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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211050194, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609212

RESUMO

Do we savour aesthetic experiences less when distracted by interrupted tasks, work rumination or stress? Evidence suggests that the ability to concentrate on the aesthetic experience is crucial for initiating a processing mode of conscious aesthetic reception that results in more positive emotions. When working memory resources are otherwise occupied, people are less able to concentrate on aesthetic experiences. Aesthetic savouring, in particular-a cognitive form of emotion regulation that is used to maintain and extend aesthetic experiences-is thought to be impaired under those circumstances. We conducted three investigations to examine how conditions that are known to deplete working memory resources affect the savouring of aesthetic experiences. In Study 1, participants rated beauty and savouring felt from encounters with visual stimuli in a controlled laboratory setting after an interruption of a writing task. Aesthetic experience was hampered if participants were interrupted. In two field investigations, we demonstrated that work-related rumination (Study 2, N = 329) and stress (Study 3, N = 368) are inversely related to the savouring felt from opera, theater, or cabaret pieces. These findings highlight the importance of concentrating on aesthetic experiences so that the perceiver can fully benefit from them. We also discuss implications for cognitive models of working memory and for health and well-being.

2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103390, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390931

RESUMO

While body modifications have increasingly gained acceptance and popularity, how different subpopulations aesthetically appreciate tattoos remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the conceptual structure underlying tattoo aesthetics, focusing on the effects of internalized social norms and expertise. Using a timed free-listing task, three groups (≤49 years, ≥50 years, and experts) comprising 497 participants were asked to write down adjectives that could describe tattoo aesthetics. Statistical analyses of frequency, cognitive salience indices, co-occurrence dimensions, semantic dimensions, similarity measures, and valences were applied and, to directly compare the three groups, a generalized Procrustes analysis was applied. The variance and complexity with which individuals verbally expressed their perceived aesthetic appeal of tattoos were highlighted. However, the results do not reveal a unified concept of beauty, nor do they present a clear bipolar dimension of beautiful/ugly for two of the three groups. Nevertheless, the concept of beauty was found to be prominent in tattoo aesthetics, and aesthetic and descriptive-evaluative dimensions were identified, with terms such as beautiful, ugly, multicolored, and interesting being the most notable adjectives, although not with the highest valence. Possible factors explaining the intracultural differences between the three groups are also discussed.


Assuntos
Tatuagem , Beleza , Estética , Humanos , Semântica , Normas Sociais
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310657

RESUMO

Although statistical regularities in the environment often go explicitly unnoticed, traces of implicit learning are evident in our neural activity. Recent perspectives have offered evidence that both pre-stimulus oscillations and peri-stimulus event-related potentials are reliable biomarkers of implicit expectations arising from statistical learning. What remains ambiguous, however, is the origination and development of these implicit expectations. To address this lack of knowledge and determine the temporal constraints of expectation formation, pre-stimulus increases in alpha/beta power were investigated alongside a reduction in the N170 and a suppression in peri-/post-stimulus gamma power. Electroencephalography was acquired from naive participants who engaged in a gender classification task. Participants were uninformed, that eight face images were sorted into four reoccurring pairs which were pseudorandomly hidden amongst randomly occurring face images. We found a reduced N170 for statistically expected images at left parietal and temporo-parietal electrodes. Furthermore, enhanced gamma power following the presentation of random images emphasized the bottom-up processing of these arbitrary occurrences. In contrast, enhanced alpha/beta power was evident pre-stimulus for expected relative to random faces. A particularly interesting finding was the early onset of alpha/beta power enhancement which peaked immediately after the depiction of the predictive face. Hence, our findings propose an approximate timeframe throughout which consistent traces of enhanced alpha/beta power illustrate the early prioritisation of top-down processes to facilitate the development of implicitly cued face-related expectations.

4.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(6): 2531-2550, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948882

RESUMO

The congruency sequence effect (CSE) describes the performance difference of congruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with the same response) compared to incongruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with different responses) as a function of the preceding congruency level (congruent trials relative to incongruent trials). The CSE is commonly interpreted as a measure of conflict-induced attentional adjustment. Although previous research has made substantial progress aiming at controlling for alternative explanations of the CSE, both task-specific and fundamental confounds have remained. In the current study, we used a temporal flanker task, in which two stimuli (i.e., distractor and target) are presented in rapid succession, and extended previous demonstrations of a CSE in flanker tasks by deconfounding target-distractor congruency from perceptual similarity. Using a four-choice task, we could also control for the reversal of distractor-response priming after incongruent trials (which is only feasible in two-choice tasks). Furthermore, we controlled for all confounds based on the sequence (i.e., repetition versus alternation) of the congruency level - such as feature sequence effects, distractor-response contingency switch costs, or temporal learning - by probing the allocation of attention to the points in time of presentation of the first and the second stimulus of a trial. This was achieved by intermixing trials of a temporal search task. The performance accuracy results in this task were consistent with a stronger attentional bias in favor of the target stimulus' temporal position after incongruent than after congruent trials.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Atividade Motora , Tempo de Reação
5.
Brain Lang ; 218: 104964, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964668

RESUMO

The effects of lexical meaning and lexical familiarity on auditory deviance detection were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of words, while participants ignored the stimuli. Stimulus sequences were composed of words that were varied in word class (nouns vs. functions words) and frequency of language use (high vs. low frequency) in a factorial design with the roles of frequently presented stimuli (Standards) and infrequently presented ones (Deviants) were fully crossed. Deviants elicited the Mismatch Negativity component of the event-related brain potential. Modulating effects of lexical meaning were obtained, revealing processing advantages for denotationally meaningful items. However, no effect of word frequency was observed. These results demonstrate that an apparently low-level function, such as auditory deviance detection utilizes information from the mental lexicon even for task-irrelevant stimuli.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Idioma , Estimulação Acústica , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0245158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657106

RESUMO

Do individuals modify their bodies in order to be unique? The present study sought to investigate need for uniqueness (NfU) subcomponents as possible motives for modifying one's body. To this end, the study obtained information from 312 participants about their NfU (using the German NfU-G global scale and three sub-scales) and their body modifications (tattoos, piercings, and extreme body modifications such as tongue splitting). By analyzing the three subcomponents of NfU, the study was able to investigate the differential relationship of the sub-scales with the outcome measures, which facilitated a fine-grained understanding of the NfU-body-modification relationship. The study found that tattooed, pierced, and extreme-body-modified individuals had higher NfU-G scores than individuals without body modifications. Moreover, it seemed that individuals with tattoos took a social component into consideration while lacking concern regarding others' reaction toward their tattoos, although not wanting to cause affront. Pierced and extreme-body-modified individuals, contrarily, tended to display a propensity to actively flout rules and not worry about others' opinions on their modifications. However, although statistically significant, the effect size (d) for the NfU-G differences in the tattooed and pierced participants' mean scores was small to medium in all three subcomponents. The extreme-body-modified group presented medium and medium to large effects. Further, the study observed that the number of body modifications increased with an increasing NfU in tattooed and pierced individuals. These findings demonstrated multifaceted interrelations between the NfU, its subcomponents, and the three kinds of body modifications investigated in the present study.


Assuntos
Piercing Corporal/psicologia , Tatuagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Autoimagem , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 659-664, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an overall decline in fractures. However, the amount of hip fractures has remained relatively stable throughout the period. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of perioperative COVID-19 infections on mortality among hip fracture patients. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed by collecting current data available through a systematic literature search in the PubMed database. The search was performed Oct 18 2020. RESULTS: The meta-analysis was conducted on a trial population consisting of 1.272 hip fracture patients with a pooled prevalence of COVID-19 of 18%. Mortality among hip fracture patients without a perioperative COVID-19 infection was 7.49%. Mortality among hip fracture patients infected with COVID-19 perioperatively was associated with an odds ratio of 6.70 [(95% CI 4.64-9.68), p < 0.00001, I2 = 41%]. A sensitivity analysis showed no major impact of assumptions regarding varying definitions of COVID-19 statuses among the included studies. CONCLUSION: Perioperative infections with COVID-19 in hip fracture patients are correlated with a significantly increased mortality. The meta-analysis showed a pooled odds ratio of 6.70 [(95% CI 4.64-9.68), p < 0.00001, I2 = 41%].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fraturas do Quadril , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Medição de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711069

