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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin-use reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but there is limited evidence regarding associations of aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with CRC-specific survival. METHODS: This prospective analysis includes women and men from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer-free at baseline (1992 or 1993) and diagnosed with CRC during incidence follow-up through 2015. Detailed information on aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID-use was self-reported on questionnaires at baseline, in 1997, and every 2 years thereafter. Pre- and post-diagnosis data were available for 2,686 and 1,931 participants without distant-metastases, respectively, among whom 512 and 251 died from CRC during mortality follow-up through 2016. Secondary analyses examined associations between pre-diagnosis aspirin-use and stage at diagnosis (distant-metastatic versus localized or regional). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Long-term regular use of aspirin (>15 times per month) before diagnosis was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR)= 0.69; 95% CI = 0.52-0.92). Post-diagnosis regular aspirin use was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC-specific mortality overall (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.62-1.09), although participants who began regular aspirin use only after their diagnosis were at lower risk than participants who did not use aspirin at both the pre-and post-diagnosis periods (HR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.36-0.98). Long-term aspirin use before diagnosis was also associated with lower odds of diagnosis with distant metastases (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that long-term aspirin use before a diagnosis of non-metastatic colorectal cancer may be associated with lower CRC-specific mortality after diagnosis, consistent with possible inhibition of micro-metastases before diagnosis.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2680-2685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests the association between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk is weaker among current smokers than among never smokers. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among adults who reported smoking status at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982, including 420,543 never smokers, 282,244 former cigarette smokers, and 219,885 current cigarette smokers. After excluding the first 3 years of follow-up to reduce reverse causation, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: During the full follow-up period from 1985 to 2014, 7,904 participants died of pancreatic cancer. The HR per 5 BMI units was lower among current smokers [HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.20] than never smokers (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). BMI was significantly less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers reporting ≥20 cigarettes/day (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18) than among never smokers. During follow-up within 10 years of enrollment, when current smokers at enrollment were the most likely to have still been smoking, BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16, P = 0.03 for difference between current and never smokers). BMI HRs were similar among former and never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a weaker association between BMI and pancreatic cancer among current smokers than among never smokers. IMPACT: In populations with low smoking prevalence, the pancreatic cancer burden due to BMI is likely to be higher than that predicted by risk estimates from studies including substantial numbers of smokers.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101730, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk generally appears null, but recent evidence suggests that risk may vary by coffee type. We examined associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with colorectal cancer risk overall and with colon and rectum separately, among older U.S. men and women. METHODS: In 1999, 47,010 men and 60,051 women with no previous diagnosis of cancer, aged 47-96 years, in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire that assessed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake; consumption was updated in 2003. A total of 1829 colorectal cancer cases were verified through June 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking history, alcohol, caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee intake (depending on the model), and other colorectal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee, compared to no decaffeinated coffee, was associated with lower risk of overall colorectal cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96, P-trend = 0.04), colon cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, P-trend = 0.05) and rectal cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99, P-trend = 0.17). Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with higher risk of rectal cancer (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.89, P-trend = 0.04), but not with colorectal or colon cancer. CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, higher intake of decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers. Further study on associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk by subsite is needed.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(18): 2018-2027, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of postdiagnosis body mass index (BMI) and weight change with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVDM), and all-cause mortality among survivors of nonmetastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 1992 and 2013 were followed for mortality through December 2016. Current weight was self-reported on follow-up questionnaires approximately every 2 years. Postdiagnosis BMI was obtained from the first survey completed 1 to < 6 years after diagnosis. Weight change was the difference in weight between the first and second postdiagnosis surveys. Deaths occurring within 4 years of the follow-up were excluded to reduce bias from reverse causation. Analyses of BMI and weight change included 8,330 and 6,942 participants, respectively. RESULTS: Postdiagnosis BMI analyses included 3,855 deaths from all causes (PCSM, n = 500; CVDM, n = 1,155). Using Cox proportional hazards models, hazard ratios (HRs) associated with postdiagnosis obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) compared with healthy weight (BMI 18.5 to < 25.0 kg/m2) were 1.28 for PCSM (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.67), 1.24 for CVDM (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.49), and 1.23 for all-cause mortality (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.35). Weight gain analyses included 2,973 deaths (PCSM, n = 375; CVDM, n = 881). Postdiagnosis weight gain (> 5% of body weight), compared with stable weight (± < 3%), was associated with a higher risk of PCSM (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.25) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.45) but not CVDM. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that among survivors of nonmetastatic prostate cancer with largely localized disease, postdiagnosis obesity is associated with higher CVDM and all-cause mortality, and possibly higher PCSM, and that postdiagnosis weight gain may be associated with a higher mortality as a result of all causes and prostate cancer.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1029-1038, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the relationship of meat, fish, and egg consumption and mortality among prostate cancer survivors is limited. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between baseline in 1992/1993 and 2015 were followed for mortality until 2016. Analyses of pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, and eggs included 9,286 and 4,882 survivors, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 4,682 and 2,768 deaths occurred during follow-up in pre- and postdiagnosis analyses, respectively. Both pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of total red and processed meat were positively associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1: RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25; P trend = 0.02; RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.39; P trend = 0.03, respectively), and both pre- and postdiagnosis poultry intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1 RR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P trend = 0.04; RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P trend = 0.01, respectively). No associations were seen for prostate cancer-specific mortality, except that higher postdiagnosis unprocessed red meat intake was associated with lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher red and processed meat, and lower poultry, intakes either before or after prostate cancer diagnosis were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. IMPACT: Our findings provide additional evidence that prostate cancer survivors should follow the nutrition guidelines limiting red and processed meat consumption to improve overall survival. Additional research on the relationship of specific meat types and mortality is needed.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(2): 108-115, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602476

