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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229997, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163457

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) has a variable clinical course for which predicting prognosis is difficult. However, the role of blood biomarkers in RA-ILD is ill-defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels in RA-ILD patients. The medical records of 84 patients with RA-ILD were retrospectively reviewed. Plasma KL-6 levels were measured by Nanopia KL-6 assay (SEKISUI MEDICAL, Tokyo), using latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. The median follow-up period was 61 months. Mean age was 61.4 years, 45.2% were men, 44.0% were ever-smokers, and 35.7% showed a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography. The median KL-6 level at baseline was 741.2 U/mL (interquartile range, 439.7-1308.9 U/mL). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high KL-6 level (≥ 640 U/mL) was an independently associated with a UIP pattern (odds ratio [OR], 5.173; P = 0.005) with old age (OR, 1.104, P = 0.005). On multivariate Cox analysis, a high KL-6 level (≥ 685 U/mL) was an independent prognostic factor for the mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.984; P = 0.016) with a older age (HR, 1.061; P = 0.030), male sex (HR, 3.610; P = 0.001), lower forced vital capacity (HR, 0.957; P = 0.002), and a UIP pattern (HR, 4.034; P = 0.002). Our results suggest that high KL-6 levels might be useful as a biomarker for the presence of a UIP pattern and prognosis in patients with RA-ILD.

2.
Thorax ; 75(3): 269-278, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-tuberculosis lung damage (PTLD) is a recognised consequence of pulmonary TB (pTB). However, little is known about its prevalence, patterns and associated outcomes, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and HIV-positive adults. METHODS: Adult (≥15 years) survivors of a first episode of pTB in Blantyre, Malawi, completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walk test, spirometry and high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest imaging at TB treatment completion. Symptom, spirometry, health seeking, TB-retreatment and mortality data were collected prospectively to 1 year. Risk factors for persistent symptoms, pulmonary function decline and respiratory-related health-seeking were identified through multivariable regression modelling. RESULTS: Between February 2016 and April 2017, 405 participants were recruited. Median age was 35 years (IQR: 28 to 41), 77.3% (313/405) had had microbiologically proven pTB, and 60.3% (244/403) were HIV-positive. At pTB treatment completion, 60.7% (246/405) reported respiratory symptoms, 34.2% (125/365) had abnormal spirometry, 44.2% (170/385) had bronchiectasis ≥1 lobe and 9.4% (36/385) had ≥1 destroyed lobe on HRCT imaging. At 1 year, 30.7% (113/368) reported respiratory symptoms, 19.3% (59/305) and 14.1% (43/305) of patients had experienced declines in FEV1 or FVC of ≥100 mL, 16.3% (62/380) had reported ≥1 acute respiratory event and 12.2% (45/368) had symptoms affecting their ability to work. CONCLUSIONS: PTLD is a common and under-recognised consequence of pTB that is disabling for patients and associated with adverse outcomes beyond pTB treatment completion. Increased efforts to prevent PTLD and guidelines for management of established disease are urgently needed. Low-cost clinical interventions to improve patient outcomes must be evaluated.

