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1.
Blood Adv ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061885

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a clinically aggressive blood cancer, often involving skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes, as well as central nervous system (CNS) involvement in 20-30% of patients. Despite significant progress in CD123- and BCL-2-targeted therapy, most patients are not cured outside of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and CNS relapses are being observed quite frequently. Combination approaches with both targeted and chemotherapy agents plus incorporation of prophylactic CNS-directed therapy are urgently needed. In this setting, we sought to analyze outcomes of the cytotoxic chemotherapy backbone regimen hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (HCVAD) in BPDCN. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with BPDCN (n=100), evaluating complete remission (CR) and median overall survival (OS) among three groups: those who received frontline HCVAD-based (n=35) vs SL-401 (n=37) vs other regimens (n=28). HCVAD-based regimens yielded higher CR (80% vs 59% vs 43%, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in OS (28.3 vs 13.7 vs 22.8 months p=0.41), nor significant difference in remission duration probability among treatment groups (38.6 vs NR vs 10.2 months; p=0.24). HSCT was performed in 51% vs 49% vs 38% respectively (p=0.455). These results suggest a continued important role for HCVAD-based chemotherapy for BPDCN, even in the modern targeted-therapy era, with high CR rates in the frontline setting. Further studies must establish the clinical activity, feasibility, and safety, of doublet/triplet combinations of targeted therapies plus cytotoxic agents and addition of CNS prophylaxis, with ultimate goal of durable long-term remissions for patients with BPDCN.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914826

RESUMO

Patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high-risk for relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We conducted a single center phase II study evaluating the feasibility of 4 cycles of blinatumomab administered every 3 months during the first year after HCT in an effort to mitigate relapse in high-risk ALL patients. Twenty-one of 23 enrolled patients received at least one cycle of blinatumomab and were included in the analysis. The median time from HCT to the first cycle of blinatumomab was 78 days (range, 44-105). Twelve patients (57%) completed all 4 treatment cycles. Neutropenia was the only grade 4 adverse event (19%). Rates of cytokine release (5% G1) and neurotoxicity (5% G2) were minimal. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades 2-4 and 3-4 were 33% and 5%, respectively; two cases of mild (10%) and one case of moderate (5%) chronic GVHD were noted. With a median follow-up of 14.3 months, the 1-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and non-relapse mortality rates were 85%, 71%, and 0%, respectively. In a matched-analysis with a contemporary cohort of 57 patients, we found no significant difference between groups regarding blinatumomab's efficacy. Correlative studies of baseline and post-treatment samples identified patients with specific T-cell profiles as "responders" or "non-responders" to therapy. Responders had higher proportions of effector memory CD8 T-cell subsets. Non-responders were T-cell deficient and expressed more inhibitory checkpoint molecules, including TIM3. We found that blinatumomab post-allogeneic HCT is feasible, and its benefit is dependent on the immune milieu at time of treatment.

3.
Cancer ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614211

RESUMO

Progress is occurring at a dizzying rate across all leukemias. Since the authors' review of the topic in Cancer in 2018, numerous discoveries have been made that have improved the therapy and outcomes of several leukemia subsets. Hairy cell leukemia is potentially curable with a single course of cladribine followed by rituximab (10-year survival, ≥90%). Acute promyelocytic leukemia is curable at a rate of 80% to 90% with a nonchemotherapy regimen of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide. The cure rate for core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is ≥75% with fludarabine, high-dose cytarabine, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Survival for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia is close to that for an age-matched normal population with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a previously incurable disease, may now be potentially curable with a finite duration of therapy with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and venetoclax. The estimated 5-year survival rate for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exceeds 70% with intensive chemotherapy and ponatinib, a third-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI, and more recent nonchemotherapy regimens using dasatinib or ponatinib with blinatumomab are producing outstanding results. Survival in both younger and older patients with ALL has improved with the addition of antibodies targeting CD20, CD19 (blinatumomab), and CD22 (inotuzumab) to chemotherapy. Several recent drug discoveries (venetoclax, FLT3 and IDH inhibitors, and oral hypomethylating agents) are also improving outcomes for younger and older patients with AML and for those with higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(21): 5847-5856, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare outcomes between patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma who received a nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) and those who received an autologous transplant (autoSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 194 patients with follicular lymphoma who received an alloSCT (n = 98) or autoSCT (n = 96) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX). The transplant type used was based on donor availability and by Medicare reimbursement guidelines. Patients who received an alloSCT were enrolled in four consecutive trials in which they received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide (or bendamustine), and rituximab conditioning. autoSCT patients received R-BEAM (rituximab, carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan). RESULTS: The median follow-up of survivors was 108 months for the alloSCT group and 102 months for the autoSCT group. Overall survival was significantly better for patients who received an alloSCT compared with those who received an autoSCT (62% vs. 46%; P = 0.048). Similarly, progression-free survival rates were 52% in patients who received an alloSCT and 31% in those who received an autoSCT (P < 0.001), and the 8-year relapse rates were 11% and 43%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only three patients in the alloSCT group relapsed beyond 3.5 years. In the alloSCT group, the rates for grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 22%, 9%, and 38%, respectively. In the autoSCT group, the 8-year incidence of secondary myelodysplasia was 11%. Nonrelapse mortality was similar between the two groups (15% vs. 11% at 8 years; P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that alloSCT is curative and confers superior survival compared with autoSCT in patients with follicular lymphoma.