RESUMO

Aesthetic experiences have been distinguished from other experiences based on an aesthetic mode of processing that often entails concentrating working memory resources on the aesthetic stimulus. Since working memory is a limited-capacity system, there should be a trade-off between available resources and the aesthetic experience. To test whether the intensity of the aesthetic experience is reduced if working memory resources are otherwise occupied, we employed an experience sampling method. One hundred and fifteen undergraduate students (45% female; Mage = 23.50 years, SD = 2.72 years) participated in a 2-week experience sampling study and furnished a total of 15,047 reports of their aesthetic experiences. As measures of current working memory resources, participants answered questions regarding their current working memory load and whether they were engaged in a second task. In addition, they reported whether they had had an aesthetic experience and how much they had savored the aesthetic experience. Multilevel modeling was used for data analysis. A higher working memory load was associated with fewer aesthetic experiences and reduced the savoring of aesthetic experiences. Second tasks, however, that were perceived as demanding and requiring a lot of concentration enhanced the savoring of aesthetic experiences. In sum, other goal-oriented behavior that requires working memory resources appears to conflict with aesthetic experiences in everyday life.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Beleza , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback ; 46(1): 19-28, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757097

RESUMO

Tactical breathing (TB) is used by military and law enforcement personnel to reduce stress and maintain psychomotor and cognitive performance in dangerous situations (Grossman and Christensen, in On combat: the psychology and physiology of deadly conflict in war and in peace, PPCT Research Publications, Belleville, 2008). So far, empirical evidence on the effectiveness of TB is limited and there are breathing techniques that are easier to learn and to apply. This study compared the effectiveness of tactical breathing and prolonged exhalation (ProlEx) under laboratory conditions. Thirty healthy participants performed a Stroop interference task under time pressure and noise distraction. Time pressure was induced with short inter-trial intervals of 350 ms and short trial durations of 1500 ms. Acoustic distraction was realised with white noise with intensity increasing from 77 to 89 dB SPL over the course of an experimental block. In a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, participants used either TB or ProlEx to reduce the induced psychological and physiological arousal. Stress reactions were assessed on the subjective level (Steyer et al., in Multidimensional mood questionnaire (MDMQ), Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1997) and on the physiological level (heart rate, heart rate variability, electrodermal activity). Results showed no significant differences between breathing techniques on the subjective level. While participants showed a lower physiological arousal in the TB condition, better performance was achieved in the ProlEx condition. Results indicate that TB may be superior in passive coping conditions, while ProlEx is more effective when active coping is required.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052948

RESUMO

Cell differentiation and cell fate determination in sensory systems are essential for stimulus discrimination and coding of environmental stimuli. Color vision is based on the differential color sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, however the developmental programs that control photoreceptor cell differentiation and specify color sensitivity are poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, there is evidence that the color sensitivity of different photoreceptors in the compound eye is regulated by inductive signals between cells, but the exact nature of these signals and how they are propagated remains unknown. We conducted a genetic screen to identify additional regulators of this process and identified a novel mutation in the hibris gene, which encodes an irre cell recognition module protein (IRM). These immunoglobulin super family cell adhesion molecules include human KIRREL and nephrin (NPHS1). hibris is expressed dynamically in the developing Drosophila melanogaster eye and loss-of-function mutations give rise to a diverse range of mutant phenotypes including disruption of the specification of R8 photoreceptor cell diversity. We demonstrate that hibris is required within the retina, and that hibris over-expression is sufficient to disrupt normal photoreceptor cell patterning. These findings suggest an additional layer of complexity in the signaling process that produces paired expression of opsin genes in adjacent R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/metabolismo , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Discos Imaginais/metabolismo , Mutação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/citologia , Retina/metabolismo
11.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(11): 3949-3958, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972998