3.
Eur Urol ; 77(4): 548-556, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with rare histologies of bladder cancer, including adenocarcinoma of the bladder (ACB) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), there are limited standard therapy options, defining an unmet medical need. OBJECTIVE: In this comparative comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) study, genomic alterations (GAs), and immuno-oncology (IO) biomarkers have been analyzed. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Within the Foundation Medicine database, 143 cases with centrally reviewed pure ACB, 2142 with pure urothelial carcinoma (UC), and 83 with pure SCC were subjected to CGP. All patients developed advanced disease following a primary diagnosis of bladder cancer. INTERVENTION: CGP using a hybrid capture-based assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was determined on 1.1 Mbp of sequenced DNA, and microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined on 114 loci. Programmed cell-death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression was determined by IHC (Ventana SP-142 assay), with >1% tumor cells (TCs) or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) scoring positive. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Pure ACB patients were younger and more often female than pure UC and pure SCC patients. UC and SCC had a significantly higher median TMB than ACB (p < 0.001). Rare CD274 (PD-L1) amplification cases were more frequently seen in SCC than in UC (5% vs 1%), and were not seen in ACB. MSI high status was very uncommon in all tumor types (0-1%). The frequencies of PD-L1 expression in both TCs and TILs was higher in UC and SCC (both 30%) than in ACB (18%). The results are limited by their retrospective nature and lack of clinical data annotation. CONCLUSIONS: Deep sequencing revealed significant differences in IO biomarkers among the three major subtypes of bladder carcinomas. UC and SCC revealed higher frequencies of PD-L1 expression and higher TMB than ACB, and SCC has the highest frequency of CD274 amplification. The presence of pure SCC features should not disqualify patients for inclusion in IO trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: Tumor samples from patients diagnosed with advanced pure adenocarcinoma of the bladder (ACB) or pure squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) have been analyzed in terms of frequency of putative immunotherapy biomarkers. The results indicated that pure SCC of the bladder was characterized by genomic features that portend similar response possibilities to immunotherapy compared with the classical pure urothelial carcinoma. Conversely, for pure ACB there might be different therapeutic opportunities, such as targeted therapies against peculiar genomic alterations in selected patients.

4.
Chest ; 157(1): 89-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), often disproportionate to the severity of the ILD. The right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RV:LV) ratio measured at CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) has been shown to provide valuable information in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and to predict death or deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Demographic characteristics, ILD subtype, echocardiography, and detailed CTPA measurements were collected in consecutive patients undergoing both CTPA and right heart catheterization at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2005 and 2015. Fibrosis severity was formally scored according to CT criteria. The RV:LV ratio at CTPA was evaluated by using three different methods. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relation of CTPA-derived parameters to predict death or lung transplantation. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included (64% male; mean age 65 ± 11 years) with an FVC 57 ± 20% predicted, corrected transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide 22 ± 8% predicted, and corrected transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide 51 ± 17% predicted. PH was confirmed at right heart catheterization in 78%. Of all the CTPA-derived measures, an RV:LV ratio ≥ 1.0 strongly predicted mortality or transplantation at univariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.49-7.13; P = .003), whereas invasive hemodynamic data did not. The RV:LV ratio remained an independent predictor at multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.44-7.10; P = .004), adjusting for an ILD diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and CT imaging-derived ILD severity. CONCLUSIONS: An increased RV:LV ratio measured at CTPA provides a simple, noninvasive method of risk stratification in patients with suspected ILD-PH. This should prompt closer follow-up, more aggressive treatment, and consideration of lung transplantation.

5.
Ultrasound ; 27(4): 262-271, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762783

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of strain elastography for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease using Ishak (0-6) histology stage as a reference standard. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with suspected chronic liver disease scheduled for liver biopsy (n = 78) or histologically confirmed cirrhosis (n = 20) were enrolled. Liver fibrosis Index (LF Index) calculated by strain elastography, liver stiffness by transient elastography and serum fibrosis markers (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index and King's Score) were measured. Spearman's correlation coefficient between the LF Index, liver stiffness, serum fibrosis markers and fibrosis stage were calculated and compared using areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (AUROCs) curves. Among 73 patients who underwent strain elastography, there was weak correlation between fibrosis stage and the LF Index (Spearman's: ρ = 0.385 for Ishak score; P = 0.001). Among 52 patients who underwent strain elastography and transient elastography, the AUROC values using LF Index, transient elastography, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index and King's Score for diagnosing significant fibrosis (Ishak score ≥ 3) were 0.79, 0.87, 0.86 and 0.85, respectively (P < 0.0001) and for diagnosing severe fibrosis/cirrhosis (Ishak score ≥ 5) were 0.83, 0.94, 0.92 and 0.92, respectively (P < 0.0001). When comparing the diagnostic performance using LF Index, transient elastography, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index and King's Score, transient elastography shows a significantly higher AUROC value than LF Index in detecting severe fibrosis (P = 0.0149). The diagnostic performance of LF Index calculated by strain elastography was not statistically significantly different to the other noninvasive tests for the assessment of significant liver fibrosis but inferior to transient elastography for the assessment of severe fibrosis/cirrhosis.

