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1.
J Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), evidence regarding the effectiveness of a second biologic Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) in patients whose first ever bDMARD was a non-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitor (TNFi) bDMARD is limited. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the outcome of the second bDMARD (non-TNFi [rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab, separately] and TNFi) after failure of a non-TNFi bDMARD as first bDMARD. METHODS: We identified RA patients from the five Nordic biologics registers started treatment with a non-TNFi as first ever bDMARD but switched to a second bDMARD. For the second bDMARD, we assessed survival-on-drug (at 6 and 12 months), and primary response (at 6 months). RESULTS: We included 620 patients starting a second bDMARD (ABA 86, RTX 40, TCZ 67 and TNFi 427) following failure of a first non-TNFI bDMARD. At 6 and 12 months after start of their second bDMARD, around 70% and 50%, respectively, remained on treatment, and at 6 months less than one third of patients were still on their second bDMARD and had reached low disease activity or remission according to DAS28. For those patients whose second bMDARD was a TNFI, the corresponding proportion was slightly higher (40%). CONCLUSION: The survival-on-drug and primary response of a second bDMARD in RA patients switching due to failure of a non-TNFi bDMARD as first bDMARD is modest. Some patients may benefit from TNFi when used after failure of a non-TNFi as first bDMARD.

3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 27, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN). Different mechanisms may underlie their development. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictors of these entities separately. METHODS: Consecutive early RA patients (symptom duration ≤12 months) from a defined area (Malmö, Sweden) recruited during 1995-2005 were investigated. Radiographs of hands and feet were scored by a trained reader according to the modified Sharp-van der Heijde score. Fat mass and lean mass distribution were measured at baseline using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Potential predictors of erosion and JSN progression from inclusion to the 5-year follow-up were evaluated. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three patients were included. Radiographs at baseline and 5 years were available for 162 patients. The median (interquartile) progression of erosion and JSN scores were 4 (0-8) and 8 (1-16), respectively. Rheumatoid factor (RF) was a robust significant predictor of both erosion and JSN score progression. In adjusted analyses, anti-CCP antibodies predicted erosions while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was predictive of both outcomes. Smoking and high baseline disease activity (DAS28 > 5.1) predicted progression of erosions. Baseline erosion score was associated with progression of both erosion and JSN progression, while baseline JSN score was predictive only of the progression of JSN. Overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) was a significant negative predictor of JSN score progression (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.018, adjusted for RF, age, baseline JSN score) also when additionally adjusting for ever smoking (p = 0.041). Among female patients, this effect was observed in those of estimated post-menopausal age (> 51 years), but not in younger women. The truncal to peripheral fat ratio was associated with less JSN score progression in women, but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight RA patients had less JSN progression, independent of smoking status. This effect was seen in particular among older women (mainly post-menopausal), but not younger. Truncal fat was associated with less JSN progression in female patients. Smoking predicted erosion progression, and erosions may precede JSN. BMI and fat distribution may influence cartilage damage in early RA and might be related to hormonal factors.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies such as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have been described to induce bone loss in RA, which could also be reflected in bone mineral density (BMD). We therefore examined the association between autoantibodies and osteoporosis in two independent RA-cohorts. METHODS: Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine (LS) and left hip (LH) was performed in 408 Dutch and 198 Swedish early RA-patients during five and ten years respectively. The longitudinal effect of ACPA and other autoantibodies on several BMD measures was studied using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: In the Dutch cohort, ACPA-positive patients had a significantly lower baseline BMD compared to ACPA-negative patients (LH: Estimated Marginal Means (Confidence Interval): 0.92 (0.91-0.93) versus 0.95 (0.03-0.97) g/cm2 (p=0.01)). In accordance, significantly lower baseline Z-scores were observed in the ACPA-positive group compared to the ACPA-negative group (LH: 0.18 (0.08-0.29) vs 0.48 (0.33-0.63) (p<0.01)). However, despite clear baseline differences, ACPA-positivity was not associated with greater decrease in absolute BMD or Z-score over time. Furthermore, there was no association between BMD and higher ACPA levels or other autoantibodies (RF and anti-CarP). In the Swedish cohort, ACPA-positive patients tended to have a higher baseline prevalence of osteopenia (p=0.04), but again, ACPA-positivity was not associated with more osteopenia or osteoporosis over time. CONCLUSION: The presence of ACPA is associated with a significantly lower baseline BMD, but not with greater BMD loss over time in treated RA-patients. These results suggest that ACPA alone do not appear to contribute to bone loss after disease onset when disease activity is well managed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare treatment retention and response to secukinumab vs adalimumab, including the other four TNF inhibitors (TNFi) as comparators, in PsA. METHODS: All patients with PsA starting secukinumab or a TNFi in 2015-2018 were identified in the biologic registers of the Nordic countries. Data on comorbidities were linked from national registers. One-year treatment retention and hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment discontinuation were calculated. The proportion achieving a 6 month 28-joint Disease Activity Index for Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA28) remission was determined together with odds ratios (ORs) for remission (logistic regression). Both HRs and ORs were calculated with adalimumab as the reference and adjusted for baseline characteristics and concurrent comorbidities. All analyses were stratified by the line of biologic treatment (first, second, third+). RESULTS: We identified 6143 patients contributing 8307 treatment courses (secukinumab, 1227; adalimumab, 1367). Secukinumab was rarely used as the first biologic, otherwise baseline characteristics were similar. No clinically significant differences in treatment retention or response rates were observed for secukinumab vs adalimumab. The adjusted HRs for discontinuation per the first, second and third line of treatment were 0.98 (95% CI 0.68, 1.41), 0.94 (0.70, 1.26) and 1.07 (0.84, 1.36), respectively. The ORs for DAPSA28 remission in the first, second and third line of treatment were 0.62 (95% CI 0.30, 1.28), 0.85 (0.41, 1.78) and 0.74 (0.36, 1.51), respectively. In the subset of patients previously failing a TNFi due to ineffectiveness, the results were similar. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in treatment retention or response were observed between secukinumab and adalimumab, regardless of the line of treatment. This suggests that even in patients who have failed a TNFi, choosing either another TNFi or secukinumab may be equally effective.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline characteristics and to compare treatment effectiveness of secukinumab versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) using adalimumab as the main comparator. METHODS: Observational, prospective cohort study. Patients with SpA (clinical ankylosing spondylitis/non-radiographic axial SpA/undifferentiated SpA) starting secukinumab or a TNFi during 2015-2018 were identified from five Nordic clinical rheumatology registries. Comorbidities and extra-articular manifestations (psoriasis/uveitis/inflammatory bowel disease) were captured from national registries (data available in 94% of patients) and included in multivariable analyses. We assessed 1-year treatment retention (crude survival curves, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for treatment discontinuation) and 6-months' response-rates (ASDAS<2.1/BASDAI<40mm, crude/LUNDEX-adjusted, adjusted logistic-regression analyses with odds-ratio(OR)), stratified by line of biological treatment (1st /2nd /3rd +). RESULTS: In total, 10,853 treatment courses (842 secukinumab/10,011 TNFi whereof 1,977 adalimumab) were included. The proportion treated with secukinumab during 1st /2nd /3rd + was 1%/6%/22%). Extra-articular manifestations varied across treatments, while other baseline characteristics were largely similar. Secukinumab had a one-year retention comparable to adalimumab as 1st or 2nd , but poorer as 3rd + line of therapy (secukinumab 56% (51%-61%) versus adalimumab 70% (64%-75%)), adjusted HR 1.43 (1.12-1.81). Across treatment lines, secukinumab had poorer estimates for 6-months response rates than adalimumab, statistically significantly so only for 3rd + line (adjusted analyses: ASDAS<2.1 OR=0.56 (0.35-0.90), BASDAI<40mm OR=0.62 (0.41-0.95)). Treatment outcomes varied across the five TNFi. CONCLUSION: Secukinumab was mainly used in biologically experienced SpA patients. Secukinumab and adalimumab performed similar in patients who had failed a first biological, although with increasing prior biological exposure, adalimumab was superior.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence and strength of association of extra-articular manifestations [EAMs, here: anterior uveitis (AU), IBD and psoriasis] in patients with AS, undifferentiated SpA (uSpA) and PsA, compared with controls. METHODS: Three mutually exclusive cohorts of patients aged 18-69 years with AS (n = 8517), uSpA (n = 10 245) and PsA (n = 22 667) were identified in the Swedish National Patient Register 2001-2015. Age-, sex- and geography-matched controls were identified from the Swedish Population Register. Follow-up began 1 January 2006, or six months after the first SpA diagnosis, whichever occurred later, and ended at the first date of the EAM under study, death, emigration, 70 years of age, and 31 December 2016. Incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios were calculated for each EAM, and stratified by sex and age. RESULTS: Incidence rate ratios for incident AU, IBD and psoriasis were significantly increased in AS (20.2, 6.2, 2.5), uSpA (13.6, 5.7, 3.8) and PsA (2.5, 2.3, n.a) vs controls. Men with AS and uSpA had significantly higher IRs per 1000 person-years at risk for incident AU than women with AS (IR 15.8 vs 11.2) and uSpA (IR 10.1 vs 6.0), whereas no such sex difference was demonstrated in PsA or for the other EAMs. CONCLUSIONS: AU, followed by IBD and psoriasis, is the EAM most strongly associated with AS and uSpA. Among the SpA subtypes, AS and uSpA display a largely similar pattern of EAMs, whereas PsA has a considerably weaker association with AU and IBD.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study baseline serum hepatocyte growth factor (s-HGF) as a predictor of spinal radiographic progression overall and by sex and to analyse factors correlated to changes in s-HGF in patients with AS. METHODS: At baseline and the 5-year follow-up, s-HGF was analysed with ELISA. Spinal radiographs were graded according to modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score. Radiographic progression was defined as ≥2 modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score units/5 years or development of ≥1 syndesmophyte. Logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Of 204 baseline participants, 163 (80%) completed all examinations at the 5-year follow-up (54% men). Baseline s-HGF was significantly higher in men who developed ≥1 syndesmophyte compared with non-progressors, median (interquartile range) baseline s-HGF 1551 (1449-1898) vs 1436 (1200-1569) pg/ml, P = 0.003. The calculated optimal cut-off point for baseline s-HGF ≥1520 pg/ml showed a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 69% and univariate odds radio (95% CI) of 5.25 (1.69, 14.10) as predictor of development of ≥1 new syndesmophyte in men. Baseline s-HGF ≥1520 pg/ml remained significantly associated with development of ≥1 new syndesmophyte in men in an analysis adjusted for the baseline variables age, smoking, presence of syndesmophytes and CRP, odds radio 3.97 (1.36, 11.60). In women, no association with HGF and radiographic progression was found. Changes in s-HGF were positively correlated with changes in ESR and CRP. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study elevated s-HGF was shown to be associated with development of new syndesmophytes in men with AS.

