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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107096, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469784

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with internet-related problematic behaviors. However, studies have not explored the linkage between PTSD symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and IGD symptoms via network analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 341 Chinese young adults directly exposed to a typhoon and examined the network structure of PTSS and IGD symptoms, along with bridge symptoms, to elucidate how they co-occur. Results indicated that 'avoiding external reminders' and 'anhedonia' were identified as the most central symptoms in the PTSD network, whereas 'preoccupation,' 'gaming despite harms', and 'loss of control' ranked highest on centrality in the IGD network. Two bridge symptoms emerged within the combined PTSD and IGD network model: 'concentration difficulties' and 'conflict due to gaming' from among the PTSS and IGD symptoms, respectively. These findings reveal novel associations between PTSS and IGD symptoms and provide an empirically-based hypothesis for how these two disorders may co-occur among individuals exposed to natural disasters.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1821, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objectively measured differences in physical activity (PA) and sleep have been documented among people with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to non-arthritic controls. However, it is not clear whether OA and RA subgroups also differ on these indexes or the extent to which distinct arthritis subgroups versus controls can be accurately identified on the basis of objective PA and sleep indexes compared to self-report responses on questionnaires. This study addressed these gaps. METHODS: This case-control study comprised Chinese adults with OA (N = 40) or RA (N = 40) diagnoses based on physician assessments as well as a control group of adults without chronic pain (N = 40). All participants wore a Sensewear Armband (SWA) for consecutive 7 days and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form-Chinese as well as Pittsburgh Sleep Diary to obtain objective and subjective PA and sleep data, respectively. RESULTS: There were no differences between the three groups on any self-report indexes of PA or sleep. Conversely, OA and RA subgroups displayed significantly lower PA levels and more sleep problems than controls did on a majority of SWA indexes, though arthritis subgroups were not differentiated from one another on these measures. Logistic regression analyses indicated four non-multicollinear SWA indexes (i.e., steps, active energy expenditure, vigorous activity, time awake after sleep onset) correctly identified the subgroup membership of 75.0-82.5% of participants with RA or OA while classification accuracy results were attenuated for controls. CONCLUSIONS: Where possible, objective measures should be used to assess PA and sleep of adults with OA and RA while particular self-report PA questionnaires should be used sparingly.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579106

RESUMO

Intra-cortical myelin is a myelinated part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for the spread and synchronization of neuronal activity in the cortex. Recent animal studies have established a link between obesity and impaired oligodendrocyte maturation vis-à-vis cells that produce and maintain myelin; however, the association between obesity and intra-cortical myelination remains to be established. To investigate the effects of obesity on intra-cortical myelin in living humans, we employed a large, demographically well-characterized sample of healthy young adults drawn from the Human Connectome Project (n = 1066). Intra-cortical myelin was assessed using a novel T1-w/T2-w ratio method. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI), an indicator of obesity, and intra-cortical myelination, adjusting for covariates of no interest. We observed BMI was related to lower intra-cortical myelination in regions previously identified to be involved in reward processing (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex), attention (i.e., visual cortex, inferior/middle temporal gyrus), and salience detection (i.e., insula, supramarginal gyrus) in response to viewing food cues (corrected p < 0.05). In addition, higher BMIs were associated with more intra-cortical myelination in regions associated with somatosensory processing (i.e., the somatosensory network) and inhibitory control (i.e., lateral inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole). These findings were also replicated after controlling for key potential confounding factors including total intracranial volume, substance use, and fluid intelligence. Findings suggested that altered intra-cortical myelination may represent a novel microstructure-level substrate underlying prior abnormal obesity-related brain neural activity, and lays a foundation for future investigations designed to evaluate how living habits, such as dietary habit and physical activity, affect intra-cortical myelination.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 753-760, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the mental health and well-being of medical personnel, including nursing students. Network analysis provides a deeper characterization of symptom-symptom interactions in mental disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of anxiety and depressive symptom networks of Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A total of 932 nursing students were included. Anxiety and depressive symptom were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms were identified via centrality indices and bridge centrality indices, respectively. Network stability was examined using the case-dropping procedure. RESULTS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood had the highest centrality values. Three bridge symptoms (Depressed mood, Nervousness, and Anhedonia) were also identified. Neither gender nor region of residence was associated with network global strength, distribution of edge weights or individual edge weights. LIMITATIONS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional study design, therefore, causal relations and dynamic changes between anxiety and depressive symptoms over time could not be inferred. Generalizability of findings may be limited to Chinese nursing students during a particular phase of the current pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood constituted central symptoms maintaining the anxiety-depression network structure of Chinese nursing students during the pandemic. Timely, systemic multi-level interventions targeting central symptoms and bridge symptoms may be effective in alleviating co-occurring experiences of anxiety and depression in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Psychophysiology ; : e13921, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383330

