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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875480

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), women also living with HIV (WLWH) have worse survival than women without HIV. Chronic HIV infection may interfere with the effectiveness of BC treatment, contributing to this disparity. We attempted to determine the impact of HIV infection on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) among South African women with BC. METHODS: We evaluated women from the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes cohort study who had stage I-III disease, initiated NACT, underwent definitive breast surgery, and had available surgical pathology reports. We compared pathologic complete response (pCR) rates among women with and without HIV infection, using multivariable logistic regression to control for differences in tumor characteristics. We also evaluated the impact of HIV infection on pCR within subgroups based on patient and tumor factors. RESULTS: Of 715 women, the 173 (24.2%) WLWH were less likely to achieve pCR than women without HIV (8.7% vs 16.4%, [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.27-0.86]). WLWH continued to have lower likelihood of achieving pCR on multivariable analysis (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.98). A similar pattern was seen within subgroups, although HIV infection appeared to affect pCR more in ER/PR-positive BC (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.71) than in ER/PR-negative BC (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.39-2.29). CONCLUSION: WLWH were less like to achieve pCR following NACT for BC than women without HIV. This reduced response to systemic therapy may contribute to the poorer BC outcomes seen in WLWH.

2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(3): 565-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative use and persistent postoperative opioid use among Medicaid-insured women and commercially insured women who underwent gynecologic surgery for benign indications. METHODS: The Truven Health MarketScan database, a nationwide data source collecting commercial insurance claims across all states and Medicaid insurance claims from 12 states, was used to identify opioid-naïve women without cancer aged 18-64 years who underwent common gynecologic surgeries from 2012 to 2016 and filled a prescription for an opioid perioperatively. Persistent opioid use was defined as filling an opioid prescription 90-180 days after the surgery. Opioid use disorder (OUD) was defined as hospitalizations or emergency department visits for opioid dependence, misuse, or overdose. Multivariable models were developed to examine the insurance-associated disparity in persistent opioid use and OUD. RESULTS: A total of 31,155 Medicaid-insured women and 270,716 commercially insured women were identified. Medicaid-insured women received greater quantities of opioids and for longer durations than did commercially insured women. Persistent postoperative opioid use was identified in 14.1% of Medicaid-insured women and 5.8% of commercially insured women (P<.001). More opioid prescriptions filled, longer days supplied, and higher total doses perioperatively contributed most to the prediction of persistent opioid use. Medicaid-insured patients who persistently used opioids were two times more likely to develop OUD than commercially insured patients (16.8% vs 5.1% adjusted relative risk 1.99; 99% CI 1.26-3.15). CONCLUSION: Medicaid-insured women received larger quantities of opioids perioperatively, were more likely to use them persistently, and were more likely to develop OUD than commercially insured women.

3.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 226, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In sub-Saharan Africa, the overlap between high HIV and HBV prevalence may increase the incidence of HCC. This study investigated the impact of HBV/HIV co-infection on age at presentation and survival of HCC. METHODS: Ethical approval was obtained to recruit, following informed written consent, patients diagnosed with HCC at oncology units at four South African hospitals. Between December 2012 and August 2015, patients newly diagnosed with HCC were recruited and provided demographic and clinical data and blood specimens. Patients were tested for HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. Survival data was available for a subset of patients. RESULTS: Of 107 HCC cases, 83 (78%) were male. Median age was 46 years (range 18 to 90 years), 68/106 (64%) were HBsAg-positive, and 22/100 (22%) were HIV infected. Among HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases, 18/66 (27%) were HIV-infected compared to 3/34 (9%) among those that were HBsAg-negative (p = 0.04). A greater proportion of HBV/HIV co-infected cases were female than HBV mono-infected (6/18, 33% vs 6/47, 13%; p = 0.005). In addition, HBV/HIV co-infected females presented at a younger mean age (36.8 years) than HBV mono-infected women (50.5 years) (p = 0.09). Median survival was 82 days among the HIV-infected HCC patients compared to 181 days among those without HIV (p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: HCC is an important complication in the HIV/HBV infected patient. HIV-positive patients presented with HCC at a younger age than HIV-negative patients, this effect appears to be greater in women. These data provide more evidence supporting the call to address. HCC as a cause of morbidity and mortality in the HBV/HIV co-infected patient population. (281 words).

