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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 144, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639040

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], authors have requested to add a 'J' as middle name for Richard Gilbertson. Hence, full name should be Richard J Gilbertson.

2.
Nature ; 574(7780): 707-711, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664194

RESUMO

In cancer, recurrent somatic single-nucleotide variants-which are rare in most paediatric cancers-are confined largely to protein-coding genes1-3. Here we report highly recurrent hotspot mutations (r.3A>G) of U1 spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in about 50% of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastomas. These mutations were not present across other subgroups of medulloblastoma, and we identified these hotspot mutations in U1 snRNA in only <0.1% of 2,442 cancers, across 36 other tumour types. The mutations occur in 97% of adults (subtype SHHδ) and 25% of adolescents (subtype SHHα) with SHH medulloblastoma, but are largely absent from SHH medulloblastoma in infants. The U1 snRNA mutations occur in the 5' splice-site binding region, and snRNA-mutant tumours have significantly disrupted RNA splicing and an excess of 5' cryptic splicing events. Alternative splicing mediated by mutant U1 snRNA inactivates tumour-suppressor genes (PTCH1) and activates oncogenes (GLI2 and CCND2), and represents a target for therapy. These U1 snRNA mutations provide an example of highly recurrent and tissue-specific mutations of a non-protein-coding gene in cancer.

3.
Nature ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597162

RESUMO

Recurrent somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in cancer are largely confined to protein-coding genes, and are rare in most paediatric cancers1-3. Here we report highly recurrent hotspot mutations of U1 spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in ~50% of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastomas (Shh-MB), which were not present across other medulloblastoma subgroups. This U1-snRNA hotspot mutation (r.3a>g), was identified in <0.1% of 2,442 cancers across 36 other tumour types. Largely absent from infant Shh-MB, the mutation occurs in 97% of adults (Shhδ), and 25% of adolescents (Shhα). The U1-snRNA mutation occurs in the 5' splice site binding region, and snRNA mutant tumours have significantly disrupted RNA splicing with an excess of 5' cryptic splicing events. Mutant U1-snRNA-mediated alternative splicing inactivates tumour suppressor genes (PTCH1), and activates oncogenes (GLI2, CCND2), represents a novel target for therapy, and constitutes a highly recurrent and tissue-specific mutation of a non-protein coding gene in cancer.