5.
Cancer ; 127(22): 4213-4220, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has poor outcomes. Although lower-intensity venetoclax-containing regimens are standard for older/unfit patients with newly diagnosed AML, it is unknown how such regimens compare with intensive chemotherapy (IC) for R/R AML. METHODS: Outcomes of R/R AML treated with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) were compared with IC-based regimens including idarubicin with cytarabine, with or without cladribine, clofarabine, or fludarabine, with or without additional agents. Propensity scores derived from patient baseline characteristics were used to match DEC10-VEN and IC patients to minimize bias. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients in the DEC10-VEN cohort were matched to 130 IC recipients. The median ages for the DEC10-VEN and IC groups were 64 and 58 years, respectively, and baseline characteristics were balanced between the 2 cohorts. DEC10-VEN conferred significantly higher responses compared with IC including higher overall response rate (60% vs 36%; odds ratio [OR], 3.28; P < .001), complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi, 19% vs 6%; OR, 3.56; P = .012), minimal residual disease negativity by flow cytometry (28% vs 13%; OR, 2.48; P = .017), and lower rates of refractory disease. DEC10-VEN led to significantly longer median event-free survival compared with IC (5.7 vs 1.5 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70; P < .001), as well as median overall survival (OS; 6.8 vs 4.7 months; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86; P = .008). DEC10-VEN was independently associated with improved OS compared with IC in multivariate analysis. Exploratory analysis for OS in 27 subgroups showed that DEC10-VEN was comparable with IC as salvage therapy for R/R AML. CONCLUSION: DEC10-VEN represents an appropriate salvage therapy and may offer better responses and survival compared with IC in adults with R/R AML.

6.
Cancer ; 127(22): 4190-4197, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-precursor cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in adults is an aggressive and challenging condition, and patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), or noncandidates for SCT, have a particularly poor prognosis. The authors investigated the activity of the Fc-modified anti-CD19 antibody tafasitamab in adults with R/R B-ALL (NCT01685021). METHODS: Adults with R/R B-ALL received single-agent tafasitamab 12 mg/kg weekly for up to four 28-day cycles. Patients with complete remission (with or without neutrophil/platelet recovery; complete remission [CR] or complete remission with incomplete count recovery [CRi]) after cycles 2, 3, or 4 could continue tafasitamab every 2 weeks for up to 3 further months. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were treated (median, 2 prior lines of therapy; range, 1-8). Six patients completed 2 cycles, and 2 of these patients responded for an ORR of 9%; 16 patients (73%) progressed before their first response assessment. Responses lasted 8 and 4 weeks in the 2 patients with CR and minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative CRi, respectively. Tafasitamab produced rapid B-cell/blast depletion in 21 of 22 patients within 1 to 2 weeks of first administration. Tafasitamab was well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse events being infusion-related reactions (59.1%) and fatigue (40.9%). Grade 3 to 4 febrile neutropenia (22.7%) was the most common hematologic adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: Tafasitamab monotherapy was associated with clinical activity in a subset of patients with R/R B-ALL, including short-lasting CR and MRD-negative CRi. Given its favorable tolerability profile, further development of tafasitamab in chemoimmunotherapy combinations and MRD settings should be explored.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 194(6): 1034-1038, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402058

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11B (BCL11B) is an essential transcription factor for T-cell lineage commitment and maturation. We investigated BCL11B expression by immunohistochemistry in T-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL/LBL) (n = 115). The majority (83%) of early T-cell precursor T-ALL/LBL (ETP-ALL) cases showed negative BCL11B expression, while most (84%) of non-ETP-ALL/LBL were positive for BCL11B. A simplified three-marker [BCL11B, cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5), CD13] immunophenotypic score discriminated reliably between ETP-ALL and non-ETP-ALL/LBL. In ETP-ALL, patients with positive BCL11B expression had a better overall survival than those with negative BCL11B (P = 0·009). In summary, BCL11B is a valuable marker for T-ALL/LBL subtyping and serves as a potential prognostic marker in patients with ETP-ALL.