4.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-14, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406331

RESUMO

Among men in South Africa, the prevalence of tobacco smoking is as high as 33%. Although smoking is responsible for most lung cancer in South Africa, occupational and environmental exposures contribute greatly to risk. We conducted a tobacco and lung cancer screening needs assessment and administered surveys to adults who smoked >100 cigarettes in their lifetime in Johannesburg (urban) and Kimberley (rural). We compared tobacco use, risk exposure, attitudes toward and knowledge of, and receptivity to cessation and screening, by site. Of 324 smokers, nearly 85% of current smokers had a <30 pack-year history of smoking; 58.7% had tried to stop smoking ≥1 time, and 78.9% wanted to quit. Kimberley smokers more often reported being advised by a healthcare provider to stop smoking (56.5% vs. 37.3%, p=0.001) than smokers in Johannesburg but smokers in Johannesburg were more willing to stop smoking if advised by their doctor (72.9% vs. 41.7%, p<0.001). Findings indicate that tobacco smokers in two geographic areas of South Africa are motivated to stop smoking but receive no healthcare support to do so. Developing high risk criteria for lung cancer screening and creating tobacco cessation infrastructure may reduce tobacco use and decrease lung cancer mortality in South Africa.

5.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(1): 37-47, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045675

RESUMO

CONTEXT: When religious and spiritual (R/S) care needs of patients with advanced disease are met, their quality of life (QoL) improves. We studied the association between R/S support and QoL of patients with cancer at the end of life in Soweto, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To identify R/S needs among patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care services and to assess associations of receipt of R/S care with patient QoL and place of death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted from May 1, 2016 to April 30, 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Nurses enrolled patients with advanced cancer and referred them to the palliative care multidisciplinary team. Spiritual counselors assessed and provided spiritual care to patients. We compared sociodemographic, clinical, and R/S factors and QoL of R/S care recipients and others. RESULTS: Of 233 deceased participants, 92 (39.5%) had received R/S care. Patients who received R/S care reported less pain (2.82 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 1.69), used less morphine, and were more likely to die at home than patients who did not (57.5% compared with 33.7%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for significant confounding influences and baseline African Palliative Care Association Palliative care Outcome Scale scores, receipt of spiritual care was associated with reduced pain and family worry (odds ratio 0.33; 95% CI 0.11-0.95 and odds ratio 3.43; 95% CI 1.10-10.70, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with cancer have R/S needs. R/S care among our patients appeared to improve their end-of-life experience. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which R/S care may have improved the observed patient outcomes.

6.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-16, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The quality of breast cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to the region's dismal breast cancer mortality. ASCO has issued quality measures focusing on delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy. We applied these measures in five South African public hospitals and analyzed factors associated with care concordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 1,736 women with breast cancer who were enrolled in the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study over 24 months, we evaluated care using ASCO's three measures. We also evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy receipt in 957 women with an indication. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between measure-concordant care and patient factors. RESULTS: Of 235 women with hormone receptor-negative cancer, 173 (74%) began adjuvant chemotherapy within 120 days from diagnosis. Of 194 patients who received breast-conserving surgery, 73 (37%) began radiotherapy within 365 days from diagnosis. Of 999 women with hormone receptor-positive cancer, 719 (72%) initiated endocrine therapy within 365 days from diagnosis. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy measure-concordant care were more common among women residing < 20 km from the hospital (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.44 and OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.57 to 6.42). Endocrine therapy measure-concordant care was more common among English-speaking women (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.02). Participating hospitals varied in care concordance. HIV infection did not affect care quality. CONCLUSION: More timely delivery of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy is needed in South Africa, particularly for women living > 20 km from the hospital or not speaking English. Focused quality improvement efforts could support that goal.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600408

RESUMO

Multimorbidity in women with breast cancer may delay presentation, affect treatment decisions and outcomes. We described the multimorbidity profile of women with breast cancer, its determinants, associations with stage at diagnosis and treatments received. We collected self-reported data on five chronic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis), determined obesity using body mass index (BMI) and tested HIV status, in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2016 and April 2018 in five public hospitals in South Africa. We identified determinants of ≥2 of the seven above-mentioned conditions (defined as multimorbidity), multimorbidity itself with stage at diagnosis (advanced [III-IV] vs. early [0-II]) and multimorbidity with treatment modalities received. Among 2,281 women, 1,001 (44%) presented with multimorbidity. Obesity (52.8%), hypertension (41.3%), HIV (22.0%) and diabetes (13.7%) were the chronic conditions that occurred most frequently. Multimorbidity was more common with older age (OR = 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03) and higher household socioeconomic status (HSES) (OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.00-1.13). Multimorbidity was not associated with advanced-stage breast cancer at diagnosis, but for self-reported hypertension there was less likelihood of being diagnosed with advanced-stage disease in the adjusted model (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.64-0.98). Multimorbidity was associated with first treatment received in those with early-stage disease, p = 0.003. The prevalence of multimorbidity is high among patients with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that multimorbidity had a significant impact on treatment received in those with early-stage disease. There is need to understand the impact of multimorbidity on breast cancer outcomes.

