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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841128

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is a common and morbid condition impacting multiple health domains. We previously reported the development of the PROMIS®-Plus-HF (PROMIS+HF) profile measure, including universal and HF-specific items. To facilitate use, we developed shorter, PROMIS+HF profiles intended for research and clinical use. METHODS AND RESULTS: Candidate items were selected based on psychometric properties and symptom range coverage. HF clinicians (n = 43) rated item importance and clinical actionability. Based on these results, we developed the PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 profiles with summary scores (0-100) for overall, physical, mental, and social health. In a cross-sectional sample (n = 600), we measured internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha and Spearman-Brown), test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient; n = 100), known-groups validity via New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and convergent validity with Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) scores. In a longitudinal sample (n = 75), we evaluated responsiveness of baseline/follow-up scores by calculating mean differences and Cohen's d and comparing with paired t-tests. Internal consistency was good to excellent (α 0.82-0.94) for all PROMIS+HF-27 scores and acceptable to good (α/Spearman-Brown 0.60-0.85) for PROMIS+HF-10 scores. Test-retest intraclass coefficients were acceptable to excellent (0.75-0.97). Both profiles demonstrated known-groups validity for the overall and physical health summary scores based on NYHA class, and convergent validity for nearly all scores compared with KCCQ scores. In the longitudinal sample, we demonstrated responsiveness for PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 overall and physical summary scores. For the PROMIS+HF overall summary scores, a group-based increase of 7.6-8.3 points represented a small to medium change (Cohen's d = 0.40-0.42). For the PROMIS+HF physical summary scores, a group-based increase of 5.0-5.9 points represented a small to medium change (Cohen's d = 0.29-0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 profiles demonstrated good psychometric characteristics with evidence of responsiveness for overall and physical health. These new measures can facilitate patient-centred research and clinical care, such as improving care quality through symptom monitoring, facilitating shared decision-making, evaluating quality of care, assessing new interventions, and monitoring during the initiation and titration of guideline-directed medical therapy.

3.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res ; 789: 108409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690412

RESUMO

The allure of tobacco smoking is linked to the instant gratification provided by inhaled nicotine. Unfortunately, tobacco curing and burning generates many mutagens including more than 70 carcinogens. There are two types of mutagens and carcinogens in tobacco smoke (TS): direct DNA damaging carcinogens and procarcinogens, which require metabolic activation to become DNA damaging. Recent studies provide three new insights on TS-induced DNA damage. First, two major types of TS DNA damage are induced by direct carcinogen aldehydes, cyclic-1,N2-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (γ-OH-PdG) and α-methyl-1, N2-γ-OH-PdG, rather than by the procarcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. Second, TS reduces DNA repair proteins and activity levels. TS aldehydes also prevent procarcinogen activation. Based on these findings, we propose that aldehydes are major sources of TS induce DNA damage and a driving force for carcinogenesis. E-cigarettes (E-cigs) are designed to deliver nicotine in an aerosol state, without burning tobacco. E-cigarette aerosols (ECAs) contain nicotine, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin. ECAs induce O6-methyl-deoxyguanosines (O6-medG) and cyclic γ-hydroxy-1,N2--propano-dG (γ-OH-PdG) in mouse lung, heart and bladder tissues and causes a reduction of DNA repair proteins and activity in lungs. Nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) induce the same types of DNA adducts and cause DNA repair inhibition in human cells. After long-term exposure, ECAs induce lung adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial hyperplasia in mice. We propose that E-cig nicotine can be nitrosated in mouse and human cells becoming nitrosamines, thereby causing two carcinogenic effects, induction of DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair, and that ECA is carcinogenic in mice. Thus, this article reviews the newest literature on DNA adducts and DNA repair inhibition induced by nicotine and ECAs in mice and cultured human cells, and provides insights into ECA carcinogenicity in mice.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Aerossóis , Aldeídos , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênicos , Nicotina/análise , Fumaça , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
4.
Neonatology ; 119(4): 474-482, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of surfactant and budesonide has been shown to decrease BPD rates and severity. Budesonide may be released systemically from lungs, and the effects on the immature adrenal glands are not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if adrenal suppression rates are higher in preterm infants receiving budesonide with surfactant compared to surfactant alone. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 608 infants ≤1,250 g received intubation for surfactant therapy from 2013 through 2020. In August 2016, budesonide was added to surfactant for these infants. Indicators of adrenal suppression, including mean blood pressures, plasma electrolyte levels, hydrocortisone use, and the use of vasoactive medications, were analyzed for the first 14 days after birth. Respiratory variables, biochemical signs of adrenal insufficiency, and neonatal morbidities were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference in hydrocortisone administration in the first 14 days between infants receiving budesonide with surfactant (n = 314) or surfactant alone (n = 294) (23% vs. 19%, p = 0.38). Budesonide exposed infants received hydrocortisone 3 days later than surfactant only infants (median DOL 5 vs. 2, p < 0.001). Infants receiving budesonide had higher blood pressures, required less dopamine (19% vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and dobutamine (2% vs. 6%, p = 0.02). Budesonide exposed infants were discharged home after a shorter NICU stay (85 days vs. 94 days, p = 0.02) and at a younger gestational age (39 vs. 40 weeks, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of surfactant and budesonide does not alter the rate of hydrocortisone use, but does delay the timing of treatment initiation and decreases the use of vasoactive medications.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Surfactantes Pulmonares , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Medicamentos para o Sistema Respiratório , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Medicamentos para o Sistema Respiratório/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tensoativos
5.
Clin Pract Pediatr Psychol ; 10(1): 1-8, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509351

RESUMO

Objective: Parental acceptance and support are associated with positive psychosocial outcomes among transgender and gender expansive (TGE) adolescents. Understanding the degree of parental acceptance and support of gender identity and expression is an important component of gender affirmative pediatric assessment and can inform intervention. Although there are reliable measures assessing general family support, there are no existing parent self-report measures assessing acceptance and support of their gender expansive children. The present study examines the factor structure of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Parents (PAGES-P). Methods: Participants included 739 parents who completed the PAGES-P as standard-of-care during their child's gender health clinic visit within a children's hospital in the Midwestern United States. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify subscales reflected in the PAGES-P. Results: PCA yielded four subscales reflecting the following domains: (1) support and affirmation, (2) guilt and loss, (3) gender concealment, and (4) pride. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure of the PAGES-P. The resulting subscales lend insight into the thoughts and behaviors of parents of TGE youth and can inform clinical practice to facilitate parental support and promote overall well-being in TGE youth.

6.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23451, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481331

RESUMO

Background Although 8-10% of pediatric residents pursue a career in Pediatric Hospital Medicine (PHM), many report an incomplete understanding of PHM careers and would benefit from a PHM elective. Methodology We followed Kern's six-step curriculum development framework. A general needs assessment via literature review revealed a lack of published PHM elective curricula. A targeted needs assessment was conducted by surveying national PHM fellowship program directors, national PHM fellows, local junior PHM attendings, and local pediatric residents. Content analysis from these surveys was used to develop a PHM resident elective curriculum. The curriculum was implemented and evaluated through an experience log and written reflections. Results Needs assessment surveys were completed by fellowship directors (22/61, 36%), fellows (36/103, 35%), attendings (10/26, 38%), and residents (15/98, 15%). Common themes included the importance of academic experiences, mentorship, non-teaching and non-inpatient clinical experiences, community hospital experience, and the desire to address knowledge gaps. Significant variability in survey responses suggested the importance of an individualized curriculum. Goals, objectives, and aligned educational strategies were developed to provide a breadth of clinical experiences, mentorship, and PHM-focused academic activities, with an emphasis on individualization. Implementation of the curriculum began in July 2021 and four residents enrolled in 2021-2022. The curricular evaluation demonstrated the achievement of objectives and improved resident awareness of PHM opportunities, clinical skill development, ancillary shadowing, and academic opportunities. Conclusions A PHM resident elective was developed using Kern's six-step approach with input from national fellows and fellowship program directors to address educational gaps and increase exposure to PHM careers. The next steps include the evaluation of the impact of the PHM elective on career choice and preparedness of residents.