9.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 244, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout is predicted by a number of comorbidities and lifestyle factors. We aimed to identify discrete phenotype clusters of these factors in a Swedish population-based health survey. In these clusters, we calculated and compared the incidence and relative risk of gout. METHODS: Cluster analyses were performed to group variables with close proximity and to obtain homogenous clusters of individuals (n = 22,057) in the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) cohort. Variables clustered included obesity, kidney dysfunction, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), dyslipidemia, pulmonary dysfunction (PD), smoking, and the use of diuretics. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for gout, adjusted for age and sex, were computed for each cluster. RESULTS: Five clusters (C1-C5) were identified. Cluster C1 (n = 16,063) was characterized by few comorbidities. All participants in C2 (n = 750) had kidney dysfunction (100%), and none had CVD. In C3 (n = 528), 100% had CVD and most participants were smokers (74%). C4 (n = 3673) had the greatest fractions of obesity (34%) and dyslipidemia (74%). In C5 (n = 1043), proportions with DM (51%), hypertension (54%), and diuretics (52%) were highest. C1 was by far the most common in the population (73%), followed by C4 (17%). These two pathways included 86% of incident gout cases. The four smaller clusters (C2-C5) had higher incidence rates and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk for incident gout. CONCLUSIONS: Five distinct clusters based on gout-related comorbidities and lifestyle factors were identified. Most incident gout cases occurred in the cluster of few comorbidities, and the four comorbidity pathways had overall a modest influence on the incidence of gout.

