy and the other to phonological processing impairment. Additionally, it indicates the need for more translational research in order to examine the usefulness and validity of theoretical advances in numerical cognition to the clinical neuropsychological practice with MLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Discalculia/diagnóstico , Matemática/educação , Logro , Ansiedade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
11.
Front Psychol ; 5: 102, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24592243

RESUMO

Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties.

12.
Front Psychol ; 5: 13, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24478744

RESUMO

Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.

13.
Psicol. pesq ; 7(2): 200-207, dez. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-728562

RESUMO

A Síndrome de Williams (SW) é uma doença de etiologia genética, causada por microdeleções na região do cromossomo 7q11.23. Pacientes com SW podem apresentar QI verbal significativamente superior ao executivo, o que explicaria o déficit recorrente nas habilidades visoespaciais e a preservação de aspectos das habilidades verbais. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil cognitivo de uma série de casos de pacientes com SW, utilizando a Escala Wechsler de Inteligência. A amostra foi composta por dez pacientes. Os resultados apontam para um padrão de desempenho semelhante entre os participantes na escala verbal, porém o QI de execução teve maior correlação com o QI total. Foi observada uma discrepância entre habilidades verbais e não verbais em 40% dos participantes.


Williams Syndrome (WS) is a disease of genetic etiology caused by micro-deletions at the 7q11.23 region. WS's patients may present verbal IQ significantly higher than the performance one, which could explain the recurrent deficit in visuospatial abilities and the preservation of some verbal skills. The study aimed at analyzing the cognitive profile of a case series including WS patients, using Wechsler's Intelligence Scale. The sample was composed of ten patients. The results showed a similar pattern of performance among participants in the verbal scale; however, the performance IQ was more associated with total IQ. We observed a discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal abilities in 40% of the participants.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Inteligência , Escalas de Wechsler , Síndrome de Williams
16.
Psicol. pesq ; 7(2): 200-207, dez. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-62154

RESUMO

A Síndrome de Williams (SW) é uma doença de etiologia genética, causada por microdeleções na região do cromossomo 7q11.23. Pacientes com SW podem apresentar QI verbal significativamente superior ao executivo, o que explicaria o déficit recorrente nas habilidades visoespaciais e a preservação de aspectos das habilidades verbais. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil cognitivo de uma série de casos de pacientes com SW, utilizando a Escala Wechsler de Inteligência. A amostra foi composta por dez pacientes. Os resultados apontam para um padrão de desempenho semelhante entre os participantes na escala verbal, porém o QI de execução teve maior correlação com o QI total. Foi observada uma discrepância entre habilidades verbais e não verbais em 40% dos participantes.(AU)


Williams Syndrome (WS) is a disease of genetic etiology caused by micro-deletions at the 7q11.23 region. WS's patients may present verbal IQ significantly higher than the performance one, which could explain the recurrent deficit in visuospatial abilities and the preservation of some verbal skills. The study aimed at analyzing the cognitive profile of a case series including WS patients, using Wechsler's Intelligence Scale. The sample was composed of ten patients. The results showed a similar pattern of performance among participants in the verbal scale; however, the performance IQ was more associated with total IQ. We observed a discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal abilities in 40% of the participants.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Síndrome de Williams , Escalas de Wechsler , Inteligência
17.
Front Psychol ; 4: 531, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23966969

RESUMO

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations.

18.
Psicol. pesq ; 7(1): 3-12, jun. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-692887

RESUMO

A Campanha "Não à Medicalização da Vida", organizada pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia, critica contundentemente a identificação e tratamento de crianças com transtornos de aprendizagem e com o Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade. Isso gerou uma resposta imediata de entidades ligadas à psiquiatria, neurociências e neuropsicologia. O propósito deste artigo foi explicar o que a Campanha entende por medicalização e apresentar seus argumentos contra essa prática (o argumento da falta de objetividade científica, da pressão da indústria farmacêutica, da estigmatização e dos efeitos indesejados). A análise desses argumentos conclui que todos eles são falhos e que a campanha mistura uma preocupação terapêutica legítima em relação à medicação excessiva e mal-informada (uso não-racional) com suposições incompatíveis com a ciência.


The "No to the Medicalization of Life" campaign, organized by the Federal Council of Psychology, criticizes forcefully the identification and treatment of children with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It begot an immediate response from entities related to psychiatry, neurosciences and neuropsychology. The purpose of this article was to explain what the campaign means by medicalization and to present its arguments against this practice (especially the argument of lack of scientific objectivity, the argument of the pressure from the pharmaceutical industry, the argument of stigmatization and the argument of adverse effects). The analysis of those arguments concludes that they are all flawed and that the campaign mixes a legitimate concern with the excessive and ill-informed medication (non-rational) with assumptions incompatible with science.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos de Aprendizagem
19.
Psicol. pesq ; 7(1): 3-12, jan.-jun. 2013.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-59089

RESUMO

A Campanha "Não à Medicalização da Vida", organizada pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia, critica contundentemente a identificação e tratamento de crianças com transtornos de aprendizagem e com o Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade. Isso gerou uma resposta imediata de entidades ligadas à psiquiatria, neurociências e neuropsicologia. O propósito deste artigo foi explicar o que a Campanha entende por medicalização e apresentar seus argumentos contra essa prática (o argumento da falta de objetividade científica, da pressão da indústria farmacêutica, da estigmatização e dos efeitos indesejados). A análise desses argumentos conclui que todos eles são falhos e que a campanha mistura uma preocupação terapêutica legítima em relação à medicação excessiva e mal-informada (uso não-racional) com suposições incompatíveis com a ciência.(AU)


The "No to the Medicalization of Life" campaign, organized by the Federal Council of Psychology, criticizes forcefully the identification and treatment of children with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It begot an immediate response from entities related to psychiatry, neurosciences and neuropsychology. The purpose of this article was to explain what the campaign means by medicalization and to present its arguments against this practice (especially the argument of lack of scientific objectivity, the argument of the pressure from the pharmaceutical industry, the argument of stigmatization and the argument of adverse effects). The analysis of those arguments concludes that they are all flawed and that the campaign mixes a legitimate concern with the excessive and ill-informed medication (non-rational) with assumptions incompatible with science.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
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