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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(40): eabg8329, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586847

RESUMO

Calcium-aluminum­rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites carry crucial information about the environmental conditions of the nascent Solar System prior to planet formation. Based on models of 50V­10Be co-production by in-situ irradiation, CAIs are considered to have formed within ~0.1 AU from the proto-Sun. Here, we present vanadium (V) and strontium (Sr) isotopic co-variations in fine- and coarse-grained CAIs and demonstrate that kinetic isotope effects during partial condensation and evaporation best explain V isotope anomalies previously attributed to solar particle irradiation. We also report initial excesses of 10Be and argue that CV CAIs possess essentially a homogeneous level of 10Be, inherited during their formation. Based on numerical modeling of 50V­10Be co-production by irradiation, we show that CAI formation during protoplanetary disk build-up likely occurred at greater heliocentric distances than previously considered, up to planet-forming regions (~1AU), where solar particle fluxes were sufficiently low to avoid substantial in-situ irradiation of CAIs.

2.
Anal Chem ; 91(18): 11598-11605, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310094

RESUMO

Until recently, the analysis and identification of nuclear fuel pellets in the context of a nuclear forensics investigation have been mainly focused on macroscopic characteristics, such as fuel pellet dimensions, uranium enrichment, and other reactor-specific features. Here, we report microscale isotopic heterogeneity observed in different fuel pellet fragments that were characterized in situ by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The materials analyzed include fuel fragments obtained as part of the Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) organized by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG), as well as a fuel pellet fragment from a commercial power reactor. Although the commercial fuel pellet showed a homogeneous 235U/238U ratio across the sample (within analytical error), NanoSIMS imaging of the CMX-4 fuel pellet fragments showed distinct microscale variations in the uranium isotopic composition. The average 235U enrichments were 2.2 and 2.9% for the two samples; however, the measured 235U/238U ratios varied between 0.0081 and 0.035 (0.79-3.3 atom % 235U) and between 0.0090 and 0.045 (0.89-4.3 atom % 235U). The measurement of 236U in one of the CMX-4 samples suggested the use of at least three uranium oxide powders of different isotopic compositions ("source terms") in the production of the pellets. These variations were not detected using the conventional bulk, macroscopic techniques applied to these materials. Our study highlights the importance of characterizing samples on the microscale for heterogeneities that would otherwise be overlooked and demonstrates the potential use of NanoSIMS in guiding further nuclear forensic analysis.

3.
Chem Erde ; 79(4)2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020946

RESUMO

A coordinated mineralogical and oxygen isotopic study of four fine-grained calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 carbonaceous chondrite was conducted. Three of the inclusions studied, 05, 1-65, and 2-119, all have nodular structures that represent three major groups, melilite-rich, spinel-rich, and hibonite-rich, based on their primary core mineral assemblages. A condensation origin was inferred for these CAIs. However, the difference in their primary core mineralogy reflects unique nebular environments in which multiple gas-solid reactions occurred under disequilibrium conditions to form hibonite, spinel, and melilite with minor perovskite and Al,Ti-rich diopside. A common occurrence of a diopside rim on the CAIs records a widespread event that marks the end of their condensation as a result of isolation from a nebular gas. An exception is a rare inclusion 2-112 that contains euhedral spinel crystals embedded in melilite, suggesting this CAI had been re-melted. All of the fine-grained CAIs analyzed in ALHA77307 are uniformly 16O-rich with an average Δ17O value of ~-22 ± 5‰ (2σ), indicating no apparent correlation between their textures and oxygen isotopic compositions. We therefore conclude that a prevalent 16O-rich gas reservoir existed in a region of the solar nebula where CO3 fine-grained CAIs formed, initially by condensation and then later, some of them were reprocessed by melting event(s).

4.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5344, 2017 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706289

RESUMO

Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth's surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H2O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved water in the Earth's interior. Even at these low concentrations, H2O greatly affects the physico-chemical properties of mantle materials, governing planetary dynamics and evolution. The diffusion of hydrogen (H) controls the transport of H2O in the Earth's upper mantle, but is not fully understood for olivine ((Mg, Fe)2SiO4) the most abundant mineral in this region. Here we present new hydrogen self-diffusion coefficients in natural olivine single crystals that were determined at upper mantle conditions (2 GPa and 750-900 °C). Hydrogen self-diffusion is highly anisotropic, with values at 900 °C of 10-10.9, 10-12.8 and 10-11.9 m2/s along [100], [010] and [001] directions, respectively. Combined with the Nernst-Einstein relation, these diffusion results constrain the contribution of H to the electrical conductivity of olivine to be σH = 102.12S/m·CH2O·exp-187kJ/mol/(RT). Comparisons between the model presented in this study and magnetotelluric measurements suggest that plausible H2O concentrations in the upper mantle (≤250 ppm wt) can account for high electrical conductivity values (10-2-10-1 S/m) observed in the asthenosphere.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(24): 10810-4, 2010 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20534492

RESUMO

Recent high precision (142)Nd isotope measurements showed that global silicate differentiation may have occurred as early as 30-75 Myr after the Solar System formation [Bennett V, et al. (2007) Science 318:1907-1910]. This time scale is almost contemporaneous with Earth's core formation at approximately 30 Myr [Yin Q, et al. (2002) Nature 418:949-952]. The (182)Hf-(182)W system provides a powerful complement to the (142)Nd results for early silicate differentiation, because both core formation and silicate differentiation fractionate Hf from W. Here we show that eleven terrestrial samples from diverse tectonic settings, including five early Archean samples from Isua, Greenland, of which three have been previously shown with (142)Nd anomalies, all have a homogeneous W isotopic composition, which is approximately 2epsilon-unit more radiogenic than the chondritic value. By using a 3-stage model calculation that describes the isotopic evolution in chondritic reservoir and core segregation, as well as silicate differentiation, we show that the W isotopic composition of terrestrial samples provides the most stringent time constraint for early core formation (27.5-38 Myr) followed by early terrestrial silicate differentiation (38-75 Myr) that is consistent with the terrestrial (142)Nd anomalies.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 106(49): 20652-7, 2009 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19920171

RESUMO

Continental crust is too Si-rich and Mg-poor to derive directly from mantle melting, which generates basaltic rather than felsic magmas. Converting basalt to more felsic compositions requires a second step involving Mg loss, which is thought to be dominated by internal igneous differentiation. However, igneous differentiation alone may not be able to generate granites, the most silicic endmember making up the upper continental crust. Here, we show that granites from the eastern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in southern California are isotopically heavy in Mg compared with PRB granodiorites and canonical mantle. Specifically, Mg isotopes correlate positively with Si content and O, Sr, and Pb isotopes and negatively with Mg content. The elevated Sr and Pb isotopes require that a component in the source of the granitic magmas to be ancient preexisting crust making up the prebatholithic crustal basement, but the accompanying O and Mg isotope fractionations suggest that this prebatholithic crust preserved a signature of low-temperature alteration. The protolith of this basement rock may have been the residue of chemical weathering, which progressively leached Mg from the residue, leaving the remaining Mg highly fractionated in terms of its isotopic signature. Our observations indicate that ancient continental crust preserves the isotopic signature of compositional modification by chemical weathering.

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