RESUMO

The R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila compound eye mediate color vision. Throughout the majority of the eye, these cells occur in two principal types of ommatidia. Approximately 35% of ommatidia are of the pale type and express Rh3 in R7 cells and Rh5 in R8 cells. The remaining 65% are of the yellow type and express Rh4 in R7 cells and Rh6 in R8 cells. The specification of an R8 cell in a pale or yellow ommatidium depends on the fate of the adjacent R7 cell. However, pale and yellow R7 cells are specified by a stochastic process that requires the genes spineless, tango and klumpfuss To identify additional genes involved in this process we performed genetic screens using a collection of 480 P{EP} transposon insertion strains. We identified genes in gain of function and loss of function screens that significantly altered the percentage of Rh3 expressing R7 cells (Rh3%) from wild-type. 36 strains resulted in altered Rh3% in the gain of function screen where the P{EP} insertion strains were crossed to a sevEP-GAL4 driver line. 53 strains resulted in altered Rh3% in the heterozygous loss of function screen. 4 strains showed effects that differed between the two screens, suggesting that the effect found in the gain of function screen was either larger than, or potentially masked by, the P{EP} insertion alone. Analyses of homozygotes validated many of the candidates identified. These results suggest that R7 cell fate specification is sensitive to perturbations in mRNA transcription, splicing and localization, growth inhibition, post-translational protein modification, cleavage and secretion, hedgehog signaling, ubiquitin protease activity, GTPase activation, actin and cytoskeletal regulation, and Ser/Thr kinase activity, among other diverse signaling and cell biological processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados
12.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 127(4): 329-337, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628359

RESUMO

SCO-101 (Endovion) was discontinued 20 years ago as a new drug under development against sickle cell anaemia. Data from the phase 1 studies remained unpublished. New data indicate that SCO-101 might be efficacious as add-on therapy in cancer. Thus, we report the results from the four phase 1 trials performed between 2001 and 2002. Adult volunteers received SCO-101 or placebo in four independent trials. Adverse events were recorded, and SCO-101 was determined for pharmacokinetic analysis. Ninety-two volunteers completed the trials. The most remarkable adverse effect was a transient and dose-dependent increase in unconjugated bilirubin. Plasma SCO-101 elimination was approximately log linear, with apparent oral clearances of between 315 and 2103 mL/h for single doses, and between 121 and 2433 mL/h at steady state following oral administration. There was a marked decrease in clearance with increasing dose, and for repeated dose versus single dose. Tmax was greater, and Cmax and AUC∞ were lower in the fed state compared to the fasted state. Exposure was equivalent in males and females and for African Americans and Caucasians. In conclusion, SCO-101 appears to be a safe drug with a predictable PK profile. Its efficacy as add-on to standard anticancer drugs has yet to be defined.

13.
Psychol Rev ; 127(4): 650-654, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584122

RESUMO

Our theoretical model (Menninghaus et al., 2019) defines aesthetic emotions by reference to their role in aesthetic evaluation, and specifically as being predictive of aesthetic liking/disliking. Skov and Nadal (2020) dismiss the construct of "aesthetic emotions" as a "dated supposition" adopted from a "speculative" tradition and assert that there are no such emotions. Accordingly, they question all pieces of empirical evidence we referred to as supporting our model. In our response, we rebut these objections point by point and defend as well as expand the empirical evidence in support of our model. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Estética
14.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-14, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366188

