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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
2.
Hum Cell ; 34(1): 111-121, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935295

RESUMO

Tumor dissemination into the surrounding stroma is the initial step in a metastatic cascade. Invasion into stroma is a non-autonomous process for cancer, and its progression depends upon the stage of cancer, as well as the cells residing in the stroma. However, a systems framework to understand how stromal fibroblasts resist, collude, or aid cancer invasion has been lacking, limiting our understanding of the role of stromal biology in cancer metastasis. We and others have shown that gene perturbation in stromal fibroblasts can modulate cancer invasion into the stroma, highlighting the active role stroma plays in regulating its own invasion. However, cancer invasion into stroma is a complex higher-order process and consists of various sub-phenotypes that together can result in an invasion. Stromal invasion exhibits a diversity of modalities in vivo. It is not well understood if these diverse modalities are correlated, or they emanate from distinct mechanisms and if stromal biology could regulate these characteristics. These characteristics include the extent of invasion, formation, and persistence of invasive forks by cancer as opposed to a collective frontal invasion, the persistence of invading velocity by leader cells at the tip of invasive forks, etc. We posit that quantifying distinct aspects of collective invasion can provide useful suggestions about the plausible mechanisms regulating these processes, including whether the process is regulated by mechanics or by intercellular communication between stromal cells and cancer. Here, we have identified the sub-characteristics of invasion, which might be indicative of broader mechanisms regulating these processes, developed methods to quantify these metrics, and demonstrated that perturbation of stromal genes can modulate distinct aspects of collective invasion. Our results highlight that the genetic state of stromal fibroblasts can regulate complex phenomena involved in cancer dissemination and suggest that collective cancer invasion into stroma is an outcome of the complex interplay between cancer and stromal fibroblasts.

3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(24): 4398-4404, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284012

RESUMO

Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is an important enzyme regulating the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Selective MAO-B inhibitors have been labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 to visualize the localization of MAO-B in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) and thereby have been useful for studying neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to develop promising fluorine-18 labeled reversible MAO-B PET radioligands and their biological evaluation in vitro by autoradiography. Radiolabeling was achieved by classical one-step fluorine-18 nucleophilic substitution reaction. The stability and radiochemical yield was analyzed with HPLC. All five fluorine-18 labeled compounds were tested in human whole hemisphere autoradiography experiments. Five compounds (GEH200439, GEH200448, GEH200449, GEH200431A, and GEH200431B) were successfully radiolabeled with fluorine-18, and the incorporation yield of the fluorination reactions varied from 10 to 45% depending on the compound. The radiochemical purity was higher than 99% for all at the end of synthesis. Radioligands were found to be stable, with a radiochemical purity of >99% in a sterile phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4) over the duration of the study. The ARG binding density of only 18F-GEH200449 was consistent with known MAO-B expression in the human brain. Radiolabeling of five new fluorine-18 MAO-B reversible inhibitors was successfully accomplished. Compound 18F-GEH200449 binds specifically to MAO-B in vitro postmortem brain and could be a potential candidate for in vivo PET investigation.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Flúor , Monoaminoxidase , Autorradiografia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
4.
Magn Reson Chem ; 58(12): 1177-1186, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220087

RESUMO

We use 60-MHz benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to acquire 1 H spectra from argan oils of assured origin. We show that the low-field NMR spectrum of neat oil contains sufficient information to make estimates of compositional parameters and to inform on the presence of minor compounds. A screening method for quality and authenticity is presented based on nearest-neighbour outlier detection. A variety of oil types are used to challenge the method. In a survey of retail-purchased oils, several instances of fraud were found.