5.
Nature ; 573(7773): 281-286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485078

RESUMO

Enzymes that catalyse CpG methylation in DNA, including the DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1), 3A (DNMT3A) and 3B (DNMT3B), are indispensable for mammalian tissue development and homeostasis1-4. They are also implicated in human developmental disorders and cancers5-8, supporting the critical role of DNA methylation in the specification and maintenance of cell fate. Previous studies have suggested that post-translational modifications of histones are involved in specifying patterns of DNA methyltransferase localization and DNA methylation at promoters and actively transcribed gene bodies9-11. However, the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of intergenic DNA methylation remain poorly understood. Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is a childhood overgrowth disorder that is defined by germline mutations in DNMT3A. TBRS shares clinical features with Sotos syndrome (which is caused by haploinsufficiency of NSD1, a histone methyltransferase that catalyses the dimethylation of histone H3 at K36 (H3K36me2)8,12,13), which suggests that there is a mechanistic link between these two diseases. Here we report that NSD1-mediated H3K36me2 is required for the recruitment of DNMT3A and maintenance of DNA methylation at intergenic regions. Genome-wide analysis shows that the binding and activity of DNMT3A colocalize with H3K36me2 at non-coding regions of euchromatin. Genetic ablation of Nsd1 and its paralogue Nsd2 in mouse cells results in a redistribution of DNMT3A to H3K36me3-modified gene bodies and a reduction in the methylation of intergenic DNA. Blood samples from patients with Sotos syndrome and NSD1-mutant tumours also exhibit hypomethylation of intergenic DNA. The PWWP domain of DNMT3A shows dual recognition of H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 in vitro, with a higher binding affinity towards H3K36me2 that is abrogated by TBRS-derived missense mutations. Together, our study reveals a trans-chromatin regulatory pathway that connects aberrant intergenic CpG methylation to human neoplastic and developmental overgrowth.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 117, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological grading of choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) remains the best prognostic tool to distinguish between aggressive choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) and the more benign choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) or atypical choroid plexus papilloma (aCPP); however, these distinctions can be challenging. Standard treatment of CPC is very aggressive and often leads to severe damage to the young child's brain. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish between CPC and less aggressive entities (CPP or aCPP) to avoid unnecessary exposure of the young patient to neurotoxic therapy. To better stratify CPTs, we utilized DNA methylation (DNAm) to identify prognostic epigenetic biomarkers for CPCs. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 34 CPTs using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from Illumina, and the data was analyzed using the Illumina Genome Studio analysis software. Validation of differentially methylated CpG sites chosen as biomarkers was performed using pyrosequencing analysis on additional 22 CPTs. Sensitivity testing of the CPC DNAm signature was performed on a replication cohort of 61 CPT tumors obtained from Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. RESULTS: Generated genome-wide DNAm profiles of CPTs showed significant differences in DNAm between CPCs and the CPPs or aCPPs. The prediction of clinical outcome could be improved by combining the DNAm profile with the mutational status of TP53. CPCs with homozygous TP53 mutations clustered as a group separate from those carrying a heterozygous TP53 mutation or CPCs with wild type TP53 (TP53-wt) and showed the worst survival outcome. Specific DNAm signatures for CPCs revealed AK1, PER2, and PLSCR4 as potential biomarkers for CPC that can be used to improve molecular stratification for diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that combining specific DNAm signature for CPCs with histological approaches better differentiate aggressive tumors from those that are not life threatening. These findings have important implications for future prognostic risk prediction in clinical disease management.

8.
Cancer Cell ; 36(1): 51-67.e7, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287992

RESUMO

Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are highly lethal infant brain cancers with characteristic amplification of Chr19q13.41 miRNA cluster (C19MC) and enrichment of pluripotency factor LIN28A. Here we investigated C19MC oncogenic mechanisms and discovered a C19MC-LIN28A-MYCN circuit fueled by multiple complex regulatory loops including an MYCN core transcriptional network and super-enhancers resulting from long-range MYCN DNA interactions and C19MC gene fusions. Our data show that this powerful oncogenic circuit, which entraps an early neural lineage network, is potently abrogated by bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, leading to ETMR cell death.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2891, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253791

RESUMO

Our ability to manage acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is limited by our incomplete understanding of the epigenetic disruption central to leukemogenesis, including improper histone methylation. Here we examine 16 histone H3 genes in 434 primary AML samples and identify Q69H, A26P, R2Q, R8H and K27M/I mutations (1.6%), with higher incidence in secondary AML (9%). These mutations occur in pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and exist in the major leukemic clones in patients. They increase the frequency of functional HSCs, alter differentiation, and amplify leukemic aggressiveness. These effects are dependent on the specific mutation. H3K27 mutation increases the expression of genes involved in erythrocyte and myeloid differentiation with altered H3K27 tri-methylation and K27 acetylation. The functional impact of histone mutations is independent of RUNX1 mutation, although they at times co-occur. This study establishes that H3 mutations are drivers of human pre-cancerous stem cell expansion and important early events in leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Experimentais
10.
Nature ; 572(7767): 67-73, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043743