8.
Cancer ; 127(18): 3381-3389, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab (hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab) has not been compared with the outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD plus rituximab (hyper-CVAD + Rituximab) in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The authors compared the outcomes of 69 patients treated with hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab and 95 historical-control patients treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab. Historical-control patients were treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab if they had CD20 expression ≥ 20%. Ofatumumab (day 1 of course 1, 300 mg intravenously; subsequent doses, 2000 mg intravenously) was administered on days 1 and 11 of courses 1 and 3 and on days 1 and 8 of courses 2 and 4 for a total of 8 doses. A propensity score analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between groups. RESULTS: The median event-free survival with stem cell transplantation (SCT) censoring was 33 and 65 months with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab and hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab, respectively (crude P = .064; IPTW P = .054). The median overall survival with SCT censoring was 52 months and not reached, respectively (crude P = .087; IPTW P = .097). CONCLUSIONS: Hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab was associated with better outcomes than hyper-CVAD + Rituximab among patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL.

9.
Blood Adv ; 5(7): 1876-1883, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792630

RESUMO

Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) provides prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the utility of MRD with venetoclax-based lower intensity regimens is unknown. We analyzed the prognostic value of achieving a negative MRD in older/"unfit" patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. MRD was evaluated in bone marrow specimens using multicolor flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.1%). Ninety-seven patients achieving either a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) or morphologic leukemia-free state were included. Median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 68-78 years), and 64% had adverse-risk AML. Eighty-three patients achieved CR/CRi, and 52 (54%) became MRD negative. Median time to becoming MRD negative was 2.0 months (interquartile range, 0.9-3.1 months). Patients becoming MRD negative by 2 months had longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with those remaining MRD positive (median RFS, not reached vs 5.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.78; P = .004), longer event-free survival (EFS) (median EFS, not reached vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55; P < .001), as well as longer overall survival (OS) (median OS, 25.1 vs 7.1 months; HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.51; P < .001). Patients achieving an MRD-negative CR had longer OS compared with those with an inferior response (median OS, 25.1 vs 11.6 months; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58; P < .0005). Patients becoming MRD negative within 1 month had an improved OS compared with MRD-positive patients (median OS, 25.1 vs 3.4 months; HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.64; P < .0001). Differential impact of MRD status on survival outcomes persisted at a later 4-month time point of evaluation. In conclusion, MRD-negative status at 1, 2, and 4 months after starting therapy confers significantly better survival in older/unfit patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03404193.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Sulfonamidas
10.
Haematologica ; 106(8): 2121-2130, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853292

RESUMO

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that quizartinib, a selective and potent FLT3 inhibitor, with azacitidine (AZA) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) might improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML. In this open-label phase I/II trial, patients of any age receiving first-salvage treatment for FLT3-ITD AML or age >60 years with untreated myelodysplastic syndrome or AML were treated with quizartinib plus AZA or LDAC. Seventy-three patients were treated (34 frontline, 39 first-salvage). Among previously untreated patients, composite response (CRc) was achieved in 13/15 (87%, 8 CR, 4 Cri, 1 CRp) treated with quizartinib/AZA and 14/19 (74%, 1 CR, 8 CRi, 5 CRp) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS was 19.2 months for quizartinib/AZA and 8.5 months for quizartinib/LDAC cohort; RFS was 10.5 and 6.4 months, respectively. Among previously treated patients, 16 (64%) achieved CRc in quizartinib/AZA and 4 (29%) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS for patients treated with quizartinib/AZA and quizartinib/LDAC was 12.8 vs. 4 months, respectively. QTc prolongation grade 3 occurred in only 1 patient in each cohort. Quizartinib-based combinations, particularly with AZA, appear effective in both frontline and first-salvage for patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML and are well tolerated.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Azacitidina , Benzotiazóis , Citarabina , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Compostos de Fenilureia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
14.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(1): 224-228, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955970