6.
J Nucl Med ; 58(1): 156-161, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539841

RESUMO

Anion transport by the human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) is an established target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. Current radiotracers for PET of hNIS expression are limited to 124I- and 18F-BF4- We sought new 18F-labeled hNIS substrates offering higher specific activity, higher affinity, and simpler radiochemical synthesis than 18F-BF4- METHODS: The ability of a range of anions, some containing fluorine, to block 99mTcO4- uptake in hNIS-expressing cells was measured. SO3F- emerged as a promising candidate. 18F-SO3F- was synthesized by reaction of 18F- with SO3-pyridine complex in MeCN and purified using alumina and quaternary methyl ammonium solid-phase extraction cartridges. Chemical and radiochemical purity and serum stability were determined by radiochromatography. Radiotracer uptake and efflux in hNIS-transduced HCT116-C19 cells and the hNIS-negative parent cell line were evaluated in vitro in the presence and absence of a known competitive inhibitor (NaClO4). PET/CT imaging and ex vivo biodistribution measurement were conducted on BALB/c mice, with and without NaClO4 inhibition. RESULTS: Fluorosulfate was identified as a potent inhibitor of 99mTcO4- uptake via hNIS in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 0.55-0.56 µM (in comparison with 0.29-4.5 µM for BF4-, 0.07 µM for TcO4-, and 2.7-4.7 µM for I-). Radiolabeling to produce 18F-SO3F- was simple and afforded high radiochemical purity suitable for biologic evaluation (radiochemical purity > 95%, decay-corrected radiochemical yield = 31.6%, specific activity ≥ 48.5 GBq/µmol). Specific, blockable hNIS-mediated uptake in HCT116-C19 cells was observed in vitro, and PET/CT imaging of normal mice showed uptake in thyroid, salivary glands (percentage injected dose/g at 30 min, 563 ± 140 and 32 ± 9, respectively), and stomach (percentage injected dose/g at 90 min, 68 ± 21). CONCLUSION: Fluorosulfate is a high-affinity hNIS substrate. 18F-SO3F- is easily synthesized in high yield and very high specific activity and is a promising candidate for preclinical and clinical PET imaging of hNIS expression and thyroid-related disease; it is the first example of in vivo PET imaging with a tracer containing an S-18F bond.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Flúor/farmacocinética , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Ácidos Sulfúricos/farmacocinética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Especificidade de Órgãos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
EJNMMI Res ; 6(1): 34, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: [(18)F]BF4 (-), the first (18)F-labelled PET imaging agent for the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), was produced by isotopic exchange yielding a product with limited specific activity (SA, ca. 1 GBq/µmol) posing a risk of sub-optimal target-to-background ratios (TBR) in PET images due to saturation of NIS in vivo. We sought to quantify this risk and to develop a method of production of [(18)F]BF4 (-) with higher SA. METHODS: A new radiosynthesis of [(18)F]BF4 (-) was developed, involving reaction of [(18)F]F(-) with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate under anhydrous conditions, guided by (11)B and (19)F NMR studies of equilibria involving BF4 (-) and BF3. The SA of the product was determined by ion chromatography. The IC50 of [(19)F]BF4 (-) as an inhibitor of [(18)F]BF4 (-) uptake was determined in vitro using HCT116-C19 human colon cancer cells expressing the human form of NIS (hNIS). The influence of [(19)F]BF4 (-) dose on biodistribution in vivo was evaluated in normal mice by nanoPET imaging and ex vivo tissue counting. RESULTS: An IC50 of 4.8 µΜ was found in vitro indicating a significant risk of in vivo NIS saturation at SA achieved by the isotopic exchange labelling method. In vivo thyroid and salivary gland uptake decreased significantly with [(19)F]BF4 (-) doses above ca. 10 µg/kg. The new radiosynthesis gave high radiochemical purity (>99 %) and moderate yield (15 %) and improved SA (>5 GBq/µmol) from a starting activity of only 1.5 GBq. CONCLUSIONS: [(18)F]BF4 (-) produced at previously reported levels of SA (1 GBq/µmol) can lead to reduced uptake in NIS-expressing tissues in mice. This is much less likely in humans. The synthetic approach described provides an alternative for production of [(18)F]BF4 (-) at higher SA with sufficient yield and without need for unusually high starting activity of [(18)F]fluoride, removing the risk of NIS saturation in vivo even in mice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN75827286 .

9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 7(3): 564-75, 2009 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19156324

RESUMO

A new approach to the synthesis of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG, [(19/18)F]-) is described, which employs supported perfluoroalkylsulfonate precursors , where the support consists of insoluble polystyrene resin beads. Treatment of these resins with [(19)F]fluoride ion afforded protected FDG [(19)F]- as the major product, and the identities of the main byproducts were determined. Acidic removal of the acetal protecting groups from [(19)F]- was shown to produce [(19)F]FDG. The method has been applied to the efficient radiosynthesis of the imaging agent [(18)F]FDG, and was shown to produce the radiochemical tracer in good radiochemical yield (average 73%, decay corrected).


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/síntese química , Fluoretos/química , Radioquímica
10.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 3(2): 139-44, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20208261

RESUMO

The participatory research method Photovoice capitalizes on the spirit of the old adage "a picture is worth a thousand words." We, a group of 10 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and our project facilitator, used Photovoice as means to advocate for equal access to community resources. Often people with disabilities encounter difficulties in helping the able-bodied population to understand issues that are faced by persons who use wheelchairs to move about in the community. Our photographs provide visual evidence that helps us to identify and address issues of accessibility in our community of Charleston, South Carolina. We are using our photographs to educate the public, as well as those who have the political power to make change in our communities. In this article, we share some of the issues we addressed during our project and our thoughts about using Photovoice as a tool to support disability advocacy efforts.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Defesa do Consumidor , Pessoas com Deficiência , Fotografação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Voz , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , South Carolina , Adulto Jovem
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