RESUMO

Study of the origin and development of cerebellar tumours has been hampered by the complexity and heterogeneity of cerebellar cells that change over the course of development. Here we use single-cell transcriptomics to study more than 60,000 cells from the developing mouse cerebellum and show that different molecular subgroups of childhood cerebellar tumours mirror the transcription of cells from distinct, temporally restricted cerebellar lineages. The Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma subgroup transcriptionally mirrors the granule cell hierarchy as expected, while group 3 medulloblastoma resembles Nestin+ stem cells, group 4 medulloblastoma resembles unipolar brush cells, and PFA/PFB ependymoma and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma resemble the prenatal gliogenic progenitor cells. Furthermore, single-cell transcriptomics of human childhood cerebellar tumours demonstrates that many bulk tumours contain a mixed population of cells with divergent differentiation. Our data highlight cerebellar tumours as a disorder of early brain development and provide a proximate explanation for the peak incidence of cerebellar tumours in early childhood.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 35(5): 782-797.e8, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085178

RESUMO

High-grade gliomas defined by histone 3 K27M driver mutations exhibit global loss of H3K27 trimethylation and reciprocal gain of H3K27 acetylation, respectively shaping repressive and active chromatin landscapes. We generated tumor-derived isogenic models bearing this mutation and show that it leads to pervasive H3K27ac deposition across the genome. In turn, active enhancers and promoters are not created de novo and instead reflect the epigenomic landscape of the cell of origin. H3K27ac is enriched at repeat elements, resulting in their increased expression, which in turn can be further amplified by DNA demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors providing an exquisite therapeutic vulnerability. These agents may therefore modulate anti-tumor immune responses as a therapeutic modality for this untreatable disease.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2146, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086175

RESUMO

Posterior fossa type A (PFA) ependymomas exhibit very low H3K27 methylation and express high levels of EZHIP (Enhancer of Zeste Homologs Inhibitory Protein, also termed CXORF67). Here we find that a conserved sequence in EZHIP is necessary and sufficient to inhibit PRC2 catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo. EZHIP directly contacts the active site of the EZH2 subunit in a mechanism similar to the H3 K27M oncohistone. Furthermore, expression of H3 K27M or EZHIP in cells promotes similar chromatin profiles: loss of broad H3K27me3 domains, but retention of H3K27me3 at CpG islands. We find that H3K27me3-mediated allosteric activation of PRC2 substantially increases the inhibition potential of EZHIP and H3 K27M, providing a mechanism to explain the observed loss of H3K27me3 spreading in tumors. Our data indicate that PFA ependymoma and DIPG are driven in part by the action of peptidyl PRC2 inhibitors, the K27M oncohistone and the EZHIP 'oncohistone-mimic', that dysregulate gene silencing to promote tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Ependimoma/genética , Glioma/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Fossa Craniana Posterior , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Embrião de Mamíferos , Ependimoma/patologia , Fibroblastos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Glioma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Histonas , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192906, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026031

RESUMO

Importance: Little progress in pediatric cancer treatment has been noted in the past decade, urging the development of novel therapeutic strategies for adolescents and children with hard-to-treat cancers. Use of comprehensive molecular profiling in the clinical management of children and adolescents with cancer appears a suitable approach to improve patient care and outcomes, particularly for hard-to-treat cases. Objective: To assess the feasibility of identifying potentially actionable mutations using next-generation sequencing-based assays in a clinically relevant time frame. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic study reports the results of the TRICEPS study, a prospective genome sequencing study conducted in Québec, Canada. Participants, aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis, with refractory or relapsed childhood and adolescent cancers were enrolled from April 2014 through January 2018. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of matched tumor normal samples and RNA sequencing of tumor were performed to identify single-nucleotide variants, fusion transcripts, differential gene expression, and copy number alterations. Results reviewed by a team of experts were further annotated, synthesized into a report, and subsequently discussed in a multidisciplinary molecular tumor board. Main Outcomes and Measures: Molecular profiling of pediatric patients with hard-to-treat cancer, identification of actionable and targetable alteration needed for the management of these patients, and proposition of targeted and personalized novel therapeutic strategies. Results: A total of 84 patients with hard-to-treat cancers were included in the analysis. These patients had a mean (range) age of 10.1 (1-21) years and a similar proportion of male (45 [54%]) and female (39 [46%]). Sixty-two patients (74%) had suitable tissues for multimodal molecular profiling (WES and RNA sequencing). The process from DNA or RNA isolation to genomic sequencing and data analysis steps took a median (range) of 24 (4-41) days. Potentially actionable alterations were identified in 54 of 62 patients (87%). Actions were taken in 22 of 54 patients (41%), and 18 (33%) either were on a second or third line of treatment, were in remission, or had stable disease and thus no actions were taken. Conclusions and Relevance: Incorporating genomic sequencing into the management of hard-to-treat childhood and adolescent cancers appeared feasible; molecular profiling may enable the identification of potentially actionable alterations with clinical implications for most patients, including targeted therapy and clinically relevant information of diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring significance.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1262, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890717