6.
Oncotarget ; 10(56): 5824-5834, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645902

RESUMO

The molecular chaperone Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for the folding, stability, and activity of several drivers of oncogenesis. Hsp90 inhibitors are currently under clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, however their efficacy is limited by lack of biomarkers to optimize patient selection. We have recently identified the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) as a new co-chaperone of Hsp90 that affects Hsp90 binding to its inhibitors. Highly variable mutations of TSC1 have been previously identified in bladder cancer and correlate with sensitivity to the Hsp90 inhibitors. Here we showed loss of TSC1 leads to hypoacetylation of Hsp90-K407/K419 and subsequent decreased binding to the Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib. Pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) restores acetylation of Hsp90 and sensitizes Tsc1-mutant bladder cancer cells to ganetespib, resulting in apoptosis. Our findings suggest that TSC1 status may predict response to Hsp90 inhibitors in patients with bladder cancer, and co-targeting HDACs can sensitize tumors with Tsc1 mutations to Hsp90 inhibitors.

7.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 6(3): 034003, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548977

RESUMO

We propose a pipeline to acquire a scalar tapering measurement from the carina to the most distal point of an individual airway visible on computed tomography (CT). We show the applicability of using tapering measurements on clinically acquired data by quantifying the reproducibility of the tapering measure. We generate a spline from the centerline of an airway to measure the area and arclength at contiguous intervals. The tapering measurement is the gradient of the linear regression between area in log space and arclength. The reproducibility of the measure was assessed by analyzing different radiation doses, voxel sizes, and reconstruction kernel on single timepoint and longitudinal CT scans and by evaluating the effect of airway bifurcations. Using 74 airways from 10 CT scans, we show a statistical difference, p = 3.4 × 10 - 4 , in tapering between healthy airways ( n = 35 ) and those affected by bronchiectasis ( n = 39 ). The difference between the mean of the two populations is 0.011 mm - 1 , and the difference between the medians of the two populations was 0.006 mm - 1 . The tapering measurement retained a 95% confidence interval of ± 0.005 mm - 1 in a simulated 25 mAs scan and retained a 95% confidence of ± 0.005 mm - 1 on simulated CTs up to 1.5 times the original voxel size. We have established an estimate of the precision of the tapering measurement and estimated the effect on precision of the simulated voxel size and CT scan dose. We recommend that the scanner calibration be undertaken with the phantoms as described, on the specific CT scanner, radiation dose, and reconstruction algorithm that are to be used in any quantitative studies.

8.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 30(4): xvii, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563179
9.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 25(5): 426-433, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365376

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Computer algorithms possess an intrinsic speed, objectivity, reproducibility and scalability unmatched by visual quantitation methods performed by trained readers. The question of how well quantitative CT (QCT) analysis methods compare with visual CT analysis to predict functional status in fibrosing lung diseases (FLDs) is of increasing relevance to understand the future role QCT may have in prognostication of FLD. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest computer algorithms demonstrate improved performance over visual CT analysis in predicting baseline disease severity as measured by correlations with functional indices of lung damage. QCT analysis may, therefore, have a role in aiding clinical decision-making as well as in the enrichment of drug trial populations. Quantitative analysis on longitudinal CTs has also shown better correlations with changes in functional indices whenever compared with visual scores of change suggesting the potential of QCT analysis as an imaging biomarker of disease progression in FLD. Importantly, computer algorithms are now able to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers that cannot be quantified visually (e.g. vessel-related structures). SUMMARY: QCT holds great promise for the evaluation of damage in FLD. Challenges for QCT include accommodating measurement noise from variation in CT acquisition techniques and developing patient-friendly visualizations of quantitative outputs.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367634

RESUMO

Making chILD diagnoses on CT is poorly reproducible, even amongst sub-specialists. CT might best improve diagnostic confidence in a multidisciplinary team setting when augmented with clinical, functional and haematological results. http://bit.ly/327jRCw.