RESUMO

Background. Modern working conditions require an increased amount of spatial mobility from employed personnel. Research suggests that different types of job mobility might exert negative effects on well-being and health, and additionally have different costs and benefits for the work and the social domains. Methods. Using data from 3191 members of the German Armed Forces, we investigated the effects of four different types of job mobility (long-distance commuters, overnighters, residential mobiles and multi-mobiles) in contrast to non-mobiles on employees' subjective job performance as an occupationally relevant outcome. Moreover, we expected beliefs about social and occupational advantages and disadvantages to mediate the effects of job mobility on subjective job performance. Results. A single concrete event during relocation had fewer negative consequences compared to the effects of circular mobility or multi-mobility. Moreover, beliefs about occupational and social advantages and disadvantages were differently associated with the different types of job mobility and partially mediated the direct effects of job mobility on job performance. Conclusions. Not all types of job mobility are an impairment and extra-organizational stress. Rather, the evaluation and perception of occupational and social (dis)advantages is crucial for the effects of different types of job mobility on organizational relevant outcomes.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352996

RESUMO

Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were able to modulate GFP expression in mammalian cells, and then showed the feasibility of these tools in Drosophila embryos. For each system, the fold-reduction of gene expression was influenced by the location of the self-cleaving ribozyme/upstream competing sequence (i.e. 5' vs. 3' untranslated region) and the competing sequence used. Together, this work provides a set of genetic tools that can be used to tune gene expression across various eukaryotic systems.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , RNA Catalítico/fisiologia , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , RNA Catalítico/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
J Comp Psychol ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406718

RESUMO

What is the origin of visual symbols? The artifacts that are viewed as the first visual symbols-or at least their prototypes-are the remains of stones and other objects with engravings and colorful markings. Our only access to the origin of this behavior that we share with our ancestors within the genus Homo is through skeletons, artifacts, and genetic testing, and we can only draw indirect conclusions about the reasons for their behavior and the underlying cognitive capacities. Yet indications from different disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, evolutionary biology, and psychology, fit together to form an overall picture. Through empirical studies, we can analyze and draw conclusions from the advantageous visual effects caused by material symbols. In this review, we first examine a definition of visual symbols that captures their essential characteristics and also provide an overview of the evolution of Homo sapiens and the emergence of the species' cultural behavior. Next, we present two prominent theories regarding the origin of material symbols: a cultural intensification across the entire evolution of the genus Homo versus a later cultural revolution involving only anatomically modern humans and the assumption of additional anatomical or genetic changes, and we describe the difficulties each theory faces. We then examine differences in the cultural behaviors of different primates and indicate which aspects of the two theories are testable, discussing the advantages and limitations of experimental approaches. In conclusion, we clarify how the invention of material symbols can be embedded in the (cultural) evolution of Homo sapiens. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(10): 5624-5638, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329776

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas systems comprise diverse adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes whose RNA-directed nucleases have been co-opted for various technologies. Recent efforts have focused on expanding the number of known CRISPR-Cas subtypes to identify nucleases with novel properties. However, the functional diversity of nucleases within each subtype remains poorly explored. Here, we used cell-free transcription-translation systems and human cells to characterize six Cas12a single-effector nucleases from the V-A subtype, including nucleases sharing high sequence identity. While these nucleases readily utilized each other's guide RNAs, they exhibited distinct PAM profiles and apparent targeting activities that did not track based on phylogeny. In particular, two Cas12a nucleases encoded by Prevotella ihumii (PiCas12a) and Prevotella disiens (PdCas12a) shared over 95% amino-acid identity yet recognized distinct PAM profiles, with PiCas12a but not PdCas12a accommodating multiple G's in PAM positions -2 through -4 and T in position -1. Mutational analyses transitioning PiCas12a to PdCas12a resulted in PAM profiles distinct from either nuclease, allowing more flexible editing in human cells. Cas12a nucleases therefore can exhibit widely varying properties between otherwise related orthologs, suggesting selective pressure to diversify PAM recognition and supporting expansion of the CRISPR toolbox through ortholog mining and PAM engineering.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/química , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/classificação , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Clivagem do DNA , Endodesoxirribonucleases/química , Endodesoxirribonucleases/classificação , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , Prevotella/enzimologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Domínios Proteicos , Transcrição Genética
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 204: 103036, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086004