7.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218370

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Treatment of congenital ichthyoses primarily focuses on reversing skin scaling and is not pathogenesis based. Recent studies showed Th17 immune skewing, as in psoriasis, across the spectrum of ichthyosis, suggesting that targeting this pathway might broadly reduce disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether secukinumab, an IL-17A inhibitor, can improve ichthyosis across several congenital ichthyosis subtypes. DESIGN: Exploratory 16-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing secukinumab 300 mg every 4wks to placebo (1:1 randomization) in adults with the four major congenital ichthyosis subtypes (NCT03041038), followed by a 16-week open-label phase to evaluate response of the placebo-first group and a 20-week extension for safety. Significant differences in secukinumab- vs. placebo-treated subjects at Wk16 in the Ichthyosis Area Severity Index (IASI) score and lack of increased mucocutaneous bacterial and/or fungal infections were the co-primary efficacy and safety endpoints, respectively. SETTING: Two tertiary referral centers: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, and Mount Sinai Icahn School of Medicine, New York. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty subjects ≥ 18 yo with genotype-confirmed epidermolytic ichthyosis, Netherton syndrome, lamellar ichthyosis, or congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma with at least moderate erythroderma. RESULTS: IL-17A inhibition did not significantly reduce severity or increase mucocutaneous infections among the 18 who completed the 16-week double-blind phase. Five patients with 29-50% clinical improvement at Wk32 requested drug continuation. Th17-related biomarkers were not significantly reduced vs. baseline or placebo-treated levels. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size; heterogeneous ichthyosis subsets. CONCLUSION: IL-17 inhibition with secukinumab is safe, but not efficacious across the spectrum of adult ichthyoses. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03041038; first posted on 02/02/2017.

8.
J Pediatr ; 244: 92-100, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether parents of premature infants less than 37 weeks of gestation provided with a unique smartphone app designed to support parents had greater parenting self-efficacy, a key element in parenting confidence, compared with controls. STUDY DESIGN: Using a quasiexperimental, time-lagged study design, parents were assigned to either usual care (control) or NICU2HOME app (intervention) groups. Both groups completed the validated Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale at 4 time points (approximately day of life 7, 1 day before discharge, and at 14 and 30 days after discharge) representing the neonatal intensive care unit, discharge, and home contexts. App use was described and categorized. Univariate group differences were assessed, and linear mixed effect regression models were used to assess treatment group effect on PSOC score across time, adjusted for covariates and controlling for overall family effect. RESULTS: We enrolled 298 parents (123 control, 175 intervention) with 256 completing 1 or more PSOC screenings. The intervention group had sustained higher PSOC scores than those of the control group (estimate, 4.3; P = .0042) from the first measurement onward with no significant change in PSOC score across time for either group. Average app use was 15 taps per average day; average and above-average users had significantly higher PSOC scores (estimate, 5.16; P = .0024; estimate, 5.16; P = .014) compared with controls or below-average users. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with controls, parents assigned to use the NICU2HOME app reported greater parenting self-efficacy while in the neonatal intensive care unit and this continued once discharged to home. Novel technologies such as point-of-care smartphone applications may hold promise for supporting parents in difficult and stressful situations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincalTrials.gov: NCT03505424.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Telemedicina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pais , Autoeficácia
9.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985574

