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1.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115841, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120336

RESUMO

In order to assess risks to the natural environment from microplastics, it is necessary to have reliable information on all potential inputs and discharges. This relies on stringent quality control measures to ensure accurate reporting. Here we focus on wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the complex sample matrices these provide. Composite samples of both influent and effluent were collected over a 24 h period on two separate occasions from eight different WwTWs across the UK. Sludge samples were taken on five occasions from five WwTWs. The WwTW treatments included activated sludge, trickling filter and biological aerated flooded filter with or without tertiary treatment. Using micro-FTIR analysis, microplastics ≥25 µm were identified and quantified. Procedural blanks were used to derive limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). Where values were above the LOQ, microplastics in the influent ranged from 955 to 17,214 microplastic particles/L and in the effluent from 2 to 54 microplastic particles/L, giving an average removal rate of 99.8%. Microplastics could be quantified in sludge at concentrations of 301-10,380 microplastics/g dry weight, this analytical method therefore revealing higher concentrations than reported in previous studies. The most common polymers present overall were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We also report on critical considerations for blank corrections and quality control measures to ensure reliable microplastic analysis across different sample types.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12326-12334, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852201

RESUMO

Microplastics were characterized in eight water treatment works (WTWs) in England and Wales (UK). Sources included river water, groundwater, and an upland reservoir. Water treatment varied from disinfection, filtration, sedimentation, and activated carbon techniques. At each WTW, five repeat samples of raw and potable water and two repeat sludge samples were taken over 5 months. Microplastics in water were captured on 10 µm filters and nonplastic materials digested in the laboratory. Microplastics ≥25 µm were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared microscopy. Blanks revealed consistent polyethylene (PE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polypropylene (PP) contamination. Spike recoveries for 63-90 µm polyamide microplastics demonstrated 101% (standard deviation, SD 27%) and 113% (SD 15%) recovery for raw and potable waters and 52% (SD 13%) for sludge. Only four of the six WTWs sampled for raw water and only two of eight WTWs in their potable water had microplastics above the limit of quantification. Considering only the WTWs with quantifiable microplastics, then on average, 4.9 microplastic particles/L were present in raw water and only 0.00011 microplastic particles/L were present in potable water (99.99% removal). Values in waste sludge were highly variable. PE, PET, and PP were the most common polymers quantified in raw water and sludge, and polystyrene and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were the most common polymers quantified in potable water.

4.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(8): 1820-1832, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063229

RESUMO

The present study reviewed the impacts of wastewater on macroinvertebrates over 4 decades in a United Kingdom lowland river. This involved examining changes in chemicals, temperature, flow, and macroinvertebrate diversity from the 1970s until 2017 for a wastewater-dominated river downstream of Swindon in the United Kingdom (population ~ 220 000). When the wastewater treatment process changed from trickling filter to activated sludge in 1991, biological oxygen demand was nearly halved (90th percentile from 8.1 to 4.6 mg/L), ammonia peaks dropped more than 7-fold (90th percentile from 3.9 to 0.53 mg/L), whereas dissolved oxygen climbed consistently above 60% saturation (10th percentile from 49 to 64%) at a sampling point 2 km downstream of the wastewater treatment plant. A sustained increase in the number of macroinvertebrate species was evident from that point. River flow did not change, temperature rose slightly, and the major metal concentrations declined steadily over most of the monitoring period. Neither the introduction of phosphate stripping in 1999 nor the use of tertiary granular activated charcoal from 2008 to 2014 had strong positive effects on subsequent macroinvertebrate diversity. That the diversity still had not reached the ideal status by 2016 may be related to the modest habitat quality, agricultural pesticides, and limited recolonization potential in the catchment. The results indicate that urban wastewaters, with their chemical pollutants, are today probably not the biggest threat to the macroinvertebrate diversity of multiply stressed lowland rivers in the United Kingdom. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1820-1832. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(20): 11848-11856, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216714

