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1.
Dev Cell ; 57(6): 820-836.e6, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303433

RESUMO

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) play a critical role in the development and disease-states of all human cell types. In the retina, CREs have been implicated in several inherited disorders. To better characterize human retinal CREs, we performed single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (snATAC-seq) and single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) on the developing and adult human retina and on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal organoids. These analyses identified developmentally dynamic, cell-class-specific CREs, enriched transcription-factor-binding motifs, and putative target genes. CREs in the retina and organoids are highly correlated at the single-cell level, and this supports the use of organoids as a model for studying disease-associated CREs. As a proof of concept, we disrupted a disease-associated CRE at 5q14.3, confirming its principal target gene as the miR-9-2 primary transcript and demonstrating its role in neurogenesis and gene regulation in mature glia. This study provides a resource for characterizing human retinal CREs and showcases organoids as a model to study the function of CREs that influence development and disease.


Assuntos
Organoides , Retina , Adulto , Cromatina/genética , Humanos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307825

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the phenomenology of stuttering across the lifespan in the largest prospective cohort to date. METHOD: Participants aged 7 years and older with a history of developmental stuttering were recruited. Self-reported phenotypic data were collected online including stuttering symptomatology, co-occurring phenotypes, genetic predisposition, factors associated with stuttering severity, and impact on anxiety, education, and employment. RESULTS: A total of 987 participants (852 adults: 590 males, 262 females, mean age 49 years [SD = 17 years 10 months; range = 18-93 years] and 135 children: 97 males, 38 females, mean age 11 years 4 months [SD = 3 years; range = 7-17 years]) were recruited. Stuttering onset occurred at age 3 to 6 years in 64.0%. Blocking (73.2%) was the most frequent phenotype; 75.9% had sought stuttering therapy and 15.5% identified as having recovered. Half (49.9%) reported a family history. There was a significant negative correlation with age for both stuttering frequency and severity in adults. Most were anxious due to stuttering (90.4%) and perceived stuttering as a barrier to education and employment outcomes (80.7%). INTERPRETATION: The frequent persistence of stuttering and the high proportion with a family history suggest that stuttering is a complex trait that does not often resolve, even with therapy. These data provide new insights into the phenotype and prognosis of stuttering, information that is critically needed to encourage the development of more effective speech therapies.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Éxons/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Fatores de Risco
5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(1): L130-L143, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909500

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified regions associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). GWASs of other diseases have shown an approximately 10-fold overrepresentation of nonsynonymous variants, despite limited exonic coverage on genotyping arrays. We hypothesized that a large-scale analysis of coding variants could discover novel genetic associations with COPD, including rare variants with large effect sizes. We performed a meta-analysis of exome arrays from 218,399 controls and 33,851 moderate-to-severe COPD cases. All exome-wide significant associations were present in regions previously identified by GWAS. We did not identify any novel rare coding variants with large effect sizes. Within GWAS regions on chromosomes 5q, 6p, and 15q, four coding variants were conditionally significant (P < 0.00015) when adjusting for lead GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms A common gasdermin B (GSDMB) splice variant (rs11078928) previously associated with a decreased risk for asthma was nominally associated with a decreased risk for COPD [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.46, P = 1.8e-4]. Two stop variants in coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), a gene involved in regulating cell proliferation, were associated with COPD (both P < 0.0001). The SERPINA1 Z allele was associated with a random-effects odds ratio of 1.43 for COPD (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.74), though with marked heterogeneity across studies. Overall, COPD-associated exonic variants were identified in genes involved in DNA methylation, cell-matrix interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death. In conclusion, we performed the largest exome array meta-analysis of COPD to date and identified potential functional coding variants. Future studies are needed to identify rarer variants and further define the role of coding variants in COPD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 274, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654266