RESUMO

The recurring translocation t(1;19) (q23;p13) with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangements are uncommon in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and their prognostic impact remains to be described in the era of modern chemotherapies. We investigated 427 adult patients with newly diagnosed pre-B ALL, 16 (4%) had t(1;19)(q23;p13) at diagnosis. All 16 patients achieved complete remission after induction with intensive chemotherapy, and with a median of 7-year follow-up, 2 relapsed. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse and overall survival rates were 14% and 82%, respectively. Our analysis showed that adult patients with t(1;19)(q23;p13) positive ALL had favorable prognosis with intensive chemotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Translocação Genética
16.
Am J Hematol ; 96(2): 241-250, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180322

RESUMO

Extreme gradient boosting methods outperform conventional machine-learning models. Here, we have developed the LEukemia Artificial intelligence Program (LEAP) with the extreme gradient boosting decision tree method for the optimal treatment recommendation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). A cohort of CML-CP patients was randomly divided into training/validation (N = 504) and test cohorts (N = 126). The training/validation cohort was used for 3-fold cross validation to develop the LEAP CML-CP model using 101 variables at diagnosis. The test cohort was then applied to the LEAP CML-CP model and an optimum TKI treatment was suggested for each patient. The area under the curve in the test cohort was 0.81899.Backward multivariate analysis identified age at diagnosis, the degree of comorbidities, and TKI recommended therapy by the LEAP CML-CP model as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The bootstrapping method internally validated the association of the LEAP CML-CP recommendation with overall survival as an independent prognostic for overall survival. Selecting treatment according to the LEAP CML-CP personalized recommendations, in this model, is associated with better survival probability compared to treatment with a LEAP CML-CP non-recommended therapy. This approach may pave a way of new era of personalized treatment recommendations for patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Haematologica ; 106(4): 1097-1105, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297667

RESUMO

Treatment of acute leukemia with intensive chemotherapy leads to an increased risk of myelosuppression. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blockade improves hematopoietic recovery in mice after radiation or chemotherapy, through protection of the hematopoietic stem cells which express the LH receptor. We hypothesized that LH blockade improves hematopoietic recovery following intensive chemotherapy in patients with leukemia. We conducted a retrospective analysis on pre-menopausal women with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received intensive chemotherapy and leuprolide given for abnormal uterine bleeding prevention or treatment. Given that leuprolide was more commonly administered in younger patients, we performed propensity score matching between the leuprolide (AML N=64; ALL N=49) and control groups (AML N=128; ALL N=98 patients). Patients with AML who received leuprolide had an additional increase of 13.8 x 109/L/year in their platelet count, and a 0.19 x 109/L/year increase in their lymphocyte count after chemotherapy compared to control (P=0.02; P=0.03 respectively). Those with ALL who received leuprolide had an additional increase of 0.37 x 109/L/year in their absolute neutrophil count (P=0.02). In AML, leuprolide was associated with higher long-term hemoglobin levels (P.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Leucócitos , Hormônio Luteinizante , Camundongos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Am J Hematol ; 96(3): 282-291, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264443