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies. However, BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults who were aged 30-89 years at their enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, a total of 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios per 5 BMI units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.33) in persons aged 30-49 years at enrollment to 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 years at enrollment (P for trend = 0.005). On the basis of a hazard ratio of 1.25 per 5 BMI units at age 45 years, we estimated that 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths among persons born in 1970-1974 will be attributable to BMI ≥25.0-nearly twice the equivalent proportion of those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest that BMI before age 50 years is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages, and they underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer, especially advanced and fatal prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of prediagnostic plasma metabolomic profiles with advanced and fatal prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a case-cohort study of the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, of 14 210 cancer-free men with a blood sample in 1998-2001, 129 were diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer (T3-T4 or N1 or M1) through June 2013 and 112 died from prostate cancer through December 2014. Plasma samples from advanced and fatal cases, and a randomly selected subcohort of 347 men were metabolically profiled using untargeted mass spectroscopy-based platforms. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations of 699 known metabolites with advanced and fatal prostate cancer. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Two metabolites derived from fatty acid metabolism (ethylmalonate and butyrylcarnitine), aspartate, sphingomyelin (d18:1/18:0), and two γ-glutamyl amino acids (γ-glutamylmethionine and γ-glutamylglutamine) were statistically significantly associated (false discovery rate <0.2) with fatal prostate cancer. One standard deviation (SD) increase in each γ-glutamyl amino acid was associated with 34-38% decreased risk, whereas one SD increase in each of the other metabolites was associated with 45-53% increased risk. A metabolic risk score based on four of these metabolites (excluding butyrylcarnitine and γ-glutamylglutamine, which were not independent predictors) was strongly associated with fatal prostate cancer (relative risk per SD: 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.05-3.60). No metabolites were statistically significantly associated with advanced prostate cancer. These results were observational and may not be causal. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identified metabolic pathways that are altered in the development of fatal prostate cancer. Further research into these pathways may provide insights into the etiology of fatal prostate cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY: In a large follow-up study of cancer-free men, those with a certain metabolomic profile had a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.

14.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(8): 1561-1570.e3, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis. METHODS: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of intake of red and processed meat before diagnosis with overall and CRC-specific survival. RESULTS: Among 7627 patients with CRC, 2338 died, including 1576 from CRC, over a median follow-up time of 5.1 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher intake of red or processed meat was not associated with overall survival of patients with stage I-III CRC: Q4 vs Q1 red meat hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 (95% CI, 0.93-1.26) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.93-1.32) or with CRC-specific survival: Q4 vs Q1 red meat HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.42). Results were similar for patients with stage IV CRC. However, patients with stage I-III CRC who reported an intake of processed meat above the study-specific medians had a higher risk of death from any cause (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) than patients who reported eating at or less than the median. CONCLUSION: In this large consortium of CRC patient cohorts, intake of red and processed meat before a diagnosis of CRC was not associated with shorter survival time after diagnosis, although a possible weak adverse association cannot be excluded. Studies that evaluate dietary data from several time points before and after cancer diagnosis are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(1): 102-109, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325407

RESUMO

Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies comprising mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults are unclear. In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality differed by race and sex. Adults enrolled in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a 5-point social isolation score with risk of death. Social isolation was associated with all-cause mortality in all subgroups (P for trend ≤ 0.005); for the most isolated versus the least isolated, the hazard ratios were 2.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58, 3.46) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.41, 1.82) among black men and white men, respectively (P for interaction = 0.40) and 2.13 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.15) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.01) among black women and white women, respectively (P for interaction = 0.89). The association did not differ between black men and black women (P for interaction = 0.33) but was slightly stronger in white women than in white men (P for interaction = 0.01). Social isolation was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in each subgroup (P for trend < 0.03) but with cancer mortality only among whites (P for trend < 0.0001). Subgroup differences in the influence of specific social isolation components were identified. Identifying and intervening with socially isolated adults could improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Raciais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Participação Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 69(2): 88-112, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548482