RESUMO

While pharmaceuticals are now routinely detected in aquatic environments, we know little of the biological activity their presence might provoke. It is estimated that nearly 40% of all marketed pharmaceuticals are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) acting pharmaceuticals. Here, we applied an in-vitro assay, called the TGFα shedding assay, to measure the biological activities of GPCRs-acting pharmaceuticals present in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants in the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan from 2014 to 2016. The results indicated that compounds were present in the wastewater with antagonistic activities against angiotensin (AT1), dopamine (D2), adrenergic (ß1), acetylcholine (M1), and histamine (H1) receptors in both countries. The most consistent and powerful antagonistic activity was against the H1, D2, and AT1 receptors at up to microgram-antagonist-equivalent quantity/L. Chemical analysis of the same UK samples was also conducted in parallel. Comparing the results of the bioassay with the chemical analysis indicated (1) the existence of other D2 or M1 receptor antagonists besides sulpiride (D2 antagonist) or pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) in wastewater and (2) that there might be a mixture effect between agonist and antagonistic activities against ß1 receptor. GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals should be paid more attention in the environmental monitoring and toxicity testing in future studies.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Japão , Reino Unido , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 643: 90-97, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936171

RESUMO

Strong global demand leads to significant production of fluoropolymers (FP) in China which potentially release large quantities of perfluorooctanoic acid/perfluorooctanoate (collectively called PFOA/PFO) to the environment. Modelling the fate and transport of PFOA/PFO provides an important input for human health risk assessment. Considering the effects of urbanization and existing forms of PFOA/PFO, this study used the modified multispecies Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural model to simulate the transfer behavior of PFOA/PFO in the Bohai Rim, China. Spatial distributions of PFOA/PFO emissions during the year 2012 for the study area were illustrated. About two thirds of the total amount of PFOA/PFO was estimated to be released into fresh water, and the total releases to rural areas were 160-fold higher than those to urban areas due to the location of fluorochemical industrial parks. The simulations predicted that hydrosphere was the fate of PFOA/PFO, followed by soil and vegetation, which was consistent with field data. The highest PFOA/PFO concentration was modeled in the Xiaoqing River basin with a value of 32.57 µg/L. The PFOA/PFO concentrations in urban soils were generally higher than those in rural soils except for grids 1, 3 and 46. In addition, it was estimated that the total flux of PFOA/PFO entering into the Bohai Sea was 24.57 ton/year, 100-fold higher than that of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS).

7.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 188-194, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414339

RESUMO

Microplastics are widespread throughout aquatic environments. However, there is currently insufficient understanding of the factors influencing ingestion of microplastics by organisms, especially higher predators such as fish. In this study we link ingestion of microplastics by the roach Rutilus rutilus, within the non-tidal part of the River Thames, to exposure and physiological factors. Microplastics were found within the gut contents of roach from six out of seven sampling sites. Of sampled fish, 33% contained at least one microplastic particle. The majority of particles were fibres (75%), with fragments and films also seen (22.7% and 2.3% respectively). Polymers identified were polyethylene, polypropylene and polyester, in addition to a synthetic dye. The maximum number of ingested microplastic particles for individual fish was strongly correlated to exposure (based on distance from the source of the river). Additionally, at a given exposure, the size of fish correlated with the actual quantity of microplastics in the gut. Larger (mainly female) fish were more likely to ingest the maximum possible number of particles than smaller (mainly male) fish. This study is the first to show microplastic ingestion within freshwater fish in the UK and provides valuable new evidence of the factors influencing ingestion that can be used to inform future studies on exposure and hazard of microplastics to fish.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Água Doce , Plásticos/toxicidade , Polipropilenos/análise , Rios , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(2): 1903-1913, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103120

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms influencing the differences in attenuation of antibiotics between rivers. In this study, the natural attenuation of four antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, sulfapyridine, and sulfamethoxazole) during transport along the Thames River, UK, over a distance of 8.3 km, and the Katsura River, Japan, over a distance of 7.6 km was compared. To assist interpretation of the field data, the individual degradation and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics were estimated by laboratory experiments using surface water or sediment taken from the same rivers. Azithromycin, clarithromycin, and sulfapyridine were attenuated by 92, 48, and 11% in the Thames River stretch. The first-order decay constants of azithromycin and sulfapyridine were similar to those in the Katsura River, while that of clarithromycin was 4.4 times higher. For sulfamethoxazole, the attenuation was limited in both rivers. Loss of sulfapyridine was attributed to both direct and indirect photolysis in the Thames River, but to only direct photolysis in the Katsura River. Loss of azithromycin and clarithromycin was attributed to sorption to sediment in both rivers. The probable explanation behind the difference in loss rates of clarithromycin between the two rivers was considered to be sediment sorption capacity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrologia , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Fotólise , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(4): 1115-1121, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149472

RESUMO

The present study assessed the relative risk of 29 chemical contaminants to aquatic wildlife in the Bohai region and the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers of China. River monitoring data from 2010 to 2015 for metals, pesticides, plasticizers, surfactants, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants, and ammonia were collected. For each chemical, ecotoxicity data were compiled for Chinese-relevant aquatic species. The chemicals were ranked by relative risk either by comparing the ratios of the median river concentration divided by the median ecotoxicity concentration or by the percentage of river measurements which exceeded the lower 10th percentile ecotoxicity value. To provide context, these results were compared with the same analysis for rivers in the United Kingdom. From this collection of chemicals in Chinese rivers, the highest risks appear to be from Cu, closely followed by Zn, Fe, and Ni together with linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, nonylphenol, and NH3 . This risk, particularly from the metals, can be several times higher than that experienced in UK rivers when using the same analysis. Ammonia median concentrations were notably higher in the Pearl and Yangtze than in UK rivers. The results suggest that China should focus on controlling metal contamination to protect its aquatic wildlife. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1115-1121. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade , Reino Unido
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 599-600: 1372-1381, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531948

RESUMO

This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data. In other words, risk was pared down to just toxicity versus exposure. Further modifications included incorporating bioconcentration factors, using only recent water measurements and excluding either lethal or sub-lethal effects. The top ten chemicals, based on the medians, which emerged as having the highest risk to organisms in UK surface waters using all the ecotoxicity data were copper, aluminium, zinc, ethinylestradiol (EE2), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), triclosan, manganese, iron, methomyl and chlorpyrifos. By way of contrast, using current UK environmental quality standards as the comparator to median UK river water concentrations would have selected 6 different chemicals in the top ten. This approach revealed big differences in relative risk; for example, zinc presented a million times greater risk then metoprolol and LAS 550 times greater risk than nanosilver. With the exception of EE2, most pharmaceuticals were ranked as having a relatively low risk.

11.
Chemosphere ; 178: 11-18, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314123

RESUMO

Freshwater aquatic organisms can be exposed to hundreds of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) discharged by natural and anthropogenic activities. Given our limited resources it is necessary to identify, from the existing evidence, which is the greatest threat so that control measures can be targeted wisely. The focus of this study was to rank POPs according to the relative risk they represent for aquatic organisms in rivers in the Bohai Region, China. A list of 14 POPs was compiled based on the available data on their presence in these rivers and ecotoxicological data. Those that were widely detected were benzo[a]pyrene, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, endrin, fluoranthene, heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane, hexachlorobenzene, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, naphthalene, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and phenanthrene. Effect concentrations were compiled for Chinese relevant and standard test species and compared with river aqueous concentrations. Only bed-sediment concentrations were available so water levels were calculated based on the known local sediment organic carbon concentration and the Koc. The POPs were ranked on the ratio between the median river and median effect concentrations. Of the POPs studied, fluoranthene was ranked as the highest threat, followed by phenanthrene, naphthalene and p,p'-DDE. The risk from p,p'-DDE may be magnified due to being highly bioaccumulative. However, the greatest overlap between river concentrations and effect levels was for lindane. Overall, fish was the most sensitive species group to the risks from POPs. Hotspots with the highest concentrations and hence risk were mainly associated with watercourses draining in Tianjin, the biggest city in the Bohai Region.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China , Peixes , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 220(Pt B): 919-926, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27839989

RESUMO

The arrival and discharge of seven antibiotics were monitored at two trickling filter sewage treatment plants of 6000 and 11,000 population equivalents (PE) and two activated sludge plants of 33,000 and 162,000 PE in Southern England. The investigation consisted of 24 h composite samples taken on two separate days every summer from 2012 to 2015 and in the winter of 2015 (January) from influent and effluent. The average influent concentrations generally matched predictions based on England-wide prescription data for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, oxytetracycline and levofloxacin (within 3-fold), but were 3-10 times less for clarithromycin, whilst tetracycline influent concentrations were 5-17 times greater than expected. Over the four years, effluent concentrations at a single sewage plant varied by up to 16-fold for clarithromycin, 10-fold for levofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, 7-fold for oxytetracycline, 6-fold for tetracycline, 4-fold for azithromycin and 3-fold for trimethoprim. The study attempted to identify the principal reasons for this variation in effluent concentration. By measuring carbamazepine and using it as a conservative indicator of transport through the treatment process, it was found that flow and hence concentration could alter by up to 5-fold. Measuring influent and effluent concentrations allowed assessments to be made of removal efficiency. In the two activated sludge plants, antibiotic removal rates were similar for the tested antibiotics but could vary by several-fold at the trickling filter plants. However, for clarithromycin and levofloxacin the variations in effluent concentration were above that which could be explained by either flow and/or removal alone so here year on year changes in consumption are likely to have played a role.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Esgotos/análise , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Inglaterra , Esgotos/microbiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 575: 1100-1108, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27712869

RESUMO

The quality of surface waters in lowland rivers is largely dependent on the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Even in the developed countries, there have been difficulties in evaluating the effectiveness of wastewater management and the proportion of wastewater content (WWC) in the river, as well as in estimating the contributing human population. This study aimed to develop a wastewater quality and quantity assessment based on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the receiving waters. A survey of 53 pharmaceuticals in 324 samples (river water and influent and effluent of sewage (wastewater) treatment plants) was carried out in southern England in the River Thames catchment over four years. Carbamazepine was selected as stable marker and from its concentration WWC in the rivers and cumulative human populations along the catchment were estimated. The estimated population had a strong relationship (R2=0.94) with that reported by the local water company. The concentration ratio of the labile marker caffeine to carbamazepine indicated the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the different treatment systems (i.e. trickling filter or activated sludge) and in the receiving waters. The ratio in some river samples revealed unexpected discharges of untreated or poorly treated wastewater, with a total concentration of the analytes (up to 20µg/L) five times higher than that in treated wastewater. Such information could be valuable to estimate the discharge or occurrence of not only non-targeted chemicals, but also pathogens within the basin.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Rios/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 576: 78-84, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780102

RESUMO

Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin. The highest sediment concentrations were detected in an urbanised tributary of the Thames, The Cut at Bracknell (HCB: 0.03-0.40µg/kg dw; ICES 7 PCBs: 4.83-7.42µg/kg dw; 6 BDEs: 5.82-23.10µg/kg dw). When concentrations were expressed on a dry weight basis, the fish were much more contaminated than the sediments, but when sediment concentrations were normalised to organic carbon concentration they were comparable to the fish lipid normalised concentrations. Thus, despite the variability in the system, both sediments and wild fish can be considered suitable for representing the level of POPs contamination of the river system given sufficient sample numbers.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Hexaclorobenzeno , Bifenilos Policlorados , Reino Unido
15.
Chemosphere ; 162: 333-44, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27518925

RESUMO

A total of 81 roach (Rutilus rutilus) collected from 13 southern English river sites between 2007 and 2012, were analysed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs and some metals. Unexpectedly high concentrations of the banned insecticide DDT and its degradation products DDE and DDD (∑DDTs) were found in the 10 fish from the river Lee (or Lea) which averaged 88 ± 70 (standard deviation) µg/kg ww, almost 20 times higher than the average for the remaining sites (4.8 ± 3.1 µg/kg). All fish from that site exceeded the Canadian Tissue Residue Guideline (environmental quality standard) of 14 µg/kg ∑DDTs. Concentrations of the insecticides chlordane and lindane as well as copper, which is often used as a fungicide, were also elevated in fish from the Lee, though not as much as those of DDTs. A likely explanation for these observations was found in a nearby former pesticide factory, which had stopped production about three decades earlier. An extensive review of recent literature data on DDT in wild European fish found that, while levels are now generally low, there were several other hotspots with ∑DDTs levels that may still be of concern.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/análise , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , DDT/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agroquímicos/química , Animais , DDT/metabolismo , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 533: 187-95, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26156137

RESUMO

Measurements have shown low levels of PCBs in water but relatively high concentrations in the resident fish of the River Thames (UK). To better understand the distribution and behaviour of PCBs in the Thames river basin and their potential risks, a level III fugacity model was applied to selected PCB congeners (PCB 52, PCB 118 and PCB 153). The modelling results indicated that fish and sediments represent environmental compartments with the highest PCB concentrations; but the greatest mass of PCBs (over 70%) is likely to remain in the soil. As emissions decline, soil could then act as a significant secondary source of PCBs with the river bed-sediment functioning as a long-term reservoir of PCBs. The predicted changes in temperature and rainfall forecast in the UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09) over the next 80 years had only a modest influence on PCB fate in the model. The most significant result was a tendency for climate change to enhance the evaporation of PCBs from soil to air in the Thames catchment.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Inglaterra , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 118: 103-11, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25078785