RESUMO

Lys-27-Met mutations in histone 3 genes (H3K27M) characterize a subgroup of deadly gliomas and decrease genome-wide H3K27 trimethylation. Here we use primary H3K27M tumor lines and isogenic CRISPR-edited controls to assess H3K27M effects in vitro and in vivo. We find that whereas H3K27me3 and H3K27me2 are normally deposited by PRC2 across broad regions, their deposition is severely reduced in H3.3K27M cells. H3K27me3 is unable to spread from large unmethylated CpG islands, while H3K27me2 can be deposited outside these PRC2 high-affinity sites but to levels corresponding to H3K27me3 deposition in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that PRC2 recruitment and propagation on chromatin are seemingly unaffected by K27M, which mostly impairs spread of the repressive marks it catalyzes, especially H3K27me3. Genome-wide loss of H3K27me3 and me2 deposition has limited transcriptomic consequences, preferentially affecting lowly-expressed genes regulating neurogenesis. Removal of H3K27M restores H3K27me2/me3 spread, impairs cell proliferation, and completely abolishes their capacity to form tumors in mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Histonas/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metionina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Neurogênese/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(5): 628-639, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent specific mutations in evolutionarily conserved histone 3 (H3) variants drive pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs), but little is known about their downstream effects. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the detrimental effects of mutant H3.3-K27M, the main genetic driver in lethal midline HGG, in a transgenic Drosophila model. METHODS: Mutant and wild-type histone H3.3-expressing flies were generated using a φC31-based integration system. Genetic modifier screens were performed by crossing H3.3-K27M expressing driver strains and 194 fly lines expressing short hairpin RNA targeting genes selected based on their potential role in the detrimental effects of mutant H3. Expression of the human orthologues of genes with functional relevance in the fly model was validated in H3-K27M mutant HGG. RESULTS: Ubiquitous and midline glia-specific expression of H3.3-K27M but not wild-type H3.3 caused pupal lethality, morphological alterations, and decreased H3K27me3. Knockdown of 17 candidate genes shifted the lethal phenotype to later stages of development. These included histone modifying and chromatin remodeling genes as well as genes regulating cell differentiation and proliferation. Notably, several of these genes were overexpressed in mutant H3-K27M mutated HGG. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid screening, identification, and validation of relevant targets in "oncohistone" mediated pathogenesis have proven a challenge and a barrier to providing novel therapies. Our results provide further evidence on the role of chromatin modifiers in the genesis of H3.3-K27M. Notably, they validate Drosophila as a model system for rapid identification of relevant genes functionally involved in the detrimental effects of H3.3-K27M mutagenesis.

16.
Oncogene ; 38(16): 2994-3002, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575814

RESUMO

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is emerging as a tumor entity with dysregulated RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling. In this study, we report the identification of a novel recurrent BRAF insertion (p.V504_R506dup) in five PA cases harboring exclusively this somatic tandem duplication. This recurrent alteration leads to an addition of three amino acids in the kinase domain of BRAF and has functional impact on activating MAPK phosphorylation. Importantly, we show that this mutation confers resistance to RAF inhibitors without changing effectiveness while downstream MEK inhibitors remain effective. Our results further emphasize the importance of BRAF alterations in PA and the need to characterize them in a given tumor as this can affect therapeutic strategies and their potential use as tumor marker in molecular diagnostics.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Linhagem Celular , Genes Duplicados/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4572, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385747

RESUMO

Giant cell lesions of the jaw (GCLJ) are debilitating tumors of unknown origin with limited available therapies. Here, we analyze 58 sporadic samples using next generation or targeted sequencing and report somatic, heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in KRAS, FGFR1, and p.M713V/I-TRPV4 in 72% (42/58) of GCLJ. TRPV4 p.M713V/I mutations are exclusive to central GCLJ and occur at a critical position adjacent to the cation permeable pore of the channel. Expression of TRPV4 mutants in HEK293 cells leads to increased cell death, as well as increased constitutive and stimulated channel activity, both of which can be prevented using TRPV4 antagonists. Furthermore, these mutations induce sustained activation of ERK1/2, indicating that their effects converge with that of KRAS and FGFR1 mutations on the activation of the MAPK pathway in GCLJ. Our data extend the spectrum of TRPV4 channelopathies and provide rationale for the use of TRPV4 and RAS/MAPK antagonists at the bedside in GCLJ.

18.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429576

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the main-text sentence "In three patients of European ancestry, we identified the germline variant encoding p.Ile97Met in TIM-3, which was homozygous in two (P12 and P13) and heterozygous in one (P15) in the germline but with no TIM-3 plasma membrane expression in the tumor" misstated the identifiers of the two homozygous individuals, which should have been P13 and P14. The error has been corrected in the HTML, PDF and print versions of the paper.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1650-1657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374066

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL), a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, can be associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening immune activation that adversely affects survival1,2. T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) is a modulator of immune responses expressed on subgroups of T and innate immune cells. We identify in ~60% of SPTCL cases germline, loss-of-function, missense variants altering highly conserved residues of TIM-3, c.245A>G (p.Tyr82Cys) and c.291A>G (p.Ile97Met), each with specific geographic distribution. The variant encoding p.Tyr82Cys TIM-3 occurs on a potential founder chromosome in patients with East Asian and Polynesian ancestry, while p.Ile97Met TIM-3 occurs in patients with European ancestry. Both variants induce protein misfolding and abrogate TIM-3's plasma membrane expression, leading to persistent immune activation and increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, promoting HLH and SPTCL. Our findings highlight HLH-SPTCL as a new genetic entity and identify mutations causing TIM-3 alterations as a causative genetic defect in SPTCL. While HLH-SPTCL patients with mutant TIM-3 benefit from immunomodulation, therapeutic repression of the TIM-3 checkpoint may have adverse consequences.

20.
J Neurooncol ; 140(2): 435-444, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097824

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are low grade gliomas and the most common brain tumors in children. They often represent a therapeutic challenge when incompletely resected as they can recur and progress despite the use of several lines of chemotherapeutic agents or even radiation therapy. Genetic alterations leading to activation of the mitogen-activated-protein-kinase pathway are a hallmark of this disease and offer an interesting therapeutic alternative through the use of targeted inhibitors. METHODS: Here, we describe six children with sporadic PA who were treated with trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, following progression under conventional therapies. Retrospective chart review was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 2.3 years (y) old [range 11 months (m)-8.5 y old]. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion was identified in five cases, and hotspot FGFR1/NF1/PTPN11 mutations in one. All patients received at least one previous line of chemotherapy (range 1-4). The median time on treatment was 11 m (range 4-20). Overall, we observed two partial responses and three minor responses as best response; three of these patients are still on therapy. Treatment was discontinued in the patient with progressive disease. The most frequent toxicities were minor to moderately severe skin rash and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Two patients had dose reduction due to skin toxicity. Quality of life was excellent with decreased hospital visits and a close to normal life. CONCLUSION: Trametinib appears to be a suitable option for refractory pediatric low-grade glioma and warrants further investigations in case of progression.

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