RESUMO

Performance in task switching experiments is worse when the current stimulus is associated with different responses in the two tasks (i.e., incongruent condition) than when it is associated with the same response (i.e., congruent condition). This congruency effect reflects some sort of application of the irrelevant task's stimulus-response translation rules. Manipulating the recency and the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials results in a modulation of the congruency effect (i.e., Congruency Sequence Effect, CSE, and Proportion Congruency Effect, PCE, respectively), suggesting attentional adjustment of processing weights. Here, we investigated the impact of task switching practice on the congruency effect and the modulation thereof by (a) re-analyzing the data of a task switching experiment involving six consecutive sessions and (b) conducting a novel four-session experiment in which the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials were manipulated. Although practice appeared to reduce the reaction times overall and the task switch costs (i.e., slower reaction times after task switches than after task repetitions) to an asymptotic level, the congruency effect as well as its modulations remained remarkably constant. These findings thus do not provide evidence that conflict effects between tasks and attentional adjustment are affected by task switching practice.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cerebellum ; 19(2): 265-274, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989440

RESUMO

Essential tremor (ET) is among the most prevalent neurological disorders and the most common cause of abnormal tremors. It is characterized by postural and action tremors ranging from 4 to 12 Hz. The treatments of choice for ET are propranolol and primidone, but their use is associated with adverse effects like hypotension, depression, and cognitive impairments. Benzodiazepines, which nonselectively enhances the effect of GABA at the GABAA α1/2/3/5 receptors, have been shown to be effective in treating ET. Their use, however, is limited due to sedation, ataxia, tolerance development and memory impairment. Sedation and ataxia are attributed to the activity at the α1 subunit while cognitive impairment is ascribed to the action on the α5 subunit of the GABAA receptors. It can be hypothesized that subtype selective GABAA receptor modulators only acting via the α2, and α3 subunits may have an improved side effect profile while retaining the beneficial effects. Here, we have evaluated the effect of subtype selective GABAA α2/3/5 receptor modulators on harmaline-induced tremors in rats. The tremors were automatically quantified in tremor boxes. We show that the GABAA α2/3 subtype selective modulator NS16085 significantly and dose-dependently inhibits harmaline-induced tremors in rats, indicating that potentiation of α2- and α3-containing GABAA receptors is sufficient to ameliorate harmaline-induced tremors. These results provide the first support for a therapeutic role of a subtype selective GABAA α2/3 modulator in the treatment of ET.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Tremor Essencial/metabolismo , GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tremor Essencial/induzido quimicamente , Harmalina/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Psychol Res ; 84(2): 292-301, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083838

RESUMO

The Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE) denotes the common finding that distractor-target Congruency Effects are reduced after incongruent compared to after congruent trials. Although the CSE is widely attributed to attentional adjustment (i.e., increasing or decreasing the bias in attentional weights regarding processing the target or distractor), unequivocal evidence for this assumption is missing. To investigate the CSE and attentional adjustment we used a temporal flanker task and intermixed a "temporal search task", in which a target stimulus occurred randomly at one of two temporal positions, corresponding to the temporal positions of the target and the distractor occurrence in the temporal flanker task. We observed a CSE that could not be explained in terms of feature sequences, distractor-related contingencies, or a strategy of reversed distractor-response priming after incongruent trials. Furthermore, following a temporal search task trial, the Congruency Effect was larger when the search target occurred on the first than on the second temporal position, demonstrating that a reduced attentional bias towards the second temporal position increased interference from a distractor presented on the first temporal position. This supports a crucial assumption of the attentional adjustment account of the CSE. Performance in the temporal search task, however, provided no evidence for attentional adjustment.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Viés de Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
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