10.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 08 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852770

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia (HU) and gout are strongly associated with CVD, associations that are most likely due to shared etiologies rather than causality. HU is for example causally related to the metabolic syndrome and in particular to obesity. Gout and HU can both be caused by and lead to decreased kidney function. On the other hand, there are observational data suggesting that HU may protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease. Ongoing RCTs with urate and urate lowering therapy (ULT) will help to resolve some of these controversies. Nevertheless, gout is a "curable disease" by ULT, a treatment which in adequate doses may also have positive effect on several associated co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gota , Hiperuricemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Gota/complicações , Supressores da Gota , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Ácido Úrico
11.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 08 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852771
12.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 08 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852772

RESUMO

Urate lowering therapy (ULT) should, according to recent guidelines, be initiated in the majority of cases already after the first attack of gout. Allopurinol is the first line choice of ULT and should be started with low dose, which is increased until the treatment target is reached. The treatment target should be a blood urate of < 360 µmol/l or < 300 µmol/l (in the presence of topfi), which should be maintained until topfi have resolved. NSAID/cox-inhibitors, colchicine and glucocorticoids are all valid short-term treatments of gout attacks. ULT should not be paused/terminated during attacks and can be initiated during an attack that is adequately treated. Recent RCTs of ULT treatment have demonstrated the importance of thorough and adequate information to the patient and regular follow-up until treatment targets are reached. Such a strategy improve both compliance and outcomes of ULT treatment.


Assuntos
Supressores da Gota , Gota , Alopurinol , Colchicina , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico
13.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 08 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852773

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is defined by a blood urate level > 405 µmol/L, the cut-off value at which urate forms crystals in vivo. In 15-20% these individuals develop gout, clinically characterized by attacks of acute arthritis, initially and most commonly affecting MTP 1 or other joints, tendons and soft tissues of the foot. These attacks usually subside within 1 to 2 weeks. Over time attacks occur more frequently and can transform into chronic arthritis characterized by tophi. The gold standard for diagnosis relies on identification of urate crystals by polarization microscopy in aspirated joint fluid. This procedure is rarely performed in primary care where the majority of patients are seen, and gout is usually diagnosed by clinical criteria. New imaging technologies (ultrasound, dual-energy CT) can be helpful when aspiration is not available and when the diagnosis is unclear. Gout has a prevalence of 1.7% and incidence rate of approximately 200 per 100000 person-years in Sweden, figures that increase over time.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Suécia , Ultrassonografia , Ácido Úrico
14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study clinical characteristics, mortality, and secondary prevention, after a first incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with the general population. METHODS: In total, 292 subjects with AS and a first AMI between Jan 2006 and Dec 2014 were identified using the Swedish national patient register. Each subject was matched with up to 5 general population comparators per AS-patient (n = 1276). Follow-up started at the date of admission for AMI and extended until death or 365 days of follow-up. Cox regression was used to assess mortality in two time intervals: days 0-30 and days 31-365. For a subgroup with available data, clinical presentation at admission, course, treatment for AMI, and secondary prevention were compared. RESULTS: During the 365-day follow-up, 56/292 (19%) AS patients and 184/1276 (14%) comparators died. There were no difference in mortality due to cardiovascular-related causes, although the overall mortality day 31-365 was increased among patients with AS compared with comparators (HR [95% CI] = 2.0 [1.3;3.0]). At admission, AS patients had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities compared with comparators. At discharge, patients with AS were less often prescribed lipid-lowering drugs and non-aspirin antiplatelet therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AS tend to have a higher comorbidity burden at admission for first AMI. The mortality after a first AMI due to cardiovascular-related causes does not seem to be elevated, despite an increased overall mortality during days 31-365 among patients with AS compared with the general population. Key Points • The all-cause mortality after a first AMI was higher in patients with AS. • Mortality after a first AMI due to CVD-related causes does not seem to be elevated for patients with AS. • In patients with AS suffering a first AMI, more attention should be given to other comorbidities causing an excess in mortality.

15.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors operating independently of hyperuricemia could be of importance in determining why only a minority of people with hyperuricemia develop gout. Exposure to inorganic dust has been linked to other inflammatory diseases and could influence the development of gout. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if occupational exposure to inorganic dust increases the risk of gout. METHODS: Individuals aged 30-65 years with a first gout diagnosis in 2006-2012 in the population-based healthcare database of the Western Swedish Healthcare Region (VEGA) and population controls matched by age and sex were included. Data on occupation was collected from the Swedish occupational register. Exposure status was assigned by means of a job exposure matrix. Data on gout-related comorbidities was collected from VEGA. Alcohol use disorder and obesity were related both to gout and exposure to inorganic dust and were adjusted for in multivariate analyses. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: 5042 gout cases and 20 682 controls were included. Exposure to inorganic dust was associated with gout in both unadjusted (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.20) and multivariate (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16) analyses of the whole population. In sex-stratified multivariate analyses, dust exposure was significantly associated with gout in women (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.51), but not in men (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: We describe for the first time an association between exposure to inorganic dust and gout. After adjusting for confounders, the findings were statistically significant for women but not for men.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess secular trends in baseline characteristics of PsA patients initiating their first or subsequent biologic DMARD (bDMARD) therapy and to explore prescription patterns and treatment rates of bDMARDs from 2006 to 2017 in the Nordic countries. METHODS: PsA patients registered in the Nordic rheumatology registries initiating any treatment with bDMARDs were identified. The bDMARDs were grouped as original TNF inhibitor [TNFi; adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX)]; certolizumab pegol (CZP) and golimumab (GOL); biosimilars and ustekinumab, based on the date of release. Baseline characteristics were compared for the five countries, supplemented by secular trends with R2 calculations and point prevalence of bDMARD treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18 089 patients were identified (Denmark, 4361; Iceland, 449; Norway, 1948; Finland, 1069; Sweden, 10 262). A total of 54% of the patients were female, 34.3% of patients initiated an original TNFi, 8% CZP and GOL, 7.5% biosimilars and 0.3% ustekinumab as a first-line bDMARD. Subsequent bDMARDs were 25.2% original TNFi, 9% CZP and GOL, 12% biosimilars and 2.1% ustekinumab. From 2015 through 2017 there was a rapid uptake of biosimilars. The total of first-line bDMARD initiators with lower disease activity increased from 2006 to 2017, where an R2 close to 1 showed a strong association. CONCLUSION: Across the Nordic countries, the number of prescribed bDMARDs increased from 2006 to 2017, indicating a previously unmet need for bDMARDs in the PsA population. In recent years, PsA patients have initiated bDMARDs with lower disease activity compared with previous years, suggesting that bDMARDs are initiated in patients with a less active inflammatory phenotype.

17.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(7): 380-390, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541923

RESUMO

Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis and occurs when hyperuricaemia, sustained elevation of serum urate levels resulting in supersaturation of body tissues with urate, leads to the formation and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints. Recent reports of the prevalence and incidence of gout vary widely according to the population studied and methods employed but range from a prevalence of <1% to 6.8% and an incidence of 0.58-2.89 per 1,000 person-years. Gout is more prevalent in men than in women, with increasing age, and in some ethnic groups. Despite rising prevalence and incidence, suboptimal management of gout continues in many countries. Typically, only a third to half of patients with gout receive urate-lowering therapy, which is a definitive, curative treatment, and fewer than a half of patients adhere to treatment. Many gout risk factors exist, including obesity, dietary factors and comorbid conditions. As well as a firmly established increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease in those with gout, novel associations of gout with other comorbidities have been reported, including erectile dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, obstructive sleep apnoea, osteoporosis and venous thromboembolism. Discrete patterns of comorbidity clustering in individuals with gout have been described. Increasing prevalence and incidence of obesity and comorbidities are likely to contribute substantially to the rising burden of gout.


Assuntos
Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico/análise
18.
RMD Open ; 6(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over a 10-year period. METHODS: Consecutive patients with early RA (symptom duration <12 months) were followed according to a structured programme and examined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at inclusion and after 2, 5 and 10 years. Mean Z-scores over the study period were estimated using mixed linear effect models. Changes in Z-scores between follow-up visits were analysed using paired T-tests. RESULTS: At inclusion, 220 patients were examined with DXA. At the femoral neck, the mean Z-score over 10 years was -0.33 (95 % CI -0.57 to -0.08) in men and -0.07 (-0.22 to 0.08) in women. Men had significantly lower BMD at the femoral neck than expected by age at inclusion (intercept Z-score value -0.35; 95 % CI -0.61 to -0.09), whereas there was no such difference in women. At the lumbar spine, the mean Z-score over the study period for men was -0.05 (-0.29 to 0.19) and for women 0.06 (-0.10 to 0.21). In paired comparisons of BMD at different follow-up visits, femoral neck Z-scores for men decreased significantly from inclusion to the 5-year follow-up. After 5 years, no further reduction was seen. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study of a limited sample, men with early RA had reduced femoral neck BMD at diagnosis, with a further significant but marginal decline during the first 5 years. Lumbar spine BMD Z-scores were not reduced in men or women with early RA. Data on 10-year follow-up were limited.

19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3229-3236, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate metabolic features that may predispose to GCA in a nested case-control study. METHODS: Individuals who developed GCA after inclusion in a population-based health survey (the Malmö Preventive Medicine Project; N = 33 346) were identified and validated through a structured review of medical records. Four controls for every validated case were selected from the database. RESULTS: A total of 76 cases with a confirmed incident diagnosis of GCA (61% female, 65% biopsy positive, mean age at diagnosis 70 years) were identified. The median time from screening to diagnosis was 20.7 years (range 3.0-32.1). Cases had significantly lower fasting blood glucose (FBG) at baseline screening compared with controls [mean 4.7 vs 5.1 mmol/l (S.d. overall 1.5), odds ratio (OR) 0.35 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.17, 0.71)] and the association remained significant when adjusted for smoking [OR 0.33 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.16, 0.68)]. Current smokers had a reduced risk of GCA [OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.18, 0.70)]. Both cholesterol [mean 5.6 vs 6.0 mmol/l (S.d. overall 1.0)] and triglyceride levels [median 1.0 vs 1.2 mmol/l (S.d. overall 0.8)] were lower among the cases at baseline screening, with significant negative associations with subsequent GCA in crude and smoking-adjusted models [OR 0.62 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.43, 0.90) for cholesterol; 0.46 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.27, 0.81) for triglycerides]. CONCLUSION: Development of GCA was associated with lower FBG and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline, all adjusted for current smoking, suggesting that metabolic features predispose to GCA.

20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 37, 2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it has not been definitively established whether this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and whether it is gender-dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate in a population-based cohort (age range, 50-64 years) stratified by sex the association between the serum urate (SU) concentration and subclinical atherosclerosis, as reflected in the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque score. METHODS: The study involved participants in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) Pilot cohort (N = 1040; 48.8% males). This pilot cohort is part of the large population-based SCAPIS with 30,000 participants in the age range of 50-64 years, aimed at improving risk prediction for CVD. Subjects with a self-reported previous history of CVD (N = 68) or gout (N = 3) were excluded. The CAC score was assessed with the Agatston method using computed tomography. CIMT and carotid plaques were quantified by ultrasound. The associations between the SU quartiles and different levels of CAC, CIMT, and carotid plaques were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Age, BMI, education level, smoking, physical activity, hs-CRP, hypertension, and dyslipidemia showed no differences between males and females, while CAC (score > 0) and diabetes were both twice as common in men than in women (58% vs 26% and 8% vs 4%, respectively). Higher SU quartiles were in both sexes associated with BMI, hs-CRP, and the prevalence of hypertension, and in women, they were also associated with the prevalence of dyslipidemia. The three upper quartiles of SU (>308µmol/L) were linked to higher CAC scores in men, when adjusting for CVRFs, but not in women. CIMT and carotid plaques showed no correlation to SU in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of SU are associated with the presence of CAC in men but not in women, whereas SU is not associated with CIMT or carotid plaques in either men or women. This implies that the biological effects of SU differ in men and women or that SU has varying effects on different vascular beds or during the different stages of the atherosclerotic process.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Caracteres Sexuais
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