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PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910


BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.

Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
Int Psychogeriatr ; 29(1): 137-148, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725002


BACKGROUND: In many developed countries, cognitive functioning (as measured by neuropsychological tests) appears to be improving over time in the population at large, in parallel with the declining age-specific incidence of dementia. Here, we investigated cohort effects in the age-associated trajectories of verbal memory function in older adults. We sought to determine whether they varied by decade of birth and, if so, whether the change would be explained by increasing educational attainment. METHODS: Pooling data from two prospective US population-based studies between 1987 and 2015, we identified four birth cohorts born 1902-1911, 1912-1921, 1922-1931, and 1932-1943. Among these cohorts, we compared age-associated trajectories both of performance and of practice effects on immediate and delayed recall of a 10-item Word List. We used mixed effects models, first including birth cohorts and cohort X age interaction terms, and then controlling for education and education X age interaction. RESULTS: We observed significant cohort effects in performance (baseline and age-associated trajectories) in both immediate recall and delayed recall, with function improving between the earliest- and latest-born cohorts. For both tests, we also observed cohort effects on practice effects with the highest levels in the latest-born cohorts. Including education in the models did not attenuate these effects. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal population study, across four decade-long birth cohorts, there were significant improvements in test performance and practice effects in verbal memory tests, not explained by education. Whether this reflects declining disease incidence or other secular trends awaits further investigation.

Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Efeito de Coortes , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Gynecol Oncol ; 138(3): 566-72, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115974


OBJECTIVE: Due to their rarity, little is known about prognostic factors in female germ cell tumors (GCTs) or outcomes following systemic therapy. Management is largely based on studies of male GCT and epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Chart review was performed for all females with GCT seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1990 to 2012. Patients receiving chemotherapy were stratified using a modification of the male IGCCCG risk system, and the classifier was correlated with outcome. RESULTS: Of 93 patients, 92 (99%) underwent primary surgery and 85 (92%) received chemotherapy. Modified IGCCCG classification was significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), both when applied preoperatively and pre-chemotherapy (p<0.001 for all four analyses). Progression after initial chemotherapy (n=29) was detected by imaging in 14 (48%) patients, by serum tumor markers in 6 (21%) patients, and by multiple methods in the rest. Seven (29%) of 24 patients treated with salvage chemotherapy achieved long-term PFS, including 4/6 who received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) as initial salvage versus 3/16 treated with other initial salvage regimens. The estimated 3-year OS rate was 84% (95% CI, 76-92%), with a trend favoring dysgerminoma over non-dysgerminoma histologies (p=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Modified IGCCCG classification was prognostic for female GCT patients in this cohort and identified a poor-risk group who may benefit from more intensive first-line chemotherapy. Both imaging and tumor marker evaluation were important in identifying relapses after first-line chemotherapy. The majority of long-term remissions with salvage therapy were achieved with initial salvage HDCT.

Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/classificação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/classificação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
Cancer ; 119(14): 2574-81, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606402


BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily affect adolescent and young adult men. Detailed clinical and treatment characteristics in older men are lacking. METHODS: Patients with GCT seen over a 20-year period at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were identified. Primary tumor site and histology were compared for patients aged ≥ 50 years at diagnosis versus younger men. For patients aged ≥ 50, individual chart review was performed and treatment delays, changes, and toxicities were recorded for those treated with first-line chemotherapy. RESULTS: Of 4235 diagnoses of GCT, 3999 (94.4%) were made at age < 50 versus 236 (5.6%) at age ≥ 50. Compared with patients diagnosed before age 50, older men more frequently had seminoma (62.7% versus 36.7%) and less frequently, nonseminoma (34.7% versus 63.2%) (P < .0001). Predominant histology switched from nonseminoma to seminoma around age 35. Distribution of primary sites also differed for older versus younger men (testis: 89.4% versus 92.9%; retroperitoneal: 3.8% versus 0.7%; CNS 0% versus 1.7%) except for mediastinal primary tumors, which remained constant across age groups. Fifty patients age ≥ 50 received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy; 30 experienced complications leading to treatment discontinuation, delay ≥ 7 days, or regimen change. Twenty-two (44%) patients experienced neutropenic fever, 6 despite prophylactic growth factor support. Estimated 5-year survival for chemotherapy-treated patients was 84.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men aged ≥ 50 years comprise less than 10% of GCT diagnoses and have distinct clinical and histological characteristics as compared with younger patients. Although complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in older men, prognosis remains excellent when risk-directed treatment is administered with curative intent.

Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/secundário , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Platina/administração & dosagem , Vigilância da População , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento