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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2081-2091, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of rare inherited connective tissue disorders. Vascular EDS (vEDS) is caused by pathogenic variants in COL3A1, most frequently glycine substitutions. We describe the phenotype of the largest series of vEDS patients with glutamic acid to lysine substitutions (Glu>Lys) in COL3A1, which were all previously considered to be variants of unknown significance. METHODS: Clinical and molecular data for seven families with three different Glu>Lys substitutions in COL3A1 were analyzed. RESULTS: These Glu>Lys variants were reclassified from variants of unknown significance to either pathogenic or likely pathogenic in accordance with American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. All individuals with these atypical variants exhibited skin hyperextensibility as seen in individuals with classical EDS and classical-like EDS and evidence of tissue fragility as seen in individuals with vEDS. CONCLUSION: The clinical data demonstrate the overlap between the different EDS subtypes and underline the importance of next-generation sequencing gene panel analysis. The three different Glu>Lys variants point toward a new variant type in COL3A1 causative of vEDS, which has consistent clinical features. This is important knowledge for COL3A1 variant interpretation. Further follow-up data are required to establish the severity of tissue fragility complications compared with patients with other recognized molecular causes of vEDS.

4.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298622

RESUMO

Reunion Island is a French oversea department in the Indian Ocean with 1.6/1000, an estimated prevalence of deafness that is almost double as compared to the mainland France. Twelve children having isolated bilateral prelingual profound deafness along with motor delay attributed to vestibular areflexia were enrolled. Their mean walking age was 19 months. Electroretinography and temporal bone CT-scans were normal in all cases. A novel homozygous frameshift lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 5 (LHFPL5) variant c.185delT p.(Phe62Serfs*23) was identified using whole-exome sequencing. It was found in seven families. Four patients from two different families from both Reunion Island and mainland France, were compound heterozygous: c.185delT p.(Phe62Serfs*23) and c.472C > T p.(Arg158Trp). The phenotype observed in our patients completely mimics the hurry-scurry (hscy) murine Tmhs knock-out model. The recurrent occurrence of same LHFPL5 variant in Reunion Island is attributed to common ancestor couple born in 1693.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.

9.
Electrophoresis ; 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869806

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare autosomal genetic diseases affecting the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Since CDG-related clinical symptoms are classically extremely variable and nonspecific, a combination of electrophoretic, mass spectrometric, and gene sequencing techniques is often mandatory for obtaining a definitive CDG diagnosis, as well as identifying causative gene mutations and deciphering the underlying biochemical mechanisms. Here, we illustrate the potential of integrating data from capillary electrophoresis of transferrin, two-dimensional electrophoresis of N- and O-glycoproteins, mass spectrometry analyses of total serum N-linked glycans and mucin core1 O-glycosylated apolipoprotein C-III for the determination of various culprit CDG gene mutations. "Step-by-step" diagnosis pathways of four particular and new CDG cases, including MGAT2-CDG, ATP6V0A2-CDG, SLC35A2-CDG, and SLC35A3-CDG, are described as illustrative examples.

10.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(3): 369-379, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in GAMT. Brain creatine depletion and guanidinoacetate accumulation cause developmental delay, seizures and movement disorder. Treatment consists of creatine, ornithine and arginine-restricted diet. We initiated an international treatment registry using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) software to evaluate treatment outcome. METHODS: Physicians completed an online REDCap questionnaire. Clinical severity score applied pre-treatment and on treatment. RESULTS: There were 22 patients. All had developmental delay, 18 had seizures and 8 had movement disorder. Based on the clinical severity score, 5 patients had a severe, 14 patients had a moderate and 3 patients had a mild phenotype. All patients had pathogenic variants in GAMT. The phenotype ranged from mild to moderate in patients with the most common c.327G > A variant. The phenotype ranged from mild to severe in patients with truncating variants. All patients were on creatine, 18 patients were on ornithine and 15 patients were on arginine- or protein-restricted diet. Clinical severity score improved in 13 patients on treatment. Developmental delay improved in five patients. One patient achieved normal development. Eleven patients became seizure free. Movement disorder resolved in four patients. CONCLUSION: In our small patient cohort, there seems to be no phenotype-genotype correlation. Creatine and ornithine and/or arginine- or protein-restricted diet were the most useful treatment to improve phenotype.


Assuntos
Guanidinoacetato N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/dietoterapia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/congênito , Estudos de Coortes , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/complicações , Transtornos dos Movimentos/dietoterapia , Ornitina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(3): 340-349, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330547

RESUMO

Fryns syndrome (FS) is a multiple malformations syndrome with major features of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, pulmonary hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphic features, distal digit hypoplasia, and a range of other lower frequency malformations. FS is typically lethal in the fetal or neonatal period. Inheritance is presumed autosomal recessive. Although no major genetic cause has been identified for FS, biallelic truncating variants in PIGN, encoding a component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway, have been identified in a limited number of cases with a phenotype compatible with FS. Biallelic variants in PIGN, typically missense or compound missense with truncating, also cause multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1 (MCAHS1). Here we report six further patients with FS with or without congenital diaphragmatic hernia and recessive loss of function PIGN alleles, including an intragenic deletion with a likely founder effect in La Réunion and other Indian Ocean islands. Our results support the hypothesis that a spectrum of phenotypic severity is associated with recessive PIGN variants, ranging from FS at the extreme end, caused by complete loss of function, to MCAHS1, in which some residual PIGN function may remain. Our data add FS resulting from PIGN variants to the catalog of inherited GPI deficiencies caused by the disruption of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway.

13.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 989-997, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postzygotic activating mutations of PIK3CA cause a wide range of mosaic disorders collectively referred to as PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of PIK3CA sequencing in PROS. METHODS: We performed ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PIK3CA in various tissues from 162 patients referred to our clinical laboratory and assessed diagnostic yield by phenotype and tissue tested. RESULTS: We identified disease-causing mutations in 66.7% (108/162) of patients, with mutant allele levels as low as 1%. The diagnostic rate was higher (74%) in syndromic than in isolated cases (35.5%; P = 9.03 × 10-5). We identified 40 different mutations and found strong oncogenic mutations more frequently in patients without brain overgrowth (50.6%) than in those with brain overgrowth (15.2%; P = 0.00055). Mutant allele levels were higher in skin and overgrown tissues than in blood and buccal samples (P = 3.9 × 10-25), regardless of the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the value of ultradeep NGS for molecular diagnosis of PROS, highlight its substantial allelic heterogeneity, and confirm that optimal diagnosis requires fresh skin or surgical samples from affected regions. Our findings may be of value in guiding future recommendations for genetic testing in PROS and other mosaic conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 02 February 2017.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
16.
Genet Med ; 18(1): 49-56, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. METHODS: We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. RESULTS: We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(1): 92-102, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24736735

RESUMO

The phenotypic spectrum of GLI3 mutations includes autosomal dominant Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS). PHS was first described as a lethal condition associating hypothalamic hamartoma, postaxial or central polydactyly, anal atresia and bifid epiglottis. Typical GCPS combines polysyndactyly of hands and feet and craniofacial features. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been found both for the location and the nature of GLI3 mutations, highlighting the bifunctional nature of GLI3 during development. Here we report on the molecular and clinical study of 76 cases from 55 families with either a GLI3 mutation (49 GCPS and 21 PHS), or a large deletion encompassing the GLI3 gene (6 GCPS cases). Most of mutations are novel and consistent with the previously reported genotype-phenotype correlation. Our results also show a correlation between the location of the mutation and abnormal corpus callosum observed in some patients with GCPS. Fetal PHS observations emphasize on the possible lethality of GLI3 mutations and extend the phenotypic spectrum of malformations such as agnathia and reductional limbs defects. GLI3 expression studied by in situ hybridization during human development confirms its early expression in target tissues.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Expressão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Fenótipo , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(1): 49-53, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755949

RESUMO

First described as a variant of Larsen syndrome in Reunion Island (LRS) in the southern Indian Ocean, 'Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome' is characterized by dwarfism, hyperlaxity, multiple dislocations and distinctive facial features. It overlaps with Desbuquois dysplasia, Larsen syndrome and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with dislocations ascribed to CANT1, FLNB and CHST3 mutations, respectively. We collected the samples of 22 LRS cases. After exclusion of CANT1, FLNB and CHST3 genes, an exome sequencing was performed in two affected second cousins and one unaffected sister. We identified a homozygous missense mutation in B4GALT7, NM_007255.2: c.808C>T p.(Arg270Cys) named p.R270C, in the two affected cases, not present in the unaffected sister. The same homozygous mutation was subsequently identified in the remaining 20 LRS cases. Our findings demonstrate that B4GALT7 is the causative gene for LRS. The identification of a unique homozygous mutation argues in favor of a founder effect. B4GALT7 encodes a galactosyltransferase, required for the initiation of glycoaminoglycan side chain synthesis of proteoglycans. This study expands the phenotypic spectrum of B4GALT7 mutations, initially described as responsible for the progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It further supports a common physiopathological basis involving proteoglycan synthesis in skeletal disorders with dislocations.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Galactosiltransferases/deficiência , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Facies , Feminino , Fluorenos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Hidantoínas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 35(4): 478-85, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24470203

RESUMO

Mandibulofacial dysostosis, Guion-Almeida type (MFDGA) is a recently delineated multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome characterized by the association of mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD) with external ear malformations, hearing loss, cleft palate, choanal atresia, microcephaly, intellectual disability, oesophageal atresia (OA), congenital heart defects (CHDs), and radial ray defects. MFDGA emerges as a clinically recognizable entity, long underdiagnosed due to highly variable presentations. The main differential diagnoses are CHARGE and Feingold syndromes, oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, and other MFDs. EFTUD2, located on 17q21.31, encodes a component of the major spliceosome and is disease causing in MFDGA, due to heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) mutations. Here, we describe a series of 36 cases of MFDGA, including 24 previously unreported cases, and we review the literature in order to delineate the clinical spectrum ascribed to EFTUD2 LoF. MFD, external ear anomalies, and intellectual deficiency occur at a higher frequency than microcephaly. We characterize the evolution of the facial gestalt at different ages and describe novel renal and cerebral malformations. The most frequent extracranial malformation in this series is OA, followed by CHDs and skeletal abnormalities. MFDGA is probably more frequent than other syndromic MFDs such as Nager or Miller syndromes. Although the wide spectrum of malformations complicates diagnosis, characteristic facial features provide a useful handle.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Anus Imperfurado/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Oftalmoplegia/patologia , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anus Imperfurado/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Orelha Externa/patologia , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Oftalmoplegia/genética , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trombocitopenia/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(12): 2972-80, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24214728

RESUMO

Weaver syndrome, first described in 1974, is characterized by tall stature, a typical facial appearance, and variable intellectual disability. In 2011, mutations in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, were shown to cause Weaver syndrome. To date, we have identified 48 individuals with EZH2 mutations. The mutations were primarily missense mutations occurring throughout the gene, with some clustering in the SET domain (12/48). Truncating mutations were uncommon (4/48) and only identified in the final exon, after the SET domain. Through analyses of clinical data and facial photographs of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals, we have shown that the facial features can be subtle and the clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome is thus challenging, especially in older individuals. However, tall stature is very common, reported in >90% of affected individuals. Intellectual disability is also common, present in ~80%, but is highly variable and frequently mild. Additional clinical features which may help in stratifying individuals to EZH2 mutation testing include camptodactyly, soft, doughy skin, umbilical hernia, and a low, hoarse cry. Considerable phenotypic overlap between Sotos and Weaver syndromes is also evident. The identification of an EZH2 mutation can therefore provide an objective means of confirming a subtle presentation of Weaver syndrome and/or distinguishing Weaver and Sotos syndromes. As mutation testing becomes increasingly accessible and larger numbers of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals are identified, knowledge of the clinical spectrum and prognostic implications of EZH2 mutations should improve.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/complicações , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/complicações , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Sotos/genética , Síndrome de Sotos/fisiopatologia
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