RESUMO

Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel) is a rare degenerative retinal disease with complex genetic architecture. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,067 MacTel patients and 3,799 controls, which identified eight novel genome-wide significant loci (p < 5 × 10-8), and confirmed all three previously reported loci. Using MAGMA, eQTL and transcriptome-wide association analysis, we prioritised 48 genes implicated in serine-glycine biosynthesis, metabolite transport, and retinal vasculature and thickness. Mendelian randomization indicated a likely causative role of serine (FDR = 3.9 × 10-47) and glycine depletion (FDR = 0.006) as well as alanine abundance (FDR = 0.009). Polygenic risk scoring achieved an accuracy of 0.74 and was associated in UKBiobank with retinal damage (p = 0.009). This represents the largest genetic study on MacTel to date and further highlights genetically-induced systemic and tissue-specific metabolic dysregulation in MacTel patients, which impinges on retinal health.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Retina/metabolismo , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Telangiectasia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Telangiectasia Retiniana/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3150, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561755

RESUMO

MLKL is the essential effector of necroptosis, a form of programmed lytic cell death. We have isolated a mouse strain with a single missense mutation, MlklD139V, that alters the two-helix 'brace' that connects the killer four-helix bundle and regulatory pseudokinase domains. This confers constitutive, RIPK3 independent killing activity to MLKL. Homozygous mutant mice develop lethal postnatal inflammation of the salivary glands and mediastinum. The normal embryonic development of MlklD139V homozygotes until birth, and the absence of any overt phenotype in heterozygotes provides important in vivo precedent for the capacity of cells to clear activated MLKL. These observations offer an important insight into the potential disease-modulating roles of three common human MLKL polymorphisms that encode amino acid substitutions within or adjacent to the brace region. Compound heterozygosity of these variants is found at up to 12-fold the expected frequency in patients that suffer from a pediatric autoinflammatory disease, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO).


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Sistema Hematopoético/patologia , Necroptose/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteomielite/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
8.
Neurology ; 94(20): e2148-e2167, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determining the genetic basis of speech disorders provides insight into the neurobiology of human communication. Despite intensive investigation over the past 2 decades, the etiology of most speech disorders in children remains unexplained. To test the hypothesis that speech disorders have a genetic etiology, we performed genetic analysis of children with severe speech disorder, specifically childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). METHODS: Precise phenotyping together with research genome or exome analysis were performed on children referred with a primary diagnosis of CAS. Gene coexpression and gene set enrichment analyses were conducted on high-confidence gene candidates. RESULTS: Thirty-four probands ascertained for CAS were studied. In 11/34 (32%) probands, we identified highly plausible pathogenic single nucleotide (n = 10; CDK13, EBF3, GNAO1, GNB1, DDX3X, MEIS2, POGZ, SETBP1, UPF2, ZNF142) or copy number (n = 1; 5q14.3q21.1 locus) variants in novel genes or loci for CAS. Testing of parental DNA was available for 9 probands and confirmed that the variants had arisen de novo. Eight genes encode proteins critical for regulation of gene transcription, and analyses of transcriptomic data found CAS-implicated genes were highly coexpressed in the developing human brain. CONCLUSION: We identify the likely genetic etiology in 11 patients with CAS and implicate 9 genes for the first time. We find that CAS is often a sporadic monogenic disorder, and highly genetically heterogeneous. Highly penetrant variants implicate shared pathways in broad transcriptional regulation, highlighting the key role of transcriptional regulation in normal speech development. CAS is a distinctive, socially debilitating clinical disorder, and understanding its molecular basis is the first step towards identifying precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Apraxias/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Fala/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia
9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2392-2409, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Fumar/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reino Unido
11.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2532-2542, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Distonia/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
13.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
14.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Pneumopatias/etnologia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pulmão/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Americanos Asiáticos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Regressão , Tamanho da Amostra , Fumar , Capacidade Vital , /genética
16.
J Vasc Access ; 19(3): 221-229, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29552935