RESUMO

The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. This change, combined with population growth, resulted in a more than 6-fold increase in the number of obese adults, from 100 to 671 million. The largest absolute increase in obesity occurred among men and boys in high-income Western countries and among women and girls in Central Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. The simultaneous rise in excess body weight in almost all countries is thought to be driven largely by changes in the global food system, which promotes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, alongside reduced opportunities for physical activity. In 2012, excess body weight accounted for approximately 3.9% of all cancers (544,300 cases) with proportion varying from less than 1% in low-income countries to 7% or 8% in some high-income Western countries and in Middle Eastern and Northern African countries. The attributable burden by sex was higher for women (368,500 cases) than for men (175,800 cases). Given the pandemic proportion of excess body weight in high-income countries and the increasing prevalence in low- and middle-income countries, the global cancer burden attributable to this condition is likely to increase in the future. There is emerging consensus on opportunities for obesity control through the multisectoral coordinated implementation of core policy actions to promote an environment conducive to a healthy diet and active living. The rapid increase in both the prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden highlights the need for a rejuvenated focus on identifying, implementing, and evaluating interventions to prevent and control excess body weight.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 68(6): 446-470, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303518

RESUMO

In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cancer risk factors and cancer care are enormous. To substantially reduce both the number of individuals diagnosed with and dying from cancer and the costs associated with cancer each year in the United States, government and industry and the public health, medical, and scientific communities must work together to develop, invest in, and implement comprehensive cancer control goals and strategies at the national level and expand ongoing initiatives at the state and local levels. This report is the second in a series of articles in this journal that, together, describe trends in cancer rates and the scientific evidence on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship to inform the identification of priorities for a comprehensive cancer control plan. Herein, we focus on existing evidence about established, modifiable risk factors for cancer, including prevalence estimates and the cancer burden due to each risk factor in the United States, and established primary prevention recommendations and interventions to reduce exposure to each risk factor.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/economia , Prevenção Primária/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(3): 345-352, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke is known to have adverse effects on the lung and vascular systems in both children and adults. It is unknown if childhood exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with adult mortality. METHODS: The authors examined associations of childhood and adult secondhand smoke exposure with death from all causes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among 70,900 never smoking men and women, predominantly aged ≥50 years, from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992-1993. There were 25,899 participant deaths during follow-up through 2014. During 2016-2017, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Childhood secondhand smoke exposure was not associated with all-cause mortality. However, childhood secondhand smoke (living with a smoker for 16-18 years during childhood) was associated with higher mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio=1.31, 95% CI=1.05, 1.65). Adult secondhand smoke exposure of ≥10 hours/week at enrollment was associated with a higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio=1.09, 95% CI=1.04, 1.14); ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio=1.27, 95% CI=1.14, 1.42); stroke (hazard ratio=1.23, 95% CI=1.04, 1.45); and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio=1.42, 95% CI=0.97, 2.09) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that childhood secondhand smoke exposure, as well as adult secondhand smoke exposure, increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease death in adulthood. Consistent with previous studies, the results also show that adult secondhand smoke is meaningfully associated with higher mortality from vascular disease and all causes. Overall, these findings provide further evidence for reducing secondhand smoke exposure throughout life.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(10): 691-696.e3, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many cohort studies in the United States link with the National Death Index to detect deaths. Although linkage with National Death Index is relatively sensitive, some participant deaths will be missed. These participants continue to contribute person-time to the data set after their death, resulting in bias, which we refer to as ghost-time bias. We sought to evaluate the influence of ghost-time bias on mortality relative risk (RR) estimates. METHODS: Simulations were performed to determine the magnitude of ghost-time bias under a variety of plausible conditions. RESULTS: Our simulations demonstrate that ghost-time bias can be substantial, particularly among the elderly, where it can reverse the direction of the RR. For example, we conducted a simulation of a cohort of men beginning follow-up at age of 70 years, assuming 5% missed deaths and a true RR of 2.0. In this simulation, observed RRs were 1.89 during the year the cohort was aged 85 years, 1.60 during the year the cohort was aged 90 years, and 0.61 during the year the cohort was aged 95 years. We also provide results from actual cohort data that are consistent with ghost-time bias. CONCLUSIONS: Ghost-time bias may meaningfully affect mortality RR estimates under conditions that can plausibly occur in aging cohorts.


Assuntos
Viés , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos
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