11.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408153

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate population-based electronic health record (EHR) definitions of atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) subtypes, time trends in prevalence and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 76 019 individuals with AF were identified in England in 1998-2010 in the CALIBER resource, linking primary and secondary care EHR. An algorithm was created, implemented, and refined to identify 18 VHD subtypes using 406 diagnosis, procedure, and prescription codes. Cox models were used to investigate associations with a composite endpoint of incident stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, and unspecified), systemic embolism (SSE), and all-cause mortality. Among individuals with AF, the prevalence of AF with concomitant VHD increased from 11.4% (527/4613) in 1998 to 17.6% (7014/39 868) in 2010 and also in individuals aged over 65 years. Those with mechanical valves, mitral stenosis (MS), or aortic stenosis had highest risk of clinical events compared to AF patients with no VHD, in relative [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.13 (1.02-1.24), 1.20 (1.05-1.36), and 1.27 (1.19-1.37), respectively] and absolute (excess risk: 2.04, 4.20, and 6.37 per 100 person-years, respectively) terms. Of the 95.2% of individuals with indication for warfarin (men and women with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1 and ≥2, respectively), only 21.8% had a prescription 90 days prior to the study. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of VHD among individuals with AF increased from 1998 to 2010. Atrial fibrillation associated with aortic stenosis, MS, or mechanical valves (compared to AF without VHD) was associated with an excess absolute risk of stroke, SSE, and mortality, but anticoagulation was underused in the pre-direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) era, highlighting need for urgent clarity regarding DOACs in AF and concomitant VHD.

13.
Eur Urol Focus ; 5(5): 748-755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic testicular sex cord stromal tumors of the testis (MSCSTs) comprise an extremely uncommon form of genitourinary malignancy. OBJECTIVE: To perform comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to enable the search for potential therapy targets. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with testicular Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), six with Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs), and three with undifferentiated sex cord stromal tumors (USCSTs) and a comparison group of 366 patients with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors (SCSTs) underwent hybrid-capture-based CGP to evaluate all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). The tumor mutational burden (TMB) was determined on 1.1 Mbp of sequenced DNA, and microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined on 114 loci. INTERVENTION: CGP on tumor samples. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive analyses and differences between histological subgroups were reported. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In these patients, all of whom had metastatic disease at the time of sequencing, the primary testis tumor was sequenced in six (32%) patients and a metastatic site in 13 (68%) patients. The overall frequencies of GAs were similar in LCTs, SCTs, and USCSTs, ranging from 3.0 to 3.5 GAs/tumor. The most frequent untargetable GAs included CTNNB1 and CDKN2A/B, both ranging from 20% to 33% of cases. Targetable GAs were uncommon in all MSCST subgroups, but several tumors showed potential for cell-cycle inhibitors (CDK4 in LCTs), mTOR inhibitors (RICTOR, NF2, and PTEN in all three tumor types), hedgehog inhibitors (PTCH1 in LCTs), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (BAP1 in SCTs). No MSI-high status was identified. The TMB was also low in all MSCST groups, and tumors featuring a TMB of ≥10 mutations/Mb were not identified. GA findings from ovarian SCSTs largely recapitulated those from MSCSTs. A lack of clinical outcome correlation is a limitation of the present analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Rare cases of testicular MSCSTs have GAs linked to potential targeted therapy benefits on CGP. In contrast, the lack of MSI-high status and an overall low TMB indicate a likely lack of benefit for immunotherapies. PATIENT SUMMARY: Genomic profiling can guide clinical research and disclose therapeutic opportunities for patients with rare testicular cancers for which standard therapies are lacking.