RESUMO

Studies have documented behavior differences between more versus less resilient adults with chronic pain (CP), but the presence and nature of underlying neurophysiological differences have received scant attention. In this study, we attempted to identify regions of interest (ROIs) in which resting state (Rs) brain activity discriminated more from less resilient CP subgroups based on multiple kernel learning (MKL). More and less resilient community-dwellers with chronic musculoskeletal pain (70 women, 39 men) engaged in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, wherein MKL assessed Rs activity based on amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo) modalities to identify ROIs most salient for discriminating more versus less resilient subgroups. Compared to classification based on single modalities, multi-modal classification based on combined fALFF and ReHo features achieved a substantially higher classification accuracy rate (79%). Brain regions with the best discriminative power included those implicated in pain processing, reward, executive function, goal-directed action, emotion regulation and resilience to mood disorders though variation trends were not consistent between more and less resilient subgroups. Results revealed patterns of Rs activity that serve as possible biomarkers for resilience to chronic musculoskeletal pain.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Painful physical symptoms (PPS) are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but their prevalence has been mixed. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of PPS in MDD patients. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were independently conducted in major databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science). Data analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies with 53,852 patients were included. The overall prevalence of PPS in MDD patients was 55.2% (95%CI: 47.9-62.3%), with a point prevalence of 64.2% (95%CI: 53.2-73.8%) and a 12-month prevalence of 57.0% (95%CI: 23.9-84.8%). No significant publication bias was found in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: PPS are common in MDD patients. Considering the negative impact of PPS on daily functioning, effective preventive measures and routine screening should be conducted for MDD patients, and timely treatments should be offered to those in need. Registration number: CRD42020179471.

7.
Global Health ; 17(1): 54, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with physical and mental health problems; however, little is known about the severity of stigma caused by COVID-19 among its survivors. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare differences in stigma experiences of COVID-19 survivors versus healthy controls after the COVID-19 outbreak peak in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 154 COVID-19 survivors and 194 healthy controls recruited through consecutive and convenience sampling methods, respectively. COVID-19 related stigma was measured by the Social Impact Scale (SIS). Stigma differences between the two groups were compared with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to identify independent correlates of COVID-19-related stigma in this study. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, COVID-19 survivors reported more overall stigma (F(1,347) = 60.82, p < 0.001), and stigma in domains of social rejection (F(1,347) = 56.54, p < 0.001), financial insecurity (F(1,347) = 19.96, p < 0.001), internalized shame (F(1,347) = 71.40, p < 0.001) and social isolation (F(1,347) = 34.73, p < 0.001). Status as a COVID-19 survivor, having family members infected with COVID-19, being married, economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic, and depressive symptoms were positively associated with higher overall stigma levels (all p values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related stigma is commonly experienced among COVID-19 survivors even though the outbreak has been well-contained in China. Routine assessment of stigma experiences should be conducted on COVID-19 survivors and appropriate psychological assistance, public education, and anti-stigma campaigns and policies should be enforced to reduce stigma within this vulnerable subpopulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 491-497, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798977

RESUMO

Research has documented a strong association between perceived social support, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychological distress (PD) among people exposed to natural disasters. However, the direction of associations between these factors remains unclear. This study examined possible mediational relationships among perceived social support, PTSS, and PD. A three-wave longitudinal design (6 months intervals) was employed in a sample of 341 Chinese university students (Mage = 21.24, SD = 2.72; 75.7% female) aged 18 to 34 who were directly exposed to a typhoon that occurred in Macao, China, during August 2017. Results indicated that perceived social support at T2 mediated the linkage between PTSS at T1 and PD at T3, and that PTSS at T2 significantly mediated the relationship between PD at T1 and perceived social support at T3. This three-wave longitudinal study highlights the key role of perceived social support on the aggravating effect of acute PTSS on long-term psychological problems, and demonstrates that adverse psychological health outcomes negatively affect the perception of supportive social resources in the context of a natural disaster.


Assuntos
Desastres , Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 148, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654058

RESUMO

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern. In China, all schools were shut down and students were home quarantined to prevent disease spread; these steps could have potential negative effects on mental health of adolescents. This study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic, and explore factors associated with depression and anxiety. Two survey administrations were conducted among Chinese adolescents between February 20 and February 27 and between April 11 and April 19, 2020, respectively. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale were used to assess depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, respectively. A total of 9554 and 3886 adolescents participated in the first and second surveys. During the initial survey, the prevalence of depression was 36.6% (95% CI: 35.6-37.6%) while the prevalence of anxiety was 19% (95% CI: 18.2-19.8%). Rates of depression and anxiety increased to 57.0% (95% CI: 55.4-58.6%) and 36.7% (95% CI: 35.2-38.2%), respectively, in the second survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that group membership in the second survey, female gender, senior secondary school enrollment, and concerns about entering a higher grade were positively associated with both depression and anxiety. Conversely, a sleep duration of ≥6 h/day, an exercise duration ≥30 min/day, having the same as typical or higher study efficiency during the COVID-19 outbreak, and living in provinces with 1000-9999 confirmed COVID-19 cases were negatively associated with depression and anxiety. In conclusion, compared to figures reported during the COVID-19 outbreak, the prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese adolescents significantly increased after the initial outbreak. Regular screening and appropriate interventions are urgently needed to reduce the risk for emotional disturbances among adolescents during and after the initial COVID-19 outbreaks.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Behav Ther ; 52(1): 221-233, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483119

RESUMO

Body image disturbances are widespread in highly populated, rapidly developing Asian nations such as China, but there are severe shortages of practitioners qualified to treat these issues. In such contexts, validated online interventions offer a potentially viable approach for addressing the lack of treatment resources. In this study, we evaluated effects of the eBody Project, an online, dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, on functioning among body-dissatisfied young Chinese women. Participating women were randomly assigned to the 6-week eBody Project intervention (n = 191) versus an education brochure control condition (n = 181). Self-report assessments of eating disorder risk factors (body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, depressive symptoms, restrained eating), self-esteem, body appreciation, and disordered eating were completed at baseline, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. There were no intervention differences on outcomes before treatment but eBody Project women experienced significantly larger improvements on all outcomes following treatment and/or at follow-up compared to controls; corresponding effect sizes were small to medium. Results indicated the eBody Project program is a promising intervention for young women at risk for eating disorders in China and provide foundations for broad implementation in low- and middle-income countries where resources for in-person therapy and supervision are limited or unavailable altogether.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Imagem Corporal , China , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Neuroscience ; 457: 155-164, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484820

RESUMO

Resilience, a personality construct that reflects capacities to persevere, maintain a positive outlook and/or thrive despite ongoing stressors, has emerged as an important focus of research on chronic pain (CP). Although behavior studies have found more resilient persons with CP experience less pain-related dysfunction than less resilient cohorts do, the presence and nature of associated brain structure differences has received scant attention. To address this gap, we examined gray matter volume (GMV) differences between more versus less resilient adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Participants (75 women, 43 men) were community-dwellers who reported ongoing musculoskeletal pain for at least three months. More (n = 57) and less (n = 61) resilient subgroups, respectively, were identified on the basis of scoring above and below median scores on two validated resilience questionnaires. Voxel-based morphology (VBM) undertaken to examine resilience subgroup differences in GMV indicated more resilient participants displayed significantly larger GMV in the (1) bilateral precuneus, (2) left superior and inferior parietal lobules, (3) orbital right middle frontal gyrus and medial right superior frontal gyrus, and (4) bilateral median cingulate and paracingulate gyri, even after controlling for subgroup differences on demographics and measures of pain-related distress. Together, results underscored the presence and nature of specific GMV differences underlying subjective reports of more versus less resilient responses to ongoing musculoskeletal pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Musculoesquelética , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 15(2): 906-916, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623562

RESUMO

Restrained eating is a popular weight loss strategy for young women that tends to have limited effectiveness over extended periods of time. Although previous studies have explored and identified possible personality and behavior differences between successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (REs), there has been a paucity of research on neurophysiological differences.Towards addressing this gap, we assessed brain resting state (Rs) differences in groups of unsuccessful REs (N = 39) and successful REs (N = 31). In line with hypotheses, unsuccessful REs displayed reduced regional homogeneity in brain regions involved in cognitive control (inferior parietal lobe) compared to successful REs. Regions involved in conflict monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex) were also observed to be comparatively less active in the unsuccessful RE group. Finally, based on analyses of independent components and seed-based functional connectivity, regions involved in conflict monitoring and cognitive control, especially those localized within the frontoparietal network, showed weaker connectivities among unsuccessful REs compared to their successful counterparts.These results underscore specific brain Rs differences between successful REs and unsuccessful REs in regions implicated in cognitive control and conflict monitoring.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Lobo Parietal
13.
Psychophysiology ; 58(1): e13700, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040366