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous fistulae remain the gold standard of vascular access in haemodialysis. There is currently no consensus on standardised methods of monitoring arteriovenous fistulae. Assessment techniques and practice remain widely variable. The purpose of this study is to determine whether existing evidence supports physical assessment as an effective tool and a good predictor of arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction to allow for timely intervention and improve outcomes. METHODS: A literature search was performed using CINAHL, PubMed, Medline and BNI databases and relevant search terms. Studies included were peer-reviewed, published after 2008, in English and related to arteriovenous fistulae only. Six key papers were identified and critically analysed for validity and relevance, in relation to outcomes, assessor experience, training duration and nurses' ability to perform physical assessment. RESULTS: Physical assessment has been shown to be effective in detecting arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction and comparable to technology-based surveillance. Physical assessment techniques generally adopt a 'look, listen and feel' approach to identify arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction that includes stenosis, thrombosis, ischaemia and infections. Physical assessment is a skill that can be taught with studies showing that skill-specific training is more effective than experience alone. Cost-effectiveness analysis is lacking. CONCLUSION: The analysis of evidence demonstrates that physical assessment of arteriovenous fistulae is an effective method of detecting arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction and is a skill that can be taught. A structured physical assessment and its implementation may be significant in routine care, but research into the most effective physical assessment techniques and its impact on clinical practice in haemodialysis is required.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Exame Físico , Diálise Renal , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Competência Clínica , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Invest ; 127(9): 3367-3374, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783044

RESUMO

Thiazide diuretics are among the most widely used treatments for hypertension, but thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH), a clinically significant adverse effect, is poorly understood. Here, we have studied the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of patients hospitalized with TIH. In a cohort of 109 TIH patients, those with severe TIH displayed an extended phenotype of intravascular volume expansion, increased free water reabsorption, urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion, and reduced excretion of serum chloride, magnesium, zinc, and antidiuretic hormone. GWAS in a separate cohort of 48 TIH patients and 2,922 controls from the 1958 British birth cohort identified an additional 14 regions associated with TIH. We identified a suggestive association with a variant in SLCO2A1, which encodes a prostaglandin transporter in the distal nephron. Resequencing of SLCO2A1 revealed a nonsynonymous variant, rs34550074 (p.A396T), and association with this SNP was replicated in a second cohort of TIH cases. TIH patients with the p.A396T variant demonstrated increased urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 and metabolites. Moreover, the SLCO2A1 phospho-mimic p.A396E showed loss of transporter function in vitro. These findings indicate that the phenotype of TIH involves a more extensive metabolic derangement than previously recognized. We propose one mechanism underlying TIH development in a subgroup of patients in which SLCO2A1 regulation is altered.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Tiazidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aquaporina 1/genética , Aquaporina 2/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiponatremia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Néfrons/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Farmacogenética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Reino Unido , Água/química
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 416-425, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166213

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10-49), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 426-432, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166215

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We performed a genetic association study in 15,256 cases and 47,936 controls, with replication of select top results (P < 5 × 10-6) in 9,498 cases and 9,748 controls. In the combined meta-analysis, we identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance, including 13 new associations with COPD. Nine of these 13 loci have been associated with lung function in general population samples, while 4 (EEFSEC, DSP, MTCL1, and SFTPD) are new. We noted two loci shared with pulmonary fibrosis (FAM13A and DSP) but that had opposite risk alleles for COPD. None of our loci overlapped with genome-wide associations for asthma, although one locus has been implicated in joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity. We also identified genetic correlation between COPD and asthma. Our findings highlight new loci associated with COPD, demonstrate the importance of specific loci associated with lung function to COPD, and identify potential regions of genetic overlap between COPD and other respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(3): 894-904, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28082375

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for reduced pulmonary function. The genetic component of various pulmonary traits has also been demonstrated, and at least 26 loci have been reproducibly associated with either FEV 1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or FEV 1 /FVC (FEV 1 /forced vital capacity). Although the main effects of smoking and genetic loci are well established, the question of potential gene-by-smoking interaction effect remains unanswered. The aim of the present study was to assess, using a genetic risk score approach, whether the effect of these 26 loci on pulmonary function is influenced by smoking. Methods: We evaluated the interaction between smoking exposure, considered as either ever vs never or pack-years, and a 26-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genetic risk score in relation to FEV 1 or FEV 1 /FVC in 50 047 participants of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) and SpiroMeta consortia. Results: We identified an interaction ( ßint = -0.036, 95% confidence interval, -0.040 to -0.032, P = 0.00057) between an unweighted 26 SNP genetic risk score and smoking status (ever/never) on the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. In interpreting this interaction, we showed that the genetic risk of falling below the FEV /FVC threshold used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher among ever smokers than among never smokers. A replication analysis in two independent datasets, although not statistically significant, showed a similar trend in the interaction effect. Conclusions: This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV 1 /FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Capacidade Vital/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Espirometria
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