14.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(2): 318-324, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between CT markers of lung volume and pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters of lung volume in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). MATERIALS AND METHODS. The relationships between PFT-derived parameters of lung volume (forced vital capacity [FVC] and total lung capacity [TLC]) and both CT-derived automated lung volume and manually derived surrogate measurements of lung volume on CT were evaluated in 273 patients (212 men and 61 women; median age, 67 years) with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of IPF. All patients underwent unenhanced volumetric high-resolution CT of the thorax. Automated lung volume was extracted using commercially available software. Three manual CT surrogate measurements of lung volume previously tested in the setting of radiation-induced lung fibrosis were evaluated by two raters. These measurements were lung height, aortosternal distance, and oblique fissure retraction distance. Fibrosis extent on CT was scored by two observers. Correlation coefficients and multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between CT measurements and percentage of predicted FVC (hereafter referred to as "percentage FVC") and TLC. Interobserver agreement for CT markers was evaluated on the basis of the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS. There was a strong correlation between CT-derived automated lung volume and TLC (rP = 0.92; p < 0.0005). There was excellent interobserver agreement for all manual CT measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82-0.96). There were significant correlations between manual CT measurements and percentage FVC. Lung height had the strongest relationship with percentage FVC (rP = 0.44; p < 0.0005). In multivariable analysis, the CT measurements were independent determinants of lung volumes, after adjustment for fibrosis and emphysema (R2 = 0.48; p < 0.0005 and p < 0.003, respectively). Lung height had the most significant impact on the fit against lung volumes. CONCLUSION. Automated and manual CT measurements of lung volume are significantly related to PFT-derived parameters of lung volume, independent of fibrosis and emphysema.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033636

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Computer algorithms possess an intrinsic speed, objectivity, reproducibility and scalability unmatched by visual quantitation methods performed by trained readers. The question of how well quantitative CT (QCT) analysis methods compare with visual CT analysis to predict functional status in fibrosing lung diseases (FLDs) is of increasing relevance to understand the future role QCT may have in prognostication of FLD. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest computer algorithms demonstrate improved performance over visual CT analysis in predicting baseline disease severity as measured by correlations with functional indices of lung damage. QCT analysis may, therefore, have a role in aiding clinical decision-making as well as in the enrichment of drug trial populations. Quantitative analysis on longitudinal CTs has also shown better correlations with changes in functional indices whenever compared with visual scores of change suggesting the potential of QCT analysis as an imaging biomarker of disease progression in FLD. Importantly, computer algorithms are now able to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers that cannot be quantified visually (e.g. vessel-related structures). SUMMARY: QCT holds great promise for the evaluation of damage in FLD. Challenges for QCT include accommodating measurement noise from variation in CT acquisition techniques and developing patient-friendly visualizations of quantitative outputs.

16.
Respirology ; 24(5): 445-452, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative lung vessel morphology determined by a new fully automated algorithm is associated with functional indices in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A total of 152 IPF patients had vessel volume, density, tortuosity and heterogeneity quantified from computed tomography (CT) images by a fully automated algorithm. Separate quantitation of vessel metrics in pulmonary arteries and veins was performed in 106 patients. Results were evaluated against readouts from lung function tests. RESULTS: Normalized vessel volume expressed as a percentage of total lung volume was moderately correlated with functional indices on univariable linear regression analysis: forced vital capacity (R2 = 0.27, P < 1 × 10-6 ), diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ; R2 = 0.12, P = 3 × 10-5 ), total lung capacity (TLC; R2 = 0.45, P < 1 × 10-6 ) and composite physiologic index (CPI; R2 = 0.28, P < 1 × 10-6 ). Normalized vessel volume was correlated with vessel density but not with vessel heterogeneity. Quantitatively derived vessel metrics (and artery and vein subdivision scores) were not significantly linked with the transfer factor for carbon monoxide (KCO ), and only weakly with DLCO . On multivariable linear regression analysis, normalized vessel volume and vessel heterogeneity were independently linked with DLCO , TLC and CPI indicating that they capture different aspects of lung damage. Artery-vein separation provided no additional information beyond that captured in the whole vasculature. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms previous observations of links between vessel volume and functional measures of disease severity in IPF using a new vessel quantitation tool. Additionally, the new tool shows independent linkages of normalized vessel volume and vessel heterogeneity with functional indices. Quantitative vessel metrics do not appear to reflect vasculopathic damage in IPF.

17.
J Urol ; 201(2): 342-349, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The development of Clostridium difficile infection after cystectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We implemented a prospective screening program to identify asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile and assessed its impact on clinical C. difficile infection rates compared to historical matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective C. difficile screening prior to cystectomy began in March 2015. The 380 consecutive patients who underwent cystectomy before the initiation of screening (control cohort) were matched based on 5 clinical factors with the 386 patients who underwent cystectomy from March 2015 to December 2017 (trial cohort). Patients who screened positive were placed in contact isolation and treated prophylactically with metronidazole. Multivariable models were built on an intent to screen basis and an effectiveness of screening basis to determine whether screening reduced the rate of symptomatic C. difficile infection postoperatively. RESULTS: With the implementation of the screening protocol the C. difficile infection rate declined from 9.4% to 5.5% (OR 0.52, p = 0.0268) in patients on the intent to screen protocol and from 9.2% to 4.9% in those on the effectiveness of screening protocol (OR 0.46, p = 0.0174). CONCLUSIONS: C. difficile screening prior to cystectomy is associated with a significant decrease in the rate of clinically symptomatic infection postoperatively. These results should be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Urol ; 201(3): 541-548, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. We compared the potential therapy impacting genomic alterations between metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma and nonpenile metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from 40 µ of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded samples from 78 cases of metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma and 338 of metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation based, next generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of greater than 500×. The tumor mutational burden was determined on 1.1 Mbp of sequenced DNA and microsatellite instability was determined on 114 loci. RESULTS: Potential targeted therapy opportunities in metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma cases included alterations in the MTOR pathway ( NF1 genomic alterations in 7% and PTEN genomic alterations in 4%) and in the DNA repair pathway ( BRCA2 and ATM genomic alterations in 7% each) and tyrosine kinase ( EGFR genomic alterations in 6%, and FGFR3 and ERBB2 genomic alterations in 4% each). The tumor mutational burden was significantly higher in predominantly ultraviolet light exposed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma than in metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma, making metastatic squamous cell carcinoma potentially more responsive to immunotherapies than metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. Microsatellite high status was extremely rare for metastatic penile and metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. CD274 ( PD-L1) amplification was also rare in both tumor types. CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma is a unique subtype of squamous cell carcinoma with distinctive genomic features which contrast with those identified in metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of nonpenile ultraviolet light exposed skin. Although not rich in predictors of the response to immunotherapy (the tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability are low), more than a quarter of metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma cases may potentially benefit from existing and available therapies targeting MTOR, DNA repair and tyrosine kinase pathways.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Penianas/genética , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Perfil Genético , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
20.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487199

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare radiology-based prediction models in rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RAILD) to identify patients with a progressive fibrosis phenotype.RAILD patients had computed tomography (CT) scans scored visually and using CALIPER and forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements. Outcomes were evaluated using three techniques, as follows. 1) Scleroderma system evaluating visual interstitial lung disease extent and FVC values; 2) Fleischner Society idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnostic guidelines applied to RAILD; and 3) CALIPER scores of vessel-related structures (VRS). Outcomes were compared to IPF patients.On univariable Cox analysis, all three staging systems strongly predicted outcome (scleroderma system hazard ratio (HR) 3.78, p=9×10-5; Fleischner system HR 1.98, p=2×10-3; and 4.4% VRS threshold HR 3.10, p=4×10-4). When the scleroderma and Fleischner systems were combined, termed the progressive fibrotic system (C-statistic 0.71), they identified a patient subset (n=36) with a progressive fibrotic phenotype and similar 4-year survival to IPF. On multivariable analysis, with adjustment for patient age, sex and smoking status, when analysed alongside the progressive fibrotic system, the VRS threshold of 4.4% independently predicted outcome (model C-statistic 0.77).The combination of two visual CT-based staging systems identified 23% of an RAILD cohort with an IPF-like progressive fibrotic phenotype. The addition of a computer-derived VRS threshold further improved outcome prediction and model fit, beyond that encompassed by RAILD measures of disease severity and extent.

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