RESUMO

Numerous investigators have tested contentions that angry faces capture early attention more completely than happy faces do in the context of other faces. However, syntheses of studies on early event-related potentials related to the anger superiority hypothesis have yet to be conducted, particularly in relation to the N200 posterior-contralateral (N2pc) component which provides a reliable electrophysiological index related to orienting of attention suitable for testing this hypothesis. Fifteen samples (N = 534) from 13 studies featuring the assessment of N2pc amplitudes during exposure to angry-neutral and/or happy-neutral facial expression arrays were included for meta-analysis. Moderating effects of study design features and sample characteristics on effect size variability were also assessed. N2pc amplitudes elicited by affectively valenced expressions (angry and happy) were significantly more pronounced than those elicited by neutral expressions. However, the mean effect size difference between angry and happy expressions was ns. N2pc effect sizes were moderated by sample age, number of trials, and nature of facial images used (schematic vs. real) with larger effect sizes observed when samples were comparatively younger, more task trials were presented and schematic face arrays were used. N2pc results did not support anger superiority hypothesis. Instead, attentional resources allocated to angry versus happy facial expressions were similar in early stages of processing. As such, possible adaptive advantages of biases in orienting toward both anger and happy expressions warrant consideration in revisions of related theory.

14.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(2): 645-653, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885320

RESUMO

This study examined the prevalence of burnout and its association with quality of life (QOL) among psychiatric nurses in China.Ten psychiatric hospitals were included. Burnout and QOL were measured using standardized instruments. Altogether, 1449 nurses completed the assessment. The mean scores of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA) were 11.87 (SD = 6.72), 6.98 (SD = 5.71) and 22.06 (SD = 8.67), respectively. Of the participants, 59.8% (95% CI: 57-62%) experienced burnout; with 23.3% (95% CI: 21-25%) in EE, 14.6% (95% CI: 13-16%) in DP and 45.1% (95% CI: 43-48%) in PA. Psychiatric nurses who reported burnout had lower QOL in social (F (1, 1448) = 86.20, P < 0.001), physical (F (1, 1448) = 170.46, P < 0.001), psychological (F (1, 1448) = 205.63, P < 0.001), and environmental (F (1, 1448) = 120.24, P < 0.001) domains. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that alcohol users (P = 0.04; OR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.01-1.64 in model 1 and P = 0.03; OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04-1.69 in model 2) were significantly more susceptible to burnout, while senior nurses (P = 0.007; OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.53-0.91) and nurses with longer work experience (P = 0.02; OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.53-0.91) were less likely to develop burnout. Burnout is common in psychiatric nurses in China. In light of its negative impact on health and QOL, there is an urgent need for regular screening as well as effective preventive measures and interventions to reduce burnout within this at-risk occupational group.

15.
Global Health ; 16(1): 119, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pattern of fatigue in older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak was unknown. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with overall quality of life (overall QOL) in clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, pain, insomnia symptoms, and overall QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. RESULTS: A total of 1063 patients were recruited. The prevalence of fatigue was 47.1% (95%CI: 44.1-50.1%). An analysis of covariance revealed that overall QOL was significantly lower in patients with fatigue compared to those without (P = 0.011). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that more severe depressive symptoms (OR = 1.15, P < 0.001), insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001) and pain (OR = 1.43, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue is common among clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering its negative impact on overall QOL, regular assessment of fatigue and appropriate treatment warrant attention in this subpopulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Fadiga/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Dor/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 549148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250790

RESUMO

Objective: Poor mental health is associated with impaired social functioning, lower quality of life, and increased risk of suicide and mortality. This study examined the prevalence of poor general mental health among older adults (aged 65 years and above) and its sociodemographic correlates in Hebei province, which is a predominantly agricultural area of China. Methods: This epidemiological survey was conducted from April to August 2016. General mental health status was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: A total of 3,911 participants were included. The prevalence of poor mental health (defined as GHQ-12 total score ≥ 4) was 9.31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4-10.2%]. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that female gender [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.29-2.07], lower education level (P = 0.048, OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.75), lower annual household income (P = 0.005, OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.17-2.51), presence of major medical conditions (P < 0.001, OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 2.19-3.96) and family history of psychiatric disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.02-6.17) were significantly associated with poor mental health. Conclusion: The prevalence of poor mental health among older adults in a predominantly agricultural area was lower than findings from many other countries and areas in China. However, continued surveillance of mental health status among older adults in China is still needed.