RESUMO

Hypomethylating agents (HMA) with venetoclax is a new standard for older/unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it is unknown how HMA with venetoclax compare to intensive chemotherapy (IC) in patients who are "fit" or "unfit" for IC. We compared outcomes of older patients with newly diagnosed AML receiving 10-day decitabine with venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) vs IC. DEC10-VEN consisted of daily venetoclax with decitabine 20 mg/m2 for 10 days for induction and decitabine for 5 days as consolidation. The IC cohort received regimens containing cytarabine ≥1 g/m2 /d. A validated treatment-related mortality score (TRMS) was used to classify patients at high-risk or low-risk for TRM with IC. Propensity scores were used to match patients to minimize bias. Median age of the DEC10-VEN cohort (n = 85) was 72 years (range 63-89) and 28% patients were at high-risk of TRM with IC. The comparator IC group (n = 85) matched closely in terms of baseline characteristics. DEC10-VEN was associated with significantly higher CR/CRi compared to IC (81% vs 52%, P < .001), and lower rate of relapse (34% vs 56%, P = .01), 30-day mortality (1% vs 24%, P < .01), and longer overall survival (OS; 12.4 vs 4.5 months, HR = 0.48, 95%CI 0.29-0.79, P < .01). In patients at both at high-risk and low-risk of TRM, DEC10-VEN showed significantly higher CR/CRi, lower 30-day mortality, and longer OS compared to IC. Patients at both high-risk and low-risk of TRM had comparable outcomes with DEC10-VEN. In conclusion, DEC10-VEN offers better outcomes compared to intensive chemotherapy in older patients with newly diagnosed AML, particularly in those at high-risk of TRM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
19.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 132, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-generation FLT3-inhibitors (FLT3i) demonstrated single-agent composite CR rates (CRc) of 45-55% in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) FLT3-mutated AML in phase II/III trials. However, > 85% of patients treated were prior FLT3i naïve. The response rates to sequential FLT3i exposure remain poorly defined. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with FLT3-mutated AML between November 2006 and December 2019. RESULTS: In frontline patients treated with a FLT3i (cohort 1), the CRc rates and median overall survival (OS) with the first (n = 56), second (n = 32), and third FLT3i-based (n = 8) therapy were 77%, 31%, and 25%, and 16.7 months, 6.0 months, and 1.4 months, respectively. In patients receiving a FLT3i-based therapy for the first time in a R/R AML setting (cohort 2), the CRc rates and median OS were 45%, 21%, and 10%, and 7.9 months, 4.0 months, and 4.1 months with the first (n = 183), second (n = 89), and third/fourth (n = 29) FLT3i-based therapy, respectively. In cohort 1, CRc rates with single-agent FLT3i (n = 21) versus FLT3i-based combinations (n = 19) in second/third sequential FLT3i exposures were 19% versus 42%, respectively. In cohort 2, the CRc rates with single-agent FLT3i (n = 82) versus FLT3i-based combinations (n = 101) in first FLT3i exposure were 34% versus 53%, respectively, and those with single-agent FLT3i (n = 63) versus FLT3i-based combinations (n = 55) in second/third/fourth sequential FLT3i exposures were 13% versus 25%, respectively. CONCLUSION: CRc rates drop progressively with sequential exposure to FLT3i's in FLT3-mutated AML. In all settings, CRc rates were higher with FLT3i-based combinations compared with single-agent FLT3i therapy in similar FLT3i exposure settings.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e724-e736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups. METHODS: This single centre, phase 2 trial was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). The study enrolled older patients (aged >60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy; secondary AML (progressed after myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia); and relapsed or refractory AML. Patients were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or less, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109 per L, and adequate end-organ function. Patients with favourable-risk cytogenetics (eg, t[15;17] or core-binding factor AML) or who had received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 10 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days with daily venetoclax for consolidation. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. The secondary endpoints analysed within this report include safety, overall survival, and duration of response, in keeping with recommendations of European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were eligible for safety and response assessments. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03404193) and continues to accrue patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Dec 16, 2019, we enrolled 168 patients; 70 (42%) had newly diagnosed AML, 15 (9%) had untreated secondary AML, 28 (17%) had treated secondary AML, and 55 (33%) had relapsed or refractory AML. The median age was 71 years (IQR 65-76) and 30% of patients had ECOG performance status of 2 or higher. The median follow-up for all patients was 16 months (95% CI 12-18; actual follow-up 6·5 months; IQR 3·4-12·4). The overall response rate was 74% (125 of 168 patients; 95% CI 67-80) and in disease subgroups were: 89% in newly diagnosed AML (62 of 70 patients; 79-94), 80% in untreated secondary AML (12 of 15 patients; 55-93), 61% in treated secondary AML (17 of 28 patients; 42-76), and 62% in relapsed or refractory AML (34 of 55 patients; 49-74). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events included infections with grades 3 or 4 neutropenia (n=79, 47%) and febrile neutropenia (n=49, 29%). 139 (83%) of 168 patients had serious adverse events, most frequently neutropenic fever (n=63, 38%), followed by pneumonia (n=17, 10%) and sepsis (n=16, 10%). The 30-day mortality for all patients was 3·6% (n=6, 95% CI 1·7-7·8). The median overall survival was 18·1 months (95% CI 10·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 7·8 months (2·9-10·7) in untreated secondary AML, 6·0 months (3·4-13·7) in treated secondary AML, and 7·8 months (5·4-13·3) relapsed or refractory AML. The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 5·1 months (95% CI 0·9-not reached) in untreated secondary AML, not reached (95% CI 2·5-not reached) in previously treated secondary AML, and 16·8 months (95% CI 6·6-not reached) in relapsed or refractory AML. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax with 10-day decitabine has a manageable safety profile and showed high activity in newly diagnosed AML and molecularly defined subsets of relapsed or refractory AML. Future larger and randomised studies are needed to clarify activity in high-risk subsets. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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