RESUMO

Thirty-five European eels (Anguilla anguilla), caught in 2007 in the river Thames upstream and downstream of both London and the tidal limit, were analysed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Most chemicals were detectable in every fish, although they have been banned or severely restricted for many years. In general, the tidal eels were more contaminated than upstream ones, which was related to their higher lipid contents. The ICES7 indicator PCB concentrations ranged overall from 4.2 to 124µgkg(-1) fresh weight with averages of 33 and 56µgkg(-1) for the upstream and tidal eels; 3.5-104µgkg(-1), average 26 and 48µgkg(-1) of that were ICES6 PCBs. Total DDT was on average 16µgkg(-1) (1.7-38µgkg(-1)) upstream and 18µgkg(-1) (8.6-35µgkg(-1)) downstream with about half of that provided by pp'DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was found at up to 2.8µgkg(-1) (averages 0.58 and 1.1µgkg(-1) upstream and downstream) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was on average 1.9 and 2.5µgkg(-1) in the two groups with a maximum of 6.4µgkg(-1) in each. Therefore all individuals passed the European Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) of 10µgkg(-1) for HCB. PCB contamination was fairly typical for recent UK eel data, whilst DDE and lindane concentrations were lower than most previous UK eel studies, perhaps reflecting a downward trend. Although not as highly contaminated as some eels from previous UK and European studies, the presence of so many of these chemicals, with their known health effects may represent a stress for the fish or higher predators, such as birds.


Assuntos
Anguilla/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Masculino , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios
18.
Chemosphere ; 112: 49-55, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25048887

RESUMO

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 µg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 µg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 µg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1).


Assuntos
Esgotos/química , Prata/análise , Prata/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Coloides , Ecotoxicologia , Inglaterra , Filtração , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Rios/química , País de Gales
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 461-462: 441-52, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23747559

RESUMO

Since 2007 about 200 to 300 fish per year--generally roach (Rutilus rutilus) also a few bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and eels (Anguilla anguilla)--have been collected from a number of English river sites and stored at -80°C to build up a Fish Tissue Archive as a resource for the monitoring of pollutants. Some of the fish from the Fish Tissue Archive from the years 2007-2011 were analyzed for substances in current and proposed European legislation regarding environmental quality standards (EQS) in biota. It was found that mercury exceeded the EU EQS of 20 µg/kg in 79% of samples with an average and median of 31 and 29 µg/kg. The legacy fungicide hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was below the EQS of 10 µg/kg in all fish analyzed, with a maximum of 6 µg/kg in some eels. The legacy solvent hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was below the EQS of 55 µg/kg, being <0.2 µg/kg in all samples where it was measured. The sums of six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were several orders of magnitude higher than the new proposed 0.0085 µg/kg biota EQS. This study showed that the regular collection and analysis of whole body homogenate samples of relatively small native pelagic fish is suitable for the monitoring of contaminants capable of bioaccumulation. With regard to current or proposed EQS for EU countries, mercury and potentially PBDE in fish are of some concern in these English rivers.


Assuntos
Anguilla/metabolismo , Butadienos/análise , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(13): 2503-10, 2011 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21501856

RESUMO

The fate of Ti was examined in an activated sludge plant serving over 200,000 people. These studies revealed a decrease of 30 to 3.2 µg/L of Ti < 0.45 µm from influent to effluent and a calculated Ti presence of 305 mg/kg DW in wasted sludge. Thus, using sludge as a fertiliser would result in a predicted deposition of up to 250 mg/m² of Ti to soil surfaces using a recommended maximal agricultural application rate. Given the major use of TiO2 in many industrial and domestic applications where loss to the sewer is possible, this measured Ti was presumed to have been largely TiO2, a proportion of which will be nanoparticle sized. To assess the behaviour of engineered nanoparticle (ENP) TiO2 in sewage and toxicology studies, Optisol (Oxonica Materials Ltd) and P25 (Evonik Industries AG), which are representative of forms used in sunscreen and cosmetic products, were used. These revealed a close association of TiO2 ENPs with activated sludge. Using commercial information on consumption, and removal rates for sewage treatment, predictions were made for river water concentrations for sunscreen TiO2 ENPs for the Anglian and Thames regions in Southern England. The highest predicted value from these exercises was 8.8 µg/L for the Thames region in which it was assumed that one in four people used the recommended application of sunscreen during a low flow (Q95) period. Ecotoxicological studies using potentially vulnerable species indicated that 1000 µg/L TiO2 ENP did not affect the viability of a mixed community of river bacteria in the presence of UV light. Direct exposure to TiO2 ENPs did not impair the immuno-effectiveness of earthworm coelomocyte cells at concentrations greatly above those predicted for sewage sludge.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Esgotos/química , Protetores Solares/análise , Titânio/análise , Reino Unido , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Microbiologia da Água
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