8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 29(8): 1252-1257, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging is commonly used to identify nodal involvement in locally advanced cervical carcinoma, but its appropriateness for that purpose among HIV-positive patients has rarely been studied. We analyzed PET-CT findings and subsequent treatment prescribed in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We identified a cohort of consecutive cervical carcinoma patients International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB to IIIB at our cancer center who underwent a planning 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) PET-CT scan from January 2015 through December 2018. Demographics, PET-CT findings, and subsequent treatment prescribed were recorded. Patients were selected for PET-CT only if they had no signs of distant disease on staging chest X-ray or abdominal ultrasound; were deemed suitable for radical chemoradiation by the multi-disciplinary team; and had normal renal function. HIV-positive patients ideally had to have been established on continuous antiviral therapy for more than 3 months and to have a CD4 cell count above 150 cells/µL. Small cell and neuroendocrine carcinoma cases were excluded from the study. Differences in demographic and clinical measures between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were evaluated by means of t-tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. RESULTS: Over a 4 year period, 278 patients-192 HIV-negative (69.1%) and 86 HIV-positive (30.9%)-met the inclusion criteria. HIV-positive patients had a median CD4 count of 475 cells/µL (IQR 307-612 cells/µL). More than 80% of patients had pelvic nodal involvement, and more than 40% had uptake in common iliac and/or para-aortic nodes. Nodal involvement was not associated with HIV status. Fifty-four patients (19.4%) had at least one site of distant metastatic disease. Overall, 235 patients (84.5%) were upstaged following PET-CT staging scan. Upstaging was not associated with HIV status (HIV-negative 83.9% vs HIV-positive 87.2%; p=0.47). Ten patients who did not return for radiotherapy were excluded from the analysis. Following their PET-CT scan, treatment intent changed for 124 patients (46.3%): 53.6% of HIV-positive patients and 42.9% of HIV-negative patients (p=0.11). CONCLUSION: We found no differences between HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients in nodal involvement or occult metastases, and PET-CT imaging did not lead to, or justify, treatment differences between the two groups. Future studies will evaluate survival and correlation of upstaging with outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia
9.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-11, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of Kenyan women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya from 2012 to 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed charts of Kenyan women with metastatic breast cancer and analyzed sociodemographic data, breast cancer risk factors, and tumor characteristics associated with stage at diagnosis, receptor status (ie, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), and site of metastasis using χ2, analysis of variance, two-sample t tests, and logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 125 cases with complete medical records were included in the analysis. Forty women (32%) had metastases at diagnosis. Of the others, those diagnosed in stage III developed metastases sooner than those diagnosed in stage II (P < .001). Fifty-eight percent of patients had metastases to bone, 14% to brain, 57% to lungs, and 50% to liver. Seventy-four percent of patients presented with more than one metastatic site. Metastases to bone were associated with greater age at diagnosis (P = .02) and higher parity (P = .04), and metastases to the brain were associated with early menopause (P = .04), lower parity (P = .04), and lack of breastfeeding (P = .01). Patients whose tumors were triple negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2 negative) were more likely to develop brain metastases (P = .01), and those whose tumors were HER2 positive were more likely to develop liver metastases (P = .04). CONCLUSION: Although our data on patterns of metastases and pathologic subtypes are similar to those in published literature, some unique findings concerning hormonal risk factors of women with metastatic breast cancer and specific metastatic sites need additional exploration in larger patient populations.

10.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(5): 923-932, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708125

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Identifying factors that affect terminally ill patients' preferences for and actual place of death may assist patients to die wherever they wish. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with preferred and actual place of death for cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa, adult patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers were enrolled from 2016 to 2018. Study nurses interviewed the patients at enrollment and conducted postmortem interviews with the caregivers. RESULTS: Of 324 patients enrolled, 191 died during follow-up. Preferred place of death was home for 127 (66.4%) and a facility for 64 (33.5%) patients; 91 (47.6%) patients died in their preferred setting, with a kappa value of congruence of 0.016 (95% CI = -0.107, 0.139). Factors associated with congruence were increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), use of morphine (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36), and wanting to die at home (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.82). Dying at home was associated with increasing age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05) and with the patient wishing to have family and/or friends present at death (OR 6.73, 95% CI 2.97-15.30). CONCLUSION: Most patients preferred to die at home, but most died in hospital and fewer than half died in their preferred setting. Further research on modifiable factors, such as effective communication, access to palliative care and morphine, may ensure that more cancer patients in South Africa die wherever they wish.

11.
Oncologist ; 24(7): 933-944, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the U.S., neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for nonmetastatic breast cancer (BC) is used with extensive disease and aggressive molecular subtypes. Little is known about the influence of demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and resource constraints on NAC use in Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied NAC use in a cohort of women with stage I-III BC enrolled in the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study at five hospitals. We analyzed associations between NAC receipt and sociodemographic and clinical factors, and we developed Cox regression models for predictors of time to first treatment with NAC versus surgery. RESULTS: Of 810 patients, 505 (62.3%) received NAC. Multivariate analysis found associations between NAC use and black race (odds ratio [OR] 0.49; 95% confidence limit [CI], 0.25-0.96), younger age (OR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 for each year), T-stage (T4 versus T1: OR 136.29; 95% CI, 41.80-444.44), N-stage (N2 versus N0: OR 35.64; 95% CI, 16.56-76.73), and subtype (triple-negative versus luminal A: OR 5.16; 95% CI, 1.88-14.12). Sites differed in NAC use (Site D versus Site A: OR 5.73; 95% CI, 2.72-12.08; Site B versus Site A: OR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.86) and time to first treatment: Site A, 50 days to NAC versus 30 days to primary surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25-2.71); Site D, 101 days to NAC versus 126 days to primary surgery (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.89). CONCLUSION: NAC use for BC at these South African hospitals was associated with both tumor characteristics and heterogenous resource constraints. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Using data from a large breast cancer cohort treated in South Africa's public healthcare system, the authors looked at determinants of neoadjuvant chemotherapy use and time to initiate treatment. It was found that neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with increasing tumor burden and aggressive molecular subtypes, demonstrating clinically appropriate care in a lower resource setting. Results of this study also showed that time to treatment differences between chemotherapy and surgery varied by hospital, suggesting that differences in resource limitations were influencing clinical decision making. Practice guidelines and care quality metrics designed for low- and middle-income countries should accommodate heterogeneity of available resources.

12.
Pediatr Res ; 85(1): 36-42, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social and environmental stressors may modify associations between environmental pollutants and asthma symptoms. We examined if neighborhood asthma prevalence (higher: HAPN vs. lower: LAPN), a surrogate for underlying risk factors for asthma, modified the relationship between pollutants and urgent asthma visits. METHODS: Through zip code, home addresses were linked to New York City Community Air Survey's land use regression model for street-level, annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), summer average ozone (O3), winter average sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the association (prevalence ratio, PR) between pollutant exposures and seeking urgent asthma care. RESULTS: All pollutants, except O3 were higher in HAPN than LAPN (P < 0.01). Neighborhood asthma prevalence modified the relationship between pollutants and urgent asthma (P-interaction < 0.01, for NO2 and SO3). Associations between pollutants and urgent asthma were observed only in LAPN (NO2: PR = 1.38, P = 0.01; SO3: PR = 1.85, P = 0.04). No association was observed between pollutants and urgent asthma among children in HAPN (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Relationships between modeled street-level pollutants and urgent asthma were stronger in LAPN compared to HAPN. Social stressors that may be more prevalent in HAPN than LAPN, could play a greater role in asthma exacerbations in HAPN vs. pollutant exposure alone.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/terapia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Popul Health Manag ; 22(1): 48-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889616

RESUMO

The guidelines provided by experts regarding various cancer screening tests are not universally accepted by physicians or patients. This systematic review describes the literature regarding the associations of physician characteristics with the implementation of and referral of patients for selected cancer screening tests. In October 2016, the authors conducted a thorough search of articles found in 4 databases, using keywords describing physician characteristics and cancer screening. English-language articles reporting on patient surveys or records of patients' screening history, and surveys of physicians' practices or opinions, in the United States were included. The physician characteristics most commonly analyzed were specialty and sex. The screening tests most commonly analyzed were those for cervical and colorectal cancers. Female and white physicians were found to screen more patients than male and nonwhite physicians. Obstetrician-gynecologists screened more for breast and cervical cancer than internists, who screened more than family or general practitioners. Physician sex, race, and specialty were consistently associated with cancer screening practices and should be the focus of efforts to harmonize practices with recommendations.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Colonoscopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
Oncologist ; 24(3): 375-384, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305414

RESUMO

Brain tumors comprise 2% of all cancers but are disproportionately responsible for cancer-related deaths. The 5-year survival rate of glioblastoma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor, is only 4.7%, and the overall 5-year survival rate for any brain tumor is 34.4%. In light of the generally poor clinical outcomes associated with these malignancies, there has been interest in the concept of brain tumor screening through magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we will provide a general overview of the screening principles and brain tumor epidemiology, then highlight the major studies examining brain tumor prevalence in asymptomatic populations in order to assess the potential benefits and drawbacks of screening for brain tumors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in healthy asymptomatic adults can detect both early gliomas and other benign central nervous system abnormalities. Further research is needed to determine whether MRI will improve overall morbidity and mortality for the screened populations and make screening a worthwhile endeavor.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 151(2): 215-220, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In South Africa, where HIV prevalence among adults is 18.9%, cervical carcinoma is the second most common malignancy in women. However, oncology services are considerably more accessible in South Africa than in many neighbouring countries. This study reports five-year overall survival in a cohort of HIV-positive and -negative cervix carcinoma patients undergoing primary radiotherapy at a single institution in South Africa. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of all locally advanced cervix carcinoma patients referred for radiotherapy (EBRT) from July 2007 to November 2011. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end-point. RESULTS: A total of 492 patients commenced treatment with radical intent, including 71 HIV-positive patients (14.4%) and 421 HIV-negative patients (85.6%). Of the 433 who were prescribed standard fractionation EBRT, 384 were prescribed concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy (88.7%). Fewer HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients (58.5% vs. 76.1%; p = 0.007) completed ≥4 cycles. The OS of HIV-negative patients was 49.5% (95%CI; 44.6%-54.4%) at 5 years. The OS of HIV-positive patients was significantly lower, 35.9% (95% CI; 23.9%-48.0%) at 5 years (p = 0.002). In our Cox models, factors affecting outcome were HIV infection, stage IIIB disease, presence of hydronephrosis, and delivery of concurrent chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: In our large cohort, HIV-positive patients had poorer survival than HIV-negative patients, however nearly 40% survived 5 years, justifying provision of the best standard of care to HIV-positive patients with cervical carcinoma.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade
16.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-9, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The understanding of patients with cancer of their condition and their wishes regarding care as they approach end of life (EoL) have been studied more in high-income countries than in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from a cohort study (N = 221) of patients with advanced cancer who were recruited from a palliative care center in Soweto, South Africa (LMIC), between May 2016 and June 2017. Patients were asked about their understanding of their illness, estimated life expectancy, EoL care communication, and EoL care preferences. RESULTS: Only 13 patients (5.9%) acknowledged that they were terminally ill; nine patients (4.1%) estimated accurately that they had months, not years, left to live. A total of 216 patients (97.7%) reported that they had not had an EoL care discussion with their physician, and 170 patients (76.9%) did not want to know their prognosis even if the doctor knew it. Most patients preferred comfort care (72.9%; n = 161) to life-extending care (14.0%; n = 31), and did not want to be kept alive using extreme measures (80.5%; n = 178) or have their doctors do everything possible to extend their lives (78.3%; n = 173). Finally, 127 patients (57.5%) preferred to die at home, and 51 (23.1%) preferred to die in the hospital. Most patients (81.0%; n = 179) had funeral plans. CONCLUSION: South African patients demonstrated less awareness of the fact that they were terminally ill, were less likely to have discussed their prognosis with their doctor, and more strongly preferred comfort care to life-extending EoL care than US and other LMIC patients in prior research. These differences highlight the need for culturally appropriate, patient-centered EoL care for South African patients with advanced cancer as well as to determine individual preferences and needs in all EoL settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Doente Terminal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , África do Sul , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
17.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-14, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer of the prostate (CaP) is the leading cancer among men in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A substantial proportion of these men with CaP are diagnosed at late (usually incurable) stages, yet little is known about the etiology of CaP in SSA. METHODS: We established the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Network, which includes seven SSA centers partnering with five US centers to study the genetics and epidemiology of CaP in SSA. We developed common data elements and instruments, regulatory infrastructure, and biosample collection, processing, and shipping protocols. We tested this infrastructure by collecting epidemiologic, medical record, and genomic data from a total of 311 patients with CaP and 218 matched controls recruited at the seven SSA centers. We extracted genomic DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, or buccal swabs from 265 participants and shipped it to the Center for Inherited Disease Research (Baltimore, MD) and the Centre for Proteomics and Genomics Research (Cape Town, South Africa), where genotypes were generated using the UK Biobank Axiom Array. RESULTS: We used common instruments for data collection and entered data into the shared database. Double-entered data from pilot participants showed a 95% to 98% concordance rate, suggesting that data can be collected, entered, and stored with a high degree of accuracy. Genotypes were obtained from 95% of tested DNA samples (100% from blood-derived DNA samples) with high concordance across laboratories. CONCLUSION: We provide approaches that can produce high-quality epidemiologic and genomic data in multicenter studies of cancer in SSA.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Baltimore , Carcinoma/patologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 56(1): 98-106, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604380

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In sub-Saharan Africa, late diagnosis with cancer is common. Many dying patients rely on family members for care; little is known about the challenges African informal caregivers face. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the challenges of informal caregivers at the end of life in South Africa, both at home and in inpatient facilities. METHODS: We included advanced cancer patients and caregivers from a public hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Study nurses interviewed patients and caregivers about their experiences. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we determined the factors associated with greater caregiver difficulty, focusing on patients dying at home vs. in inpatient facilities. RESULTS: Among 174 informal caregivers, 62 (36%) reported "a lot" of challenges. These caregivers struggled most with keeping the patient clean (16%) and with patient interactions (34%). Symptoms associated with greater difficulty included pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.4 [95% CI 1.2-4.7]), urinary incontinence (OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.9]), fecal incontinence (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.0-5.7]), insomnia (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.9]), fatigue (OR 6.3 [95% CI 1.8-21.6]), extremity weakness (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.9]), shame (OR 4.2 [95% CI 1.5-12.0]), and sadness (OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.8]). Caregivers of patients dying at home reported the greatest difficulty with patients' physical symptoms; caregivers of those dying in facilities reported the greatest difficulty with emotional symptoms. CONCLUSION: Informal caregivers of patients dying at home reported challenges with practical functional care; this effect was reduced in the inpatient setting. Skills training for these caregivers could relieve some of this burden.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias/terapia , Assistência Terminal , Cuidadores/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Morte , Emoções , Feminino , Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Doente Terminal
20.
Cancer Manag Res ; 10: 279-286, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467582

RESUMO

Background: Neoadjuvant (primary) chemotherapy (NACT) is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. It also allows for the short-term assessment of chemotherapy response; a pathological complete responses correspond to improved long-term breast cancer outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients are diagnosed with large nonresectable tumors. We examined NACT use in breast cancer patients who visited public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: We assessed demographic characteristics, tumor stage and grade, hormone receptor status, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of female patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive carcinoma of the breast at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. The patients received neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or no chemotherapy. Trastuzumab was unavailable. We developed logistic regression models to analyze the factors associated with NACT receipt in these patients. Results: Of 554 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, the median age at diagnosis was 52 years (range: 28-88 years). Only 5.8% of patients were diagnosed with stage I disease; 49.3% and 44.9% were diagnosed with stages II and III, respectively. Most patients had hormone-responsive tumors: luminal A, 38.1%; luminal B1 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]-negative and high grade), 12.5%, and luminal B2 (HER2-positive any grade), 11.6%; 11.6% had a HER2-enriched tumor and 20.6% a triple-negative tumor. Eighty (14.4%) patients were HIV-positive. In total, 195 patients (35.2%) received NACT, 264 (47.7%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 95 patients (17.1%) received no chemotherapy, including 62 (11.2%) patients who received only hormonal therapy. Of patients receiving NACT, 125 (64.1%) were evaluable for clinical response. Eighty (64.0%) patients had a clinically significant response; 19 (15.2%) patients had a stable disease, and 26 (20.8%) patients had a progressive disease. Multivariate analysis showed age <40 years and disease stage to be independently associated with the receipt of NACT. Conclusion: Most women receiving NACT with available response data showed a clinical benefit. Stage III disease at diagnosis and age <40 years were predictors of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy treatment.

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