RESUMO

Knowledge regarding skin tone preferences and their influence on skincare behaviors among people of color is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between ideal and actual skin tone among people of color and whether this difference is associated with tanning and sunscreen use. This was a one-time, voluntary, anonymous, electronic survey designed in REDCap and delivered through ResearchMatch, a national electronic, recruitment tool. Eligible participants were at least 18 years old and self-identified as Black, Asian, Latinx, American Indian/Alaskan Native or Mixed Race. In total, 548 completed survey results were analyzed using SAS. Only the Latinx population was found to have a significant preference for tanner skin (p < 0.05). The Latinx population had significantly more subjects that participated in outdoor tanning than both the Black (p < 0.0001) and Asian population (p < 0.05). Latinx participants who indicated a preference for tanner skin were 2.8 times more likely to never use sunscreen than those without this preference (OR = 2.821, CI = 1.029-7.732, p < 0.05). Our findings have implications for how dermatologists screen, treat, and educate Latinx and skin of color populations.

10.
J Invest Dermatol ; 142(5): 1309-1317.e1, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757070

RESUMO

Itch compromises QOL, but most itch assessments focus only on itch intensity. We aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric measure for itch symptoms and itch impact, defined as the effect specifically of itch on physical, mental, and social health, all of which can affect life quality. After literature review, concept elicitation and cognitive interviews with parents and children with itch, and repeated content-expert review, an item pool was generated and refined. The pool was calibrated with data from 499 children with pruritus using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, item response theory, and item fit analysis. The resultant 45-item bank, PROMIS Itch Questionnaire-Child (PIQ-C), showed good convergent and discriminant validity in 181 children aged 8‒17 years, discriminating children with different levels of severity, and was responsive to change. Strong correlations (rho ≥ 0.60) were observed with pain and sleep measures, and moderate correlations were observed with other pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Itch Questionnaire-Child comprehensively measures itch intensity and burden, providing an itch-specific alternative for assessing life quality. The independent calibration of each item/question allows for flexibility in generating short forms or computerized adaptive testing for efficient use in research and office practice.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Prurido/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the trajectory and risk factors of depression symptoms among parents from NICU admission to 30 days postdischarge. We hypothesized depression symptom scores would decrease from admission and then increase from discharge to 30 days. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of premature infants in NICU. Parents completed the validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4 time points: NICU admission, discharge, and 14 days and 30 days postdischarge. EPDS score change across time and probability of a positive screen (EPDS ≥10) were by assessed using mixed effect regression models. RESULTS: Of 431 parents enrolled (mothers, n = 230 [53%]), 33% of mothers (n = 57) and 17% of fathers (n = 21) had a positive EPDS screening. Score change was 1.9 points different between mothers and fathers (confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-2.6; P < .0001), with mothers decreasing 2.9 points (CI: 2.1-3.7; P < .0001) and fathers decreasing 1.0 points (CI: 0.1-2.0; P = .04). Over time, mothers decreased 10.96 times (CI: 2.99-38.20; P = .0003); fathers decreased at a nonsignificant rate. Admission or discharge screening improved 30-day depressive symptom prediction (AUC 0.66 baseline demographics only versus 0.84+initial [P < .0001], and versus 0.80+discharge screening [P < .001]). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers and fathers experience different depressive symptom trajectories from NICU to home. Screening parents for postpartum depression during the NICU stay is likely to result in improved identification of parents at risk for postpartum depression after discharge. Focused attention on fathers appears warranted.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Depressão/etiologia , Pai/psicologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mães/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco
12.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 926-936, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimates of racial disparity in cirrhosis have been limited by lack of large-scale, longitudinal data, which track patients from diagnosis to death and/or transplant. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We analyzed a large, metropolitan, population-based electronic health record data set from seven large health systems linked to the state death registry and the national transplant database. Multivariate competing risk analyses, adjusted for sex, age, insurance status, Elixhauser score, etiology of cirrhosis, HCC, portal hypertensive complication, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium (MELD-Na), examined the relationship between race, transplant, and cause of death as defined by blinded death certificate review. During the study period, 11,277 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 2,498 (22.2%) identified as Black. Compared to White patients, Black patients had similar age, sex, MELD-Na, and proportion of alcohol-associated liver disease, but higher comorbidity burden, lower rates of private insurance, and lower rates of portal hypertensive complications. Compared to White patients, Black patients had the highest rate all-cause mortality and non-liver-related death and were less likely to be listed or transplanted (P < 0.001 for all). In multivariate competing risk analysis, Black patients had a 26% increased hazard of liver-related death (subdistribution HR, 1.26; 95% CI, [1.15-1.38]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Black patients with cirrhosis have discordant outcomes. Further research is needed to determine how to address these real disparities in the field of hepatology.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Res Pers ; 922021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083845

RESUMO

There are individual differences in the rates of cognitive decline across later adulthood. Personality traits are among the factors that may account for these differences. The current project investigated whether personality traits were associated with trajectories of cognitive decline, and whether the associations were different before and after dementia diagnosis. The data was analyzed using linear mixed effects regression. Across study aims is a focus on replicability and generalizability. Each question was addressed in four independent longitudinal studies (EAS, MAP, ROS, SATSA), then meta-analyzed, providing estimates of replicability. Results indicated that low neuroticism and high openness were associated with total cognitive function. We detected evidence for cognitive decline in all four samples, and openness was associated with decline post dementia diagnosis.

14.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop algorithms to identify lupus clinical classification criteria attributes using structured data found in the electronic health record (EHR) and determine whether they could be used to describe a cohort of people with lupus and discriminate them from a defined healthy control cohort. METHODS: We created gold standard lupus and healthy patient cohorts that were fully adjudicated for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) and European League Against Rheumatism/ACR (EULAR/ACR) classification criteria and had matched EHR data. We implemented rule-based algorithms using structured data within the EHR system for each attribute of the three classification criteria. Individual criteria attribute and classification criteria algorithms as a whole were assessed over our combined cohorts and the overall performance of the algorithms was measured through sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Individual classification criteria attributes had a wide range of sensitivities, 7% (oral ulcers) to 97% (haematological disorders) and specificities, 56% (haematological disorders) to 98% (photosensitivity), but all could be identified in EHR data. In general, algorithms based on laboratory results performed better than those primarily based on diagnosis codes. All three classification criteria systems effectively distinguished members of our case and control cohorts, but the SLICC criteria-based algorithm had the highest overall performance (76% sensitivity, 99% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to characterise disease manifestations in people with lupus using classification criteria-based algorithms that assess structured EHR data. These algorithms may reduce chart review burden and are a foundation for identifying subpopulations of patients with lupus based on disease presentation to support precision medicine applications.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Reumatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Reumáticas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos
15.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(1): 6-19, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper was to examine associations between personality traits and resilience to neuropathologic burden. METHOD: Using data from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, we identified a total of 1,375 participants with personality, cognitive, and post-mortem neuropathology data. We regressed cognition onto pathology and extracted the residuals as an indicator of cognitive resilience. We then modeled the effect of Big Five personality traits on cognitive resilience, adjusting for demographics, APOE status, medical comorbidities, and cognitive activity. The analytic plan was preregistered prior to data access or analysis, and all scripts and outputs are available online. RESULTS: Higher neuroticism was associated with greater vulnerability to pathology. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that higher conscientiousness was associated with less cognitive decline relative to the amount of pathology, or greater resilience. Education and cognitive activity did not moderate these associations. DISCUSSION: Personality may have a pathoplastic effect on neuropathology, as low neuroticism and high conscientiousness are associated with better function despite neuropathologic burden.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neuroticismo
16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(11): 107685, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732137

RESUMO

AIMS: Recurrent hypoglycemia is understudied. This study evaluates recurrent hypoglycemia, fragmentation of care and mortality in a large urban center. METHODS: The Chicago HealthLNK Data Repository (CHDR), a de-identified electronic health record data set from institutions across Chicago, identified 9741 patients with diabetes (DM) who had hypoglycemia (emergency department (ED) or inpatient admission (IA)) from 2006 to 2012. Recurrence was defined as more than one hypoglycemia encounter, and fragmentation of health care was defined as an ED visit or IA for hypoglycemia at >1 site. RESULTS: 187,644 patients were identified with DM; of 9741 patients with hypoglycemia, 2857 (29.3%) had recurrence. Patients with ≥4 hypoglycemic encounters (n = 1035) represented 10.6%, but accounted for 40.3% hypoglycemic encounters. Of 2857 patients with recurrence, 304 patients (10.6%) had fragmented care. In those with high hypoglycemic encounters (≥4), 22% (N = 226) had ≥10 encounters; race and insurance status differences were associated with number of hypoglycemic encounters. Having hypoglycemia was associated with increased mortality compared to no hypoglycemia (n = 2696, 27.7% vs n = 20,188, 11.4%; p < 0.00001 by chi-square). CONCLUSION: A small subset of patients with hypoglycemia accounted for a large subset of hypoglycemia encounters. Targeted interventions in this high-risk, high mortality group are needed.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Illinois/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1083, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries are striving to become malaria-free, but global reduction in case estimates has stagnated in recent years. Substandard and falsified medicines may contribute to this lack of progress. Zambia aims to eliminate their annual burden of 1.2 million pediatric malaria cases and 2500 child deaths due to malaria. We examined the health and economic impact of poor-quality antimalarials in Zambia. METHODS: An agent-based model, Substandard and Falsified Antimalarial Research Impact (SAFARI), was modified and applied to Zambia. The model was developed to simulate population characteristics, malaria incidence, patient care-seeking, disease progression, treatment outcomes, and associated costs of malaria for children under age five. Zambia-specific demographic, epidemiological, and cost inputs were extracted from the literature. Simulations were run to estimate the health and economic impact of poor-quality antimalarials, the effect of potential artemisinin resistance, and six additional malaria focused policy interventions. RESULTS: We simulated annual malaria cases among Zambian children under five. At baseline, we found 2610 deaths resulting in $141.5 million in annual economic burden of malaria. We estimated that elimination of substandard and falsified antimalarials would result in an 8.1% (n = 213) reduction in under-five deaths, prevent 937 hospitalizations, and realize $8.5 million in economic savings, annually. Potential artemisinin resistance could further increase deaths by 6.3% (n = 166) and cost an additional $9.7 million every year. CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating substandard and falsified antimalarials is an important step towards a malaria-free Zambia. Beyond the dissemination of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, and other malaria control measures, attention must also be paid to assure the quality of antimalarial treatments.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/normas , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Falsificados/provisão & distribuição , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/provisão & distribuição , Artemisininas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Medicamentos Falsificados/economia , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Teóricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Zâmbia
18.
LGBT Health ; 7(5): 271-276, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584648

RESUMO

Purpose: Existing questionnaires assessing sexual function after prostate cancer (PCa) were developed in predominantly heterosexual male cohorts and may measure function incompletely in gay men. We sought to determine if there are sexual function domains relevant to gay men that are not captured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) sexual function assessment. Methods: Fifty-three gay men with PCa responded to an online survey regarding the applicability of the sexual function domain in the validated EPIC questionnaire. They were then queried about whether the prostate is a source of sexual pleasure and the importance of measuring sexual satisfaction as it relates to receptive anal intercourse. Results: A majority of gay men with PCa found the EPIC sexual function tool to be applicable when measuring erectile function (76.5%). Of the men queried, 64.2% felt that the prostate is a source of sexual pleasure and 52.8% felt it important to measure sexual satisfaction associated with receptive anal intercourse. A larger proportion of gay men who engaged in receptive anal intercourse, compared with those who did not engage in receptive anal intercourse, felt that the prostate is a source of sexual pleasure (100% vs. 57.1%), and thought it important to measure sexual satisfaction as it relates to receptive anal intercourse after PCa treatment (90.0% vs. 45.2%). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need to create a validated questionnaire to measure sexual satisfaction from receptive anal intercourse to help care for men engaging in receptive anal intercourse after PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Hepatol ; 73(5): 1072-1081, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sex-based differences are known to significantly contribute to outcomes in patients with chronic liver diseases; however, the role of patient sex in cirrhosis is unclear. We aimed to study the relationship between patient sex and cirrhosis. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 20,045 patients with cirrhosis using a Chicago-wide electronic health record database that was linked with the United Network for Organ Sharing and cause of death data from the state death registry. Adjusted Cox survival analyses and competing risk analyses were performed to obtain subdistribution hazard ratios (HRs) for liver-related cause of death. RESULTS: Female and male patients had similar age, racial distribution, insurance status, and comorbidity status by Elixhauser score. Females had higher rates of cholestatic liver disease (17.1% vs. 6.2%, p <0.001) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (29.8% vs. 21.2%, p <0.001) than males. They were less likely to have portal hypertensive complications and had lower peak MELD-Na scores during follow-up. Female sex was associated with a decreased hazard of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.90). This effect was attenuated when liver-related mortality was examined (subdistribution HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-1.00). No significant difference was noted for women who were 'ever-listed' in competing risk analyses for either all-cause mortality (subdistribution HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.88-1.35) or liver-related death (subdistribution HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.87-1.43), despite lower rates of listing (7.5% vs. 9.8%; p <0.001) and transplant (3.5% vs. 5.2%; p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal study of patients with cirrhosis, female sex was associated with a survival advantage likely driven by lower rates of non-liver-related death. Women were not at an increased risk of liver-related death despite lower rates of listing and transplantation. LAY SUMMARY: Patient sex is an important contributor in many chronic diseases, including cirrhosis. Prior studies have suggested that female sex is associated with worse outcomes. We analyzed a cohort of 20,045 patients with cirrhosis using a Chicago-wide electronic health record database. Using multivariate competing risk analyses, we found that female sex in cirrhosis is actually associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and has no association with liver-related mortality. Our findings are novel because we show that women with cirrhosis have a similar risk of liver-related death as their male counterparts, despite lower rates of listing and transplantation.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Cirrose Hepática , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fatores Sexuais , Causas de Morte , Colestase Intra-Hepática/epidemiologia , Colestase Intra-Hepática/etiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Mol Metab ; 34: 1-15, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is a nuclear receptor family member thought to substantially contribute to the metabolic regulation of skeletal muscle. However, previous mouse models utilized to assess the necessity of ERα signaling in skeletal muscle were confounded by altered developmental programming and/or influenced by secondary effects, making it difficult to assign a causal role for ERα. The objective of this study was to determine the role of skeletal muscle ERα in regulating metabolism in the absence of confounding factors of development. METHODS: A novel mouse model was developed allowing for induced deletion of ERα in adult female skeletal muscle (ERαKOism). ERαshRNA was also used to knockdown ERα (ERαKD) in human myotubes cultured from primary human skeletal muscle cells isolated from muscle biopsies from healthy and obese insulin-resistant women. RESULTS: Twelve weeks of HFD exposure had no differential effects on body composition, VO2, VCO2, RER, energy expenditure, and activity counts across genotypes. Although ERαKOism mice exhibited greater glucose intolerance than wild-type (WT) mice after chronic HFD, ex vivo skeletal muscle glucose uptake was not impaired in the ERαKOism mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes was altered in the skeletal muscle of the ERαKOism, but the concentrations of these inflammatory markers in the systemic circulation were either lower or remained similar to the WT mice. Finally, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity, oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, and H2O2 emission potential was not affected in the ERαKOism mice. ERαKD in human skeletal muscle cells neither altered differentiation capacity nor caused severe deficits in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that ERα function is superfluous in protecting against HFD-induced skeletal muscle metabolic derangements after postnatal development is complete.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/citologia
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