18.
J Pers Assess ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804555

RESUMO

Recent U.S. studies of musculoskeletal pain have supported the structure and construct validity of the Pain Resilience Scale (PRS) as a pain-specific measure tapping capacities to regulate cognitions and emotions as well as behavioral perseverance despite ongoing pain. However, it is not clear whether psychometric support for the PRS extends to chronic musculoskeletal pain samples in other countries or whether PRS scores contribute to adaptation beyond the impact of general resilience. To address these gaps, the factor structure, construct validity, and incremental validity of the PRS were assessed in exploratory factor analysis (EFA; 417 women, 134 men) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; 421 women, 135 men) samples of Chinese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain who completed back-translated versions of the PRS and a battery of self-report measures previously validated in Chinese samples. A 2-factor, EFA-derived version of the PRS featuring a 7-item cognitive/affective positivity subscale and a 3-item behavioral perseverance subscale had the best overall fit from several hypothesized alternatives. Derived PRS subscales had significant moderate correlations with conceptually related measures and low correlations with conceptually less-related background characteristics, respectively. PRS subscale scores, particularly cognitive and affective positivity, accounted for significant unique variance in functioning independent of general resilience.

19.
Eur J Pain ; 24(10): 1956-1967, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies examining the effect of pain-related threat on eye movements have incorporated a measure of interpretation bias. However, theories suggest that interpretation biases also play an important role in the anticipation of harm in situations where pain could be imminent. The current study investigates the association between interpretation biases and pain-related threat expectancies and their associations with eye movements to pain-related imagery. METHODS: Healthy adults' (N = 91) fear of pain, emotional functioning and interpretation biases were assessed prior to a threat manipulation where they were given either threatening or reassuring information about an upcoming cold pressor task. Participants were then asked to freely view scene images that were either pain-related or neutral. RESULTS: We used a data-driven machine learning method to analyse eye movements. We identified an explorative (i.e. greater dispersal of eye fixations) and a focused eye movement pattern subgroup (i.e. mainly focusing on foreground information) for scene viewing in the sample. Participants with more negative interpretation biases expected that the cold pressor task would be more harmful, and those with higher levels of anticipated harm used a more explorative strategy when viewing injury scene images. Subsequent analysis confirmed an indirect effect of interpretation biases on eye movements through expected bodily harm. No difference in eye movements was found between participants given threatening and reassuring information. CONCLUSIONS: Interpretation biases may play a prominent role in threat-related attentional processing. By adopting a novel eye movement analysis approach, our results revealed interesting associations among interpretations, threat expectancies and eye movements. SIGNIFICANCE: Negative interpretation biases may be associated with greater threat expectancies for an upcoming experimental pain task. Anticipation of bodily harm may induce a stimulus non-specific hypervigilant style of scanning of pain-related scenes.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Adulto , Atenção , Viés , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Dor
20.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(1): 102-117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704971

RESUMO

Growth-promoting technologies such as implants, ionophores, and ß-agonists improve feedlot performance, efficiency, and carcass characteristics of cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dose and duration of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics when fed to Holstein steers. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 RH doses (0, 300, or 400 mg∙steer-1∙d-1) fed for 3 durations (28, 35, or 42 d). Holstein steers (n = 855; initial body weight [BW] = 448 ± 37 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 9 pens (15 blocks; 9 dose × duration treatment combinations) approximately 72 d before harvest. Weekly pen weights, chute temperament scores, and animal mobility were determined during the RH feeding period. At harvest, carcass data were collected on all steers, and tenderness was measured on steaks from 3 or 4 randomly selected steers from each pen and slice shear force (SSF) was determined on one steak selected from each side of the carcass after aging for 14 or 21 d. For feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and SSF, no dose × duration interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.11). With increasing RH dose, average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas BW gain increased linearly with RH dose and duration (P ≤ 0.01). Hot carcass weight (P = 0.02) and longissimus muscle (LM) area (P ≤ 0.01) increased linearly with increasing RH dose. The percentage of carcasses in the USDA Yield Grade 2 category increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) and percentage of carcasses in the USDA Yield Grade 4 category tended (P = 0.08) to decrease linearly as RH dose increased. In the 14-d aged steaks, the percentage of steaks with SSF ≤ 15.3 kg decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the percentage of steaks with ≥20.0 kg SSF increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing RH dose. After 21-d aging, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for a greater percentage of steaks from steers fed RH to have SSF ≥ 20.0 kg (2% of total steaks), but no difference (P ≥ 0.12) in the percentage of steaks with SSF ≤ 19.9 kg. Final chute temperament (P ≥ 0.45) and animal mobility (P ≥ 0.67) scores were not affected by feeding RH. Increasing the dose of RH (300 or 400 mg∙steer-1∙d-1) fed for 28 to 42 d before harvest increased ADG, G:F, hot carcass weight, and LM area when fed to Holstein steers with no negative effects on behavior or mobility. The percentage of steaks classified as not tender improved when steaks were aged for 21 